Adam Cohen, TCS 2016

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    Research Associate

    Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC)

    University of California, Berkeley

  • Available at:

    Available at:

    Available at:

  • SHARED MOBILITYthe shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other

    mode is an innovative transportation strategy that enables users to gain short-term access to transportation modes on an as-needed basis.

  • Overview of Shared Mobility Services

  • Evaluating the Impacts of Shared Mobility Shared mobility is commonly associated with numerous transportation, environmental, social, and financial impacts. These can include:

    Reduction vehicle ownership Increased vehicle occupancy Reduction in VMT/VKT Lower GHG emissions Supports active lifestyles by encouraging cycling and walking Cost savings Increased convenience Increased access to new transportation modes

  • Shared Mobility Impacts

    Not all modes have been extensively studied

    Shared Mobility Primer and APA Report feature impacts summary of key shared modes

    Carsharing Bikesharing Ridesharing Ridesourcing

  • Role of Public AgenciesDiscusses role of public agencies impacting shared modes and smartphone apps

    Key topics discussed include: Health, Safety, and Consumer Protection Taxation, Insurance Parking and Access to Rights-of-Way Multimodal Integration Accessibility and Equity Issues Data Sharing, Privacy, and Standardization AND MORE!!!

  • Shared Mobility in PlansIncorporating shared mobility into planning processes is crucial

    Comprehensive (also known as General or Master Plans):

    Document shared mobility in the circulation element

    Community or Subarea Plans:

    Address the mobility needs of a particular community (e.g., first-and-last mile connections to public transit, special accessibility needs, etc.)

    Specific or Functional Plans:

    Demonstrate how shared mobility can be incorporated into specific development sites/parcels and urban design

  • Shared Mobility in Plans: Seattle, WASeattle's Transportation Strategic Plan:

    Provision to encourage carsharing

    Seattle's Draft Comprehensive Plan:

    T2.1 Designate space to accommodate multiple travel modes, including public transit, freight movement, pedestrians, bicycles, general purpose traffic, and shared mobility

    T3.11 Develop programs and facilities, such as bikesharing, which encourage short trips to be made by walking or biking.

  • 1. Parking-Specific Policies Parking Reduction: (e.g., Indianapolis, IN)

    Downgrading the required number of spaces in a new development Parking Substitution:

    Substituting general use parking for shared modes in either new or existing developments

    2. Policies Allowing Increased Density Greater Floor-to-Area Ratios More Dwelling Units Greater Height Restrictions (e.g., Santa Monica, CA)

    Incentive Zoning for the Inclusion of Shared Mobility

  • Shared Mobility and Zoning Policy

    Indianapolis' Consolidated Zoning and Subdivisions Ordinance Permits cumulative parking reduction

    of up to 35% for the inclusion of shared mobility and other TDM measures:

    Shared vehicle, carpool, or vanpool parking

    EV charging stations

    Bicycle parking

    Proximity to public transportation

    Shared parking spaces

    Santa Monicas 2010 General Plan Shared Mobility StrategyA developer who seeks to develop projects above the base height shall also be required to provide additional Transportation Demand Management (TDM) trip reduction measures to address congestion and GHG emission reduction. TDM incentive programs could include: bicycle facilities, shower facilities, dedicated shuttles, flex cars, transit passes, parking cash-out programs, car-sharing programs, on-site transportation information, and shared parking programs

  • Shared Mobility and Public Rights-of-Way

  • Shared Mobility and Public Rights-of-WayThings to Consider:

    Process for allocating public space Limits on the amount of space allocated (e.g., curb feet,

    number of parking spaces, and/or square footage) Fees or permits for use Special signage/enforcement Public processes for public involvement/environmental justice Documentation of program impacts

  • Santa Monicas Curb Space ConsiderationsWhen considering allocating curb space in-lieu of parking, Santa Monica city staff have considered whether the space:

    Contributes towards sustainability goals Reduces vehicle trips Green / low impact transportation mode Serves a non-recreational use Provides another benefit or meets an additional need (e.g., commercial


    Based on Staff Recommendations to the Santa Monica City Council, March 2015

  • Shared Mobility and Public Rights-of-Way

    Portlands Carsharing Parking Auctions

    PBOT creates a list of on-street metered spaces for lease

    PBOT manages a bidding process Minimum bid calculated by adding

    lost meter revenue, and installation, maintenance, and administrative costs

    Parking outside the meter district allocated after approval from adjacent property owners

    Seattle's Free Floating Carsharing Parking Policy

    Car2go pays city per vehicle ($1,703 in 2015), per year for administrative, permit, and meter costs

    Operator is required to reconcile and pay additional fees if usage exceeds meter allocation

  • Shared Mobility and Public Rights-of-Way

    San Francisco's Taxi/Paratransit Loading PolicyTaxi drivers and paratransit vehicles with an approved permit (bumper sticker) may block bicycle lanes while actively loading/unloading

    Cambridges Microtransit Pilot MOU

    Bridj/Cambridge, MA established a six month pilot and memorandum of understanding to identify service goals, routing and stop conditions, and criteria for program evaluation (October 2014 April 2015)

  • Shared Mobility and Public Rights-of-Way

    San Francisco's Shuttle Policy

    18-month pilot announced in January 2014. Shuttles must: Pay a daily fee based on the number of

    stops per day Use specified bus stops Display an enforcement placard Share data with SFMTA to assist with

    enforcement compliance Shuttle operators must use newer

    vehicles to reduce GHG emissions

    San Francisco/San Jose Airport Ridesourcing/TNC Geofence

    Pay-Per Use Policy

    Ridesourcing/TNCs permitted at both airports

    Pickups/Dropoffs tracked through electronic tags

    Companies are invoiced for airport fees each time a vehicle crosses into the geo-fence

  • Rights-of-Way Best Practices1) Designate Rights-of-Way to Accommodate Multiple Modes

    Public transit

    Goods Movement



    Shared Mobility

    General Purpose Traffic

  • Rights-of-Way Best Practices2) Resolve Potential Conflicts

    Shared space among modes/uses

    Allocate modes across a corridor (several streets/alleys) if modes cannot fit on a single street

    Give priority to shared/shorter duration uses

    Develop policies to encourage off-street siting for non-mobility uses (e.g., parking, transit layovers, etc.)

    Implement parking and TDM strategies to improve efficiency of existing rights-of-way

  • Rights-of-Way Best Practices3) Encourage Short Trips Made by Walking and Cycling

    Develop programs (e.g., bikesharing RFP)

    Build/modify facilities (e.g., carsharing parking, bike lanes, etc.)

    Implement supportive urban design standards (e.g., walkable/complete streets)

    4) Develop policies facilitating ADA access

    Santa Barbara, CA

    Source: (Xiongbing Jin, Planetizen)

  • Smartphone Apps and Shared Mobility

    Pew Research Center Study (April 2015):

    64% of American adults had a smartphone

    74% of adults used their phones to get directions or other location-based services

    65% of smartphone users received turn-by-turn navigation or directions while driving from their phones (15% regularly)

    10% of mobile users accessed public transit information from their devices regularly

  • Smartphone Apps and Shared MobilityApps with a primary function to assist users in planning or understanding their transportation choices, which could enhance access to alternative modes

    Business-to-Consumer Sharing Apps


    Peer-to-PeerSharing Apps

    PublicTransit Apps

    Real-TimeInformation Apps

    Ridesourcing/TNC Apps

    Taxi e-Hail Apps

    Trip Aggregator Apps

  • Future Trends

    Shared Mobility




    Mobile Technologies

  • Adam Cohen, Research Associate

    Email: apcohen@berkeley.eduTwitter: AskAdamCohen



    New Shared Mobility report releasesSlide Number 2Shared MobilityOverview of Shared Mobility ServicesEvaluating the Impacts of Shared Mobility Shared Mobility ImpactsRole of Public AgenciesShared Mobility in PlansShared Mobility in Plans: Seattle, WAIncentive Zoning for the Inclusion of Shared MobilityShared Mobility and Zoning PolicyShared Mobility and Public Rights-of-WayShared Mobility and Public Righ