„Promong inland waterway transport as part of future ... · „Promong inland waterway transport...

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„Promo&ng inland waterway transport as part of future sustainable transport solu&ons“ Project team Anna Wuthe 6021690, Jan Kruse 6024237, Tim Lewalter 6027500, Timon Querfeld 6021427, Timo Holz 6024238, Florian Paetow 6019884, Luca Schwenke 6022204, Merlin Gutsche 6019965, Fabian Beiler 6021839 Winter term 2019/2020 Student Project (Maritime) 6th Semester, Bachelor (B.Sc.) Course Modul Seeverkehrs- und Hafenwirtschaft Jade Hochschule Fachbereich Seefahrt und Logistik, Elsfleth

Transcript of „Promong inland waterway transport as part of future ... · „Promong inland waterway transport...

Page 1: „Promong inland waterway transport as part of future ... · „Promong inland waterway transport as part of future sustainable transport soluons“ Project team Anna Wuthe 6021690,

„Promo&nginlandwaterwaytransportaspartoffuturesustainabletransportsolu&ons“

Projectteam

AnnaWuthe6021690,JanKruse6024237,TimLewalter6027500,Timon

Querfeld6021427,TimoHolz6024238,FlorianPaetow6019884,Luca

Schwenke6022204,MerlinGutsche6019965,FabianBeiler6021839

Winterterm2019/2020

Student Project (Maritime) 6th Semester, Bachelor (B.Sc.) Course

Modul Seeverkehrs- und HafenwirtschaftJade Hochschule

Fachbereich Seefahrt und Logistik, Elsfleth

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1. INTRODUCTION 1.............................................................................................................

2. WHATDOES#IWTS2.0MEAN? 2......................................................................................

3. WEBSITE 3........................................................................................................................3.1. Basicsofawebsite 3.................................................................................................................................3.2. Websiteoftheproject 4............................................................................................................................

4. INLANDWATERWAYVESSEL 6...........................................................................................4.1. Currentstateofinlandnaviga&on 6...........................................................................................................

4.1.1. Ship/Fleet 6................................................................................................................................................4.1.2. Goods 7......................................................................................................................................................4.1.3. Waterways 8...............................................................................................................................................

4.2. Innova&onsandpilotprojects 12..............................................................................................................4.2.1. BeerboatUtrecht 12..................................................................................................................................4.2.2. PortFeederBargeHamburg 12..................................................................................................................

5. FORWARDINGAGENT 13..................................................................................................5.1. Actualstateoftrucktraffic 13....................................................................................................................5.2. Combinedtransport 15.............................................................................................................................5.3. Thefutureofcombinedtransportonwaterwaysandadvantagesforfreightforwardersasaresult 16......

6. SUSTAINABILITYCOMPARISONOFTHEINDIVIDUALMODESOFTRANSPORT 18...............

7. COMPARISONOFCARGOTYPES 23...................................................................................7.1. TransportedcargoesofGermanriversandcanals 23.................................................................................7.2. Transportedcargoesonroadbyna&onalvehicles 24.................................................................................7.3. Typicaltypesofcargoesintheinlandwaterwayandinlandtruckway 25..................................................

7.3.1. Bulkinsolidform 25..................................................................................................................................7.3.2. Bulkinliquidform 25.................................................................................................................................7.3.3. ProjectcargoandHeavyLiXitems 25........................................................................................................7.3.4. Containerizedcargo 26...............................................................................................................................7.3.5. Containercomparisonbetweena44tonstruckandan“Europaschiff” 26.............................................7.3.6. Importcontainerhandling 26..................................................................................................................

7.4. Automo&ves 27.....................................................................................................................................

8. COSTS 27..........................................................................................................................8.1. Infrastructuralcostsforinlandwaterwaytransporta&on 27......................................................................8.2. Infrastructuralcostsfortrucktransporta&on 28........................................................................................8.3. TerminalFees 28.......................................................................................................................................8.4. Coststooperateavehicle 29.....................................................................................................................

8.4.1. Transportbytruck 29.................................................................................................................................8.4.2. Transportbyinlandwaterwayvessel 29....................................................................................................

8.5. Externalcostscausedbydifferentmodesoftransport 30..........................................................................8.5.1. TheexternalcostsofHGVandInlandWaterwayvesselincomparison 30................................................

8.6. Comparisonofcostsfordifferentrela&ons 35...........................................................................................

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8.6.1. Fallersleben-Hamburg 36.........................................................................................................................8.6.2. Braunschweig-Hamburg 36.......................................................................................................................8.6.3. Minden-Bremerhaven 36.........................................................................................................................8.6.4. Hannover-Bremerhaven 37......................................................................................................................

9. SWOTANALYSIS 38...........................................................................................................9.1. Trucktraffic 38..........................................................................................................................................

9.1.1. Strengths 39...............................................................................................................................................9.1.2. Weaknesses 40...........................................................................................................................................9.1.3. Opportunices 42........................................................................................................................................9.1.4. Threats 43..................................................................................................................................................

9.2. Inlandwaterwayvessel 45........................................................................................................................9.2.1. Strengthsandweaknesses 46....................................................................................................................9.2.2. Opportunicesandthreats 48.....................................................................................................................

10.CREATIONOFPROJECTFILMS 53.......................................................................................

11.CONCLUSION 55...............................................................................................................

LISTOFCITEDLITERATURE 58................................................................................................Bibliography 58..................................................................................................................................................Internetreferences 60.......................................................................................................................................Interviewreferences 64.....................................................................................................................................ListofAppendices 65.........................................................................................................................................

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IListofFigures

Figure1:Websiteheadline 4......................................................................................................................Figure2:Basicfactsonthewebsite 4........................................................................................................Figure3:Animatedpowerpointpresentacon 5........................................................................................Figure4:Shipsbytypeofcargo 7..............................................................................................................Figure5:GoodstransportedontheRhineintonnescomparedfrom2013-2016 8..................................Figure6:Profileviewandbird'seyeviewPortFeederBarge 12...............................................................Figure7:Owncomparisonoftheroutenetworksinkilometres 14...........................................................Figure8:Commercialfreighttransport-asectorinfigures 15.................................................................Figure9:Proporconofcombinedtransportinrelacontototaltransportin2017 16...............................Figure10:Developmentofcombinedtransportvolume 17......................................................................Figure11:UnitedNaconsDevelopmentProgramme 18...........................................................................Figure12:CargoestransportedbyinlandwaterwayvesselinGermany 23...............................................Figure13:CargoestransportedbytruckinGermany 24...........................................................................Figure14:Ownillustraconofshipandtruckdimensions 26.....................................................................Figure15:Ownrepresentacon-containerhandling 27............................................................................Figure16:OverviewofexternalcostsofHGVandInlandwaterwayvessel 30..........................................Figure17:Representacveemissionfactorsforcarbondioxide(CO2),bulkcargo(g/tkm) 32...................Figure18:Representacveemissionfactorsfornitrogenoxides(NOx),bulkcargo(g/tkm) 33..................Figure19:TransportcostsofHGVandinlandwaterwayincomparison 37...............................................Figure20:BAB-Degreeofuclizacon 41...................................................................................................Figure21:Inlandwaterwayvesselvs.truck 47..........................................................................................Figure22:BundesamtfürStraßenwesen,2010 48....................................................................................Figure23:Goodstransportedbyinlandnavigacon 51..............................................................................Figure24:iMoviefromAppleshownoniPadandiMac 53........................................................................Figure25:iMoviefromAppleshownonanMacBookPro 54.....................................................................

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IIListofTables

Table1:ShipsaresubdividedintoclassesI-VIaccordingtotheirdimensions 6........................................Table2:Ownillustraconofcargoandtransportaconmode 25................................................................Table3:Ownrepresentaconofcommontypesofcontainers 26..............................................................Table4:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsFallersleben-Hamburg 36.....................................................Table5:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsBraunschweig-Hamburg 36..................................................Table6:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsMinden-Bremerhaven 36.....................................................Table7:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsHannover-Bremerhaven 37..................................................Table8:ComparisonofemissionsofeachmeansofTransportinthegoodstraffic 41............................Table9:InFAERnoccedpeopleon1.January2018accordingtoageandgender 44..............................

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IIIListofAbbrevia&ons

Abbrevia&on Defini&on

Ro/Ro RollonRolloff

GMS Großmotorschiff

üGMS ÜbergroßesMotorschiff

FTIP FederalTransportInfrastructurePlan

SOx SulphurOxides

NOx Nitrogenoxides

CO2 Carbondioxide

PM Parcculatemaoer

Tkm Tonne-kilometre

Vkm Vehicle-kilometre

N2O Nitrousoxide

CH4 Methane

HGV Truck

bn Billion

SWOT Strengths,Weaknesses,Opportunices,Threats

ADAC AllgemeineDeutscheAutomobil-Clube.V.

JIT Just-in-Time

SDGs SustainableDevelopmentGoals

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IVLISTOFAPPENDICES

InterviewtranscriptHeinerSchneehagen 65.............................................................................................interviewtranscriptArneHarms 65...........................................................................................................interviewtranscriptAndréBendioe 66......................................................................................................interviewtranscriptSinaSchlosser 67........................................................................................................interviewtranscriptJan-HendrikDonner 67..............................................................................................interviewtranscriptHenrieoeOesterwind 68...........................................................................................

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11. Introduccon

Nowadayssustainableandthusalsoclimatefriendlytransportsoluconsbecomemoreandmoreim-portant,duetotheclimatechange.On12thDecember2015197naconssignedtheParisAgreementwhichobligesthemtotakeacconstokeep“…theglobaltemperaturerisethiscenturybelow2de-greesCelsiusabovepre-industriallevelsandtopursueeffortstolimittheincreaseevenfurtherto1.5degreesCelsius”. The inland transport of goods creates a largepart of greenhouse gasesbecause1

truckstransportmostofthecommodices.Nevertheless,thereareothermodesoftransport,whicharemoreclimatefriendlysuchasinlandwaterwaytransportacon.Thatmeansthatinlandwaterwaytransportaconcanplayanessencal role to reach theclimategoals,but therearemanychallengeswhichinlandwaterwaytransportaconhastofacetofulfilitsrole.Duetothefactthatsustainabilitydoes not only consist of ecological aspects but also of economical and social ones a sustainabilitystudyhasbeencarriedouttocheckhowsustainableinlandwaterwaytransportaconiscomparedtotrucking.Atthemomentinlandwaterwaytransportaconisunderrepresentedinthelogisccssector.

Thissciencficpaperisthebasisfortwovideosandonewebsitewhichshellpromoteinlandwaterwaytransportacon.As sciencficbasis thispaperpresents informaconand factsabout inlandwaterwaytransportacontothereader.Forthatreason,collectedfactsareshown,asustainabilitystudyaswellasaSWOTanalysishasbeencarriedouttounderlinethegiveninformaconfromthevideos.Thefirstvideowillpromoteinlandwaterwaytransportaconfromtheperspeccveofaninlandnavigaconop-erator.Thesecondvideowillrepresentthepointofviewfromafreightforwarderandwillshowtheviewerswhyfreightforwardersshouldconsiderinlandwaterwaytransportaconasanalternacvetotrucking.Finally,bothvideoswillbeapartofapromocngwebsite.Thewebsitewillpresentimport-antinformaconandstatementsfromlogisccsexpertsaboutinlandwaterwaytransportaconinclud-ingbasicknowledgeabout the#IWTS2.0project,policcalbackgroundsaswellasStrength,Weak-nesses,OpportunicesandThreatsoftruckingcomparedtoinlandwaterwaytransportacon.Further-more,afilmlibrarywillbepartofthewebsite.

Themain purpose of this project is to promote inlandwaterway transportacon. The target groupconsistsofyounglogisccsexpertswhichwillshapethelogisccssectorinthenextdecades.Byreach-ingouttothoseyounglogisccsexpertswewanttoachievethatthosewillconsiderinlandwaterwaytransportaconstrongeraspartofthemulcmodaltransportchain.Onedaythoseyounglogisccsex-pertswillbecomethedecisionmakersasaconsequenceofthattheywilldecideabouttheconsidera-conofinlandwaterwaytransportaconinthemulcmodaltransportchain.

Cf. The UNFCCC secretariat (UN Climate Change), https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement1

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2. Whatdoes#IWTS2.0mean?

Theproject inlandwaterwaytransportaconsoluconsor#IWTS2.0 ispartof the InterregNorthSeaRegionprogramwhichissupportedbytheEuropeanRegionalDevelopmentFund.MainpurposeoftheInterregProgramistosupportdevelopmentandvivifyeconomicgrowth.Buttheyarealsodeal-ingwithtopicsliketheclimatechange,majorandmorefrequentfloodingorhowtocleanupouren-vironment.TohelptoarchivethesegoalstheInterregProgramwantinsctucons,publicadministra-consandNGO´stoexchangetheirinformaconandtocooperate. 2

ThetotalbudgetoftheInterregProgramis167millioneurosandissharedamongthefourthemeswhichare“Thinkinggrowth”,“Eco-innovacon”,“SustainableNorthSeaRegion”and“Greentransportand mobility”. With #IWTS2.0 being a project from the topic “Green transport and mobility” it’sprovidedwithabudgetof3.4millioneuroandisplannedforatotalduraconfrom1August2017to30June2021. 3

ItisknownthattheInlandWaterwayTransportisrelacvelyslowbutit´salsounderescmatedinmanyaspects.Especiallyforcargoesinbulkorlargequanccestheinlandwaterwaytransportofferscheapandclimatefriendlyalternacvesolucons inthehinterlandtransport. InwholeEuropemanywater-waysareusedfarunderpossiblecapacity.

The#IWTS2.0Programderivesthislackofuclizaconfromdifferentkindofchallengesfortheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsector.Atfirstthereisonlyverylowawarenessabouttheinlandwaterwaytransportaconespeciallyforsmallbargesolucons.Inaddicontothattheinlandwaterwaytransport-aconhas nearly no innovacons in small bargedevelopment and in the transhipment of the cargoontoandbackfromthebarge.Furthermore,thereisalackoftrainingcontentavailablewhichleadstoproblemsinthecrewingofbargesandsmallwaterwayvessels.

Totackletheseproblemsthe#IWTS2.0programhaslaidthefocusonsomekeyconceptstomobilizepotencalstomovecargoesontounderuclizedwaterways.Firstofall,therealizaconofaquickmodalshiXshouldbeenabledbynewandprovenlogiscctechnologiesbackedupbythelogisccmanagersdecidingaboutthetransport.Inaddicontothatexiscngwaterwaysshouldbeadaptedtoasufficientstandardvesselsizeandalsosmallbargeconceptsshouldbekept inmindforabeoeruclizaconofthewaterways.Moreover, theeducaconand training focusedon thenavigaconon smallerwater-ways should be elaborated. Furthermore, linking the inland waterway transportacon to themainTrans-EuropeanNetworks(TEN-T)highlyimportanttoincreasetheusageofthiswaterwaystomakethemmoreaoraccvetoforwarders.

Cf. The North Sea Region Programme Secretariat (About the progamme), https://northsearegion.eu/about-the-programme/2

Cf. The North Sea Region Programme Secretariat (About the project), https://northsearegion.eu/iwts20/about-iwts/3

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3. Website

3.1. Basicsofawebsite

Before thinking aboutwhat awebsitewith themain topics "Promocon of InlandNavigacon" and"IWTS2.0"mightlooklike,somebasicpointsshouldbeexplained.Atthispointitshouldbesaidthatasuccessfulappearancealoneisnotsufficientforthecreaconofagoodinternetpresence.Therearedifferentstrategiesawebsitecanfollow.

ThemostfrequentlyencounteredwebsitestrategyontheWorldWideWebiscompanyrepresenta-con.ItisalsooXenreferredtoasbrandingorimagesiteandrepresentscompanies,organizaconsorevenprojects.Noproductsaretobesoldonthistypeofwebsite.Rather,itisamaoerofconveyingagoodimpressiontothetargetgroupandtopotencalcustomers.Thestrategyoftheenterpriserep-resentaconblursfluentlywiththatofaninformaconplaxorm.Aninternetpresencethatfocusesonconveying informacon as an intencon should have awell-developed informacon architecture. Theusershouldbeabletoquicklyfindthe informaconthat is importanttohim.Atthispoint itcanbeguessedthattheinternetpresencefortheprojectrepresentsamixofcompanyrepresentaconandinformaconplaxorm.ThewebsiteshouldinformasfaraspossibleaboutIWTS2.0andatthesamecmepromoteinlandnavigaconinEuropewithwell-foundedandsciencficinformacon. Inaddicon,numerousvideolinkswillbeintegratedandtherewillbereportsoneventsontheindividualtopics.Otherwebsitestrategiespursuegoalssuchasthesaleofproductsoronlineaucconswhereaproductcanbepurchaseddirectlyon thecalled internetpresence.At thispoint, forexample, “Amazon”or“eBay”shouldbenamed.Inaddicon,therearealsoe-learningplaxormssuchas“Moodle”whichareusedforexampleat“JadeUniversity”.However,therearealsointernetpresenceswhicharedesignedpurelyforentertainment. 4

Theinternetpresencefortheprojectwillbedevelopedincooperaconwith“bremenports”,represen-tedbyDr.Stemmler.“bremenports”hasalreadydevelopedadesignanddefinedthebasicstructureof thewebsite. A freelancer implemented the ideas andwisheswith thehelp of the “Wordpress”soXware.“Wordpress”isanopensourcecontentmanagementsystem.Thismeansthateveryoneisallowed touseandchange the“Wordpress” soXware.For this reason,according to thecompany'sown informacon, around 20 % of the websites to be called up on the internet are created with“Wordpress”. Toput itsimple,acontentmanagementsystemisatoolwithwhichwebsitescanbe5

easilycreatedandmanaged.Knowledgeofprogramminglanguagesisalmostnotnecessary.“Word-press”wasinicallypresentedasatoolforcreacngsimpleblogs.Thishaschangedsignificantlyinre-centyears.“Wordpress”hasbecomemuchmorecomplexthankstoextensiveedicngopconsandtheopconofinsercngso-calledplug-instoextendthebasicsoXware.ProfessionalinternetpresencesonwhichalsoeCommercecanbeoperatedarepossible.Wehavetakenadvantageofthiswealthofpos-sibilices.Under theDomain“www.project-iwts20.eu”avarietyof informaconabout inlandnaviga-conwillbeavailableaXerthecompleconoftheproject.Thewebsiteisdividedintoseveralparts.

Cf. Hammer, Norbert / Bensmann Karen (Webdesign für Studium und Beruf), pp. 37-39.4

Cf. WordPress Foundation (Über uns), https://de.wordpress.com/about/5

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3.2. Websiteoftheproject

Figure1:Websiteheadline 6

Firstofall,theaboveillustraconshowstheleadstoryoftheinternetpresence.Thisisthefirstthingauserseeswhenenteringthedomain.Thestartpictureshowsaninlandwaterwayvesselduringload-ing.ItisreferredtotheInterregNorthSeaRegionprojectandthebuoon"Learnmore"givesthepos-sibilitytogetdeeperintothetopic.Ifyoumovefurtherdownonthewebsite,quotaconsfromvari-ouspeopleintheindustrywillbedisplayed.Atthispointitsaysfromaninlandwaterwayvesselop-erator(ArneHarms)forexample:"Iliketocomparelogisccstoatransmission.Thereareparccipantswho have large and small shares in the system, but only the interaccon of all elements makeseverythingmove."Thequotaconsareaccompaniedbysuitablephotostoreinforcethestatement.Ifyoufollowthequotaconsfurtherdownonthewebsite,theusercomestothenextcategory.Underthectle"SomebasicfactsaboutInlandWaterwayTransportacon"shortarcclesdescribingthetopicinmoredetailcanbefound.Forexample,thecomparisonbetweentruckandinlandwaterwayvesselisdealtwithhere.

Figure2:Basicfactsonthewebsite 7

Cf. bremenports GmbH & Co. KG (Project IWTS 2.0), URL: https://project-iwts20.eu6

Cf. Ibit.7

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AXerthisshortoverviewyoucangodeeperintothetopic.Akindofregisterreferstosinglecategor-ieswhich canbeopenedor closed. Ineach rubric youwill find short, concise textswhich refer tovideosandexplainthembriefly.Thevideosarecreatedonthesubjectofforwardingagentsandin-landnavigaconcanbefoundhere.Alsointegratedatthispointisamovinganimaconwhichshowsthe cooperaconbetween thedifferentmodesof transport. Theaimhere is tobring the individualplayersclosertogether.OXenacombinaconofseveralmodesoftransportispossible.Inlandnaviga-concanalsoplayanimportantrolehere.

Figure3:Animatedpowerpointpresentacon 8

Cf. bremenports GmbH & Co. KG (Project IWTS 2.0), URL: https://project-iwts20.eu8

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4. Inlandwaterwayvessel

4.1. Currentstateofinlandnavigacon

4.1.1. Ship/Fleet

Therearecurrentlyaround11.500inlandwaterwayvesselsindrybulkgoodstransport.Adiscncconismadebetween „goods-motor-barges“andpushed-barges (non-motorised).Around two thirdsofthese units are registered in the following countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg, theNetherlands and Switzerland. The liquid sector comprises some 2.000 inland waterway vessels inEurope.ItisevenmoredirectedtowardstheRhinebasin.InthewesternpartofEurope,86%ofalltankers are registered. By contrast, pusher and tugboat transport is stronger represented at theDanubeandinPoland.TheDanuberegionandthethirdgroupofcountries(Poland,GreatBritain,theCzechRepublicandItaly)accountforanocceablyhighshare,witharound2.600tugsandpushboatsinEurope. 9

Asinmaricmeshipping,thetypesofvesselsusedininlandnavigaconhavebecomelargerandlargerover the last decades, but in order to be able to navigate all the waterways in Europe, differentclassesofvesselsarerequired.Inlandwaterwayvesselsaresubdividedintosizeandtypeofcargo.

Table1:shipsaresubdividedintoclassesI-VIaccordingtotheirdimensions 10

Class I-III aremainly foundonsmall riversor canals.Theclass IV, theso-called"Europaschiff",wasdesignedattheendofthe60s.Formanyyears,itsdimensionsweredecisivefortheconstrucconandmaintenanceoftheGermanlockandcanalnetwork. AXertheintroducconoftheGMSwithstand11 -arddimensionsof110mlengthand11.45mwidth,thelocksandcanalswereadaptedaccordingly.Since1997, so-called “üGMS”havebeenapproved forEuropeanwaterways. The standardmeas12 -urementis135mlongand11.45mwide.Onespecialfeatureofthevehicleisthatthewidthcanvaryupto17,50m.WherebytheseshiptypescanonlyoperateontheRhineorNLandBelgiumduetothegivenlockdimensions.Notonlythedimensionsoftheshipsplayarole,butalsothetypesofcargo.

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017) p.88.9

Cf. ShortSeaShipping Inland Waterway Promotion (System der Klassifizierung von Binnenschiffen auf europäischen Binnenwasserstraßen) p. 1.10

Cf. Interview Arne Harms11

Cf. PLANCO Consulting GmbH (Entwicklungspotenziale von Güterschiffen über 110m Länge & Bewertung erwogener Ausbaumaßnahmen am Neckar) p. 2.12

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Figure4:Shipsbytypeofcargo

Infigure4, the inlandwaterwaybarge isassignedtothe individualcargotypes.A inlandwaterwayvesselwithanopencargospacecanbeusedveryflexibly.Almostanythingcanbe loaded into thehold.Fromcoal,oretocontainerorheavy-liXcargo.Inaddicon,theholdcanbeclosedwithhatchestoprotectthecargofromge{ngwet.Ininlandnavigacontherearejustafewshipsthatcanonlybeusedforcontainershipping.Theyhavespecialguiderailsintheholdtospeeduploadingandunload-ing.

Shipstransporcngliquidcargoscanonlybeusedinthisarea.Liquidcargosaredividedintothecat-egory’s"N","C"and"G".Mostoftheseshipscarrydangerouscargo.Asaresult,theyaresubjecttostrictregulaconsduringconstrucconandoperacon.Sincethebeginningof2019,therehavebeennomoresingle-hulledbargesininlandnavigacon.Inordertocomplywithtoday'stype"N"regulacons,manysingle-hulledbargeshavebeenconvertedtodouble-hulledbargesoroldtype"C"areusedastype "N". The cargo of the type "N" are mostly rather harmless goods such as petrol, diesel, oilproducts,etc.Type"C"transportsdangerouschemicalsandoilproductssuchasstrongacidsandal-kalis.Type"G"transportsliquidgas.Thistypeofshiphasthreehulls,wheretheinnerhullisapres-suretank. 13

4.1.2. Goods

Almost everything is transported on Europeanwaterways. The inlandwaterway vessel is ideal fortransporcngbulkgoods,oils,containers,liquidchemicalsandmore.Areassuchasthesteelanden-ergyindustriesrequirealargeamountofrawmaterialstooperate.Alargepartofthosematerialsiscarriedby inlandwaterwayvessels.Thedisadvantageof longertransportcmesof inlandwaterwayvesselsiscompensatedbyhighloadingvolumes,lowercostsandloweremissions.

Cf. Interview Arne Harms13

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Figure5:GoodstransportedontheRhineintonnescomparedfrom2013-2016 14

Figure5showsthetransportedgoodsontheRhineintheyears2013-2016.Nearlyallsegmentsshowadeclineoverthefouryears.Thisisduetolowwaterperiods.Foryears,inlandnavigacon,especiallyontheRhine,ElbeandDanube,hasbeenstrugglingwithlowcde. 15

Inaddicon,inlandvesselsarepopularforthetransportofheavygoodsanddangerousgoods.Heavycargoinparccularrarelyposesachallengetoaninlandwaterwayvessel.Forexample,inthecaseofatransformer,asuitableinlandvesselcancarryanaddiconalparcalload.Inaddicon,thetransportisnotboundtoanydayornightcmesasitisusualontheroad.

4.1.3. Waterways

Waterways are parts of thewater surfacewhich, due to their natural condicon, are navigable forshippingorwhichhavebeenopcmised for shippingby structuralmeasures (e.g. dredgingorbankreinforcement).Adiscncconismadebetweeninlandwaterwaysandseawaterways.

TheEuropeanwaterwaynetworkextendsfromtheNorthSeatotheBlackSea.Inaddicon,therearetrade lanes inEasternEurope, France, Italy,GreatBritainandPortugal. The total lengthof theEu-ropeanwaterway network is around 30.177 km.With 14.362 km (47.6%of the total length), theRhine-Danube conneccon is the longest andmost importantwaterway in Europe. Transportper16 -

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017) p.32.14

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2019) p.66.15

Cf. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) (Withe Paper of inland waterway transport in Europe) p.10.16

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formanceinEuropeviathewaterwayfrauded2016145billiontkm.71%ofthisperformancewentthroughthewaterwaysoftheNetherlandsandGermany. 17

Withatotallengthof7.476km,GermanyhasthelargestconcnuouswaterwaynetworkinEurope.InGermanythemostimportantinlandwaterwaysaretheRhineandthetributariesNeckar,Main,MoselandSaar,theDanubeandsecconsoftheWeser,ElbeandOder,aswellastheextensivecanalnet-work. A special featurehere is thatpartsof inlandwaterways alreadybecome inland seawater18 -ways.Inlandwaterwaysaredividedintotwoareas,75%ofwhichareriversand25%canals.InGer-many,thewaterwayisadministeredbytheFederalGovernment(Art.89II1GG).Inaddicon,thewa-terwaywillcreatearound400.000jobsinGermany.

InorderforwaterwaysinGermanytoonceagaindojusccetotoday'straffic,theFederalGovernmenthas launchedtheFederalTransport InfrastructurePlan2030(FTIP2030).TheFTIP2030outlinesalltheinvestmentprojectsoftheindividualmodesoftransport:road,railandwaterways,whichwillbenecessaryinthecomingyearsforthefurtherdevelopmentofasustainablyefficienttransportinfra-structure.Inaddicon,theBFTIP2030showswhichfurtherinvestmentsareduebytheyear2030forthe individual modes of transport, such as the maintenance and replacement of transportnetworks. 19

Projects in thefieldofwaterwaysweremonitoredand idencfiedbymeansof a stagedevaluaconprocedure.When registeringprojects for theFTIP, federal states, associaconsand theFederalWa-terwaysandShippingAdministracon(WSA)wereabletosubmitprojectideasandproposalsforthewaterway.Fromthese ideasandproposals, theFederalMinistryofTransportand Infrastructureto-getherwiththeESChasdefinedconcreteprojects. Inthestagedevaluaconprocedure,asimplifiedpreliminary invescgacon was carried out to determine whether the projects could reach thethresholdofeconomicprofitability.Someprojectsforwhichthiscouldclearlybeexcludedwereex-cludedfromthefurtherevaluacon.Inthesubsequentevaluaconstage,theso-calledmainevaluaconwascarriedoutonthebasisofthetrafficdevelopmentforecastfor2030accordingtothefollowingcriteria: 20

1. Cost-benefitraco

2. Affectednessoftheenvironmentandnatureconservacon.

Inaddicontotheevaluaconresults,thefinalclassificaconoftheprojectsintotheFTIPrequirementcategoriestookintoaccountotheraspectssuchastheimprovementoftheconnecconofthehinter-landtotheGermanseaports. 21

Fromthepointofviewoftransport,theFederalMinistryofTransportandInfrastructurehasdefinedthemost importantandmostheavilyusedwaterwaysasthecorenetwork. Inordertoensurethatenvironmentally friendlyshippingofgoodscanbecarriedouteconomicallyandwithoutdisrupconontheseroutes,itmustbekeptfuncconalandefficient.Forthisreason,expansionmeasureswillbeconcentratedonthesewaterwaysofthecorenetwork.TheFederalMinistryofTransportandInfra-structurepursuesthedefinedprinciplethatmaintenanceandreplacementinvestmentshavepriority

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017) p.24.17 Cf. Bundesverband der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt e.V. (Daten und Fakten 2018/2019) p. 3.18

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur: https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Dossier/Wasserstrassen/topthema02-arbeitsplaetze.html19

Cf. Ibit.20

Cf. Ibit.21

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overexpansionandnewconstrucconmeasures.Inthesecondarynetwork,theFederalGovernmentconcentratesaboveallonmeasuresthatarenecessaryfromasafetypointofview,suchasthemain-tenanceandreplacementofweirs. 22

German transport policy aims to promote environmentally friendly inland waterway transport. Atpresent, there isa lackof secconsof thewaterwayandof locksoveranefficient infrastructure sothat inlandwaterwayskipperscouldbecompeccve.That iswhythefederalgovernment isalsoex-pandingtheinfrastructureinplaceswherethisinvestmentmaynotpayoffuncllater.Indoingso,thegovernmentwantstomocvateprivateinvestorstoinvesttheirmoneyinbeoervehicles,inthetran-shipmentinfrastructureorinlogisccsconceptsinordertomakegreateruseofthisinfrastructurefin-ancedbythefederalgovernment. 23

ThewaterwayprojectsweresubjectedtoafullevaluaconwithintheframeworkoftheFTIPandas-signedtotherequirementcategoriesintheFTIP2030.Detailsandresultsoftheevaluaconweredis-closed.Onthisbasis,theWaterwayExpansionActwasthendrawnupwiththerequirementsplanforthe federalwaterways. In thecourseof theparliamentaryconsultacononthis law, individualaddi-consweremadetotherequirementplanincomparisonwiththeFTIP2030. 24

Asaresultof thisprocedure,24projectswitha totalfinancialvolumeof6.5billioneuroswere in-cludedintherequirementplanas"NewPriorityRequirementProjects".Theplanalsoincludes7pro-jectsthathavebeenidencfiedasparccularlyurgentonthebasisoftheirevaluaconresultsunderthectle"Urgentneeds-boolenecking".

Ongoingandfirmlyplannedprojects:

Total requirement: 1.45 billion euros.Ofwhich new construccon/expansion: 931million euros.Ofwhichmaintenance/replacement:521millioneuros. 25

• MioellandCanal, Elbe-Havel Canal, LowerHavelWaterway,BerlinWaterways,Havel Canal:TransportprojectGermanUnityNo.17(VDE17)Hanover-Magdeburg-Berlin,250millioneuros

• Dortmund-EmsCanal:Expansionofthesouthernseccon,150millioneuros• Mioelweser, parcal removal of boolenecks: Adaptacon for the 2.50metre unloaded large

motorvessel(basicvariant),10millioneurospluscountryfinancing• Minden:Newlockconstruccon,3millioneurosplusstatefinancing• Daoeln-HammCanal:Expansionofthewesternseccon,44millioneurosplusstatefinancing• Rhine-HerneCanal:ExpansioneastofGelsenkirchen,173millioneurosplusstatefinancing• Trier:Construcconofthe2ndMosellelock,60millioneuros(noinformacongivenonboole-

neckremoval)• Main,parcaleliminaconofboolenecks:DeepeningbetweenWipfeldandLimbach,48million

euros• Niederfinow,parcaleliminaconofboolenecks:ReplacementofshipliX,56millioneuros• KielCanal:Expansionoftheeasternseccon,260millioneuros

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur: https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Dossier/Wasserstrassen/topthema02-arbeitsplaetze.html22

Cf. Ibit.23

Cf. Ibit.24

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Bundesverkehrswegeplan 2030) pp. 172-176.25

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Newprojects-Urgentneedandurgentneedboeleneckremoval:

Total needs: 6.39billion euros.Ofwhichnew construccon/expansion: 3.99billion euros.Ofwhichmaintenance/replacement:2.4billioneuros. 26

• Mioelrhein:Opcmisaconoftheunloadingofthefairway,60.2millioneuros• Untermain:deepeningofthefairwaytoAschaffenburg,28.3millioneuros• Außenweser:fairwayadjustment62.3millioneuros• KielCanal:Deepening,263.4millioneuros• Unterweser:fairwayadjustment(southernroute),5.3millioneuros• Unterweser:fairwayadjustment(northernseccon),35.4millioneuros• WeselDatesChannel:ExpansiontoMarlandreplacementofthe"largelocks",645.7million

euros• Außenems:Deepening,36.7millioneuros• Daoeln-HammCanal:Expansionofeasternseccon,190.5millioneuros• KielCanal:NeutralizaconoftheSaatseecurve,12.4millioneuros• Rostock:Adjustmentofseawardportaccess,69.3millioneuros• Danube,parcalremovalofboolenecks:ExtensionofStraubing-Vilshofenseccon(VariantA),

266.5millioneuros• Rhine:ImprovementofunloadingandsolestabilizaconbetweenDuisburgandStürzelberg,

201.3millioneuros• Wismar:Adjustmentofseawardportaccess,79.1millioneuros• Dortmund-Emscanal,parcalremovalofboolenecks:Adjustmentofthenorthernseccon,

543.3millioneuros• Havel-Oderwaterway:expansion,503millioneuros• Salzgioerbranchcanal:extensionincludingreplacementoftwolocks,176.1millioneuros• Coastalcanal,parcalbooleneckclearance:Extensionincludingreplacementoftwolocks,

254.9millioneuros• Elbesidecanal:EarlyreplacementconstrucconofalockinLüneburg-Scharnebeck,270.4mil-

lioneuros• Neckar,parcaleliminaconofboolenecks:lockextensionfromMannheimtoPlochingen,

1.264millioneuros• Mosel:Construcconofseven2ndlockchambers,579.3millioneuros• Elbe-LübeckCanal:Expansion,838.1millioneuros

Newprojects-furtherdemand:

Totalvolume:689.4millioneuros.Ofwhichnewconstruccon/expansion:612millioneuros.Ofwhichmaintenance/replacement:77.5millioneuros. 27

• Hildesheimbranchcanal:expansion,125.6millioneuros• Osnabrückbranchcanal:replacementconstrucconoftwolocks,105.0millioneuros• Saale:CanalconstrucconnearTornitz,133.8millioneuros• Spree-Oderwaterway:Earlyreplacementofthreelocks,188.4millioneuros• TeltowCanal:Earlyreplacementofthe"Kleinmachnow"lock,74.4millioneuros• Minden:Replacementoftheupperlock,62.2millioneuros

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Bundesverkehrswegeplan 2030) pp. 172-176.26

Cf. Ibit pp. 172-176.27

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4.2. Innovaconsandpilotprojects

4.2.1. BeerboatUtrecht

With around 350.000 inhabitants, Utrecht is the fourth largest city in the Netherlands aXerRooerdam,AmsterdamandTheHague,andinordertoreduceroadtrafficwithinthecity,thecityofUtrecht is trying touseothermeansof transport.Utrechthasawell-developedcanal system.ThiscanalsystemcoverstheencrecitycentreandisconnectedtotheAmsterdam-RhineCanal.ThebeerboatinUtrechtoffersasuccessfulalternacveforsustainabledoor-to-doordeliveryinthecitycentre.Theelectricallypoweredboat is18.8m long,4.26mwideandhasamaximumdraughtof1.10m.Withaloadingcapacityofupto18tons,thebeerboatcanload40-48rollcontainers.Heavyloadsofup to 14m can be liXed with a hydraulic crane on board. The energy comes from four 480 voltbaoeriesandlastsfor9hours.Thedriveisprovidedbya55kWsynchronousmotor.Inmanoeuvringmode, the beer boat scll has a 12 kW bow thrustermotor in the bow. In Utrecht, the beer boatsuppliesatotalof65customers,includingfourbreweriesandagastronomywholesaler.Withasavingof around 16.5 tons of CO2 per year compared to a truck, the beer boat is an environmentallyfriendlyalternacve 28

4.2.2. PortFeederBargeHamburg

TheportofHamburghasastrongproblemwithairqualityforyears.TheEuropeanCommissionhasthereforeobligedtheportto improveairqualityasquicklyaspossible inordertocomplywiththespecified limitvalues. In June2017, theEuropeanCommissionpresentedanairqualityplanwhichshows thatabouthalfof theNOxemissionsoriginate fromtheport.Approx.1/4of the total tran-shipment(2millionTEU)ishandledwithintheport,withtrucktrafficplayingasignificantrole,asNOxemissionsaremainlyemioedbydieselengines.0.4-1.1millionTEUwouldbesuitableforshiXingtowater.Thiswouldalsocounteracttheshortageoflorrydrivers. 29

Figure6:Profileviewandbird'seyeviewPortFeederBarge 30

ThePortFeederBarge (PFB) isa freemovingplaxormwhich ispoweredby2x2 rudderpropellerswith280kW.Withatotallengthof63.90mandawidthof21.20m,thePFBcanload168TEU.Withalargehydrauliccrane(e.g.LiebherrCBW49(39)/27(29)Litronic)acontainercanweigh49tatmax-imumdelivery(27m).Withthisradiusthewholebarge,alandsideterminalandaalongsideshipcan

Cf. Gemeente Utrecht (The Beer Boat- All electric supply vessel).28

Cf. Malchow, Ulrich (Eine „Port Feeder Barge“ mit LNG-Antrieb für den Hamburger Hafen) p.1.29

Cf. Ibit. p. 2.30

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beloadedandunloadedatthesamecme.SincethePFBhasitsowndriveandcrane,itcanbeusedveryflexiblybytherespeccveterminals.Duringbusyperiods,thePFBisnotdependentonVan-Carri-er(VC).Itcanunloadatleast84TEUatthequay"VC-compacble".Inaddicon,itssizeallowsittofitbetweentwoseagoingvessels. 31

ThePFB ispoweredbyLNG.BunkeringwouldbecarriedoutbyanLNGtanker.Thecontainersareonlyloadedondeck,notasonaseagoingvessel.ThismeansthatthereissufficientspacebelowdeckforstoringtheLNGwithoutreducingthetransportcapacity.EmissionsarereducedbytheLNGdrivealone: 32

• SOx: -100 %

• NOx: approx. -90 %

• CO2: approx. -20 %

• PM: -100 %

Notonly the LNGdrivepromotes theair quality in theportofHamburg, but also thedecrease intruckroundtripswouldcontributegreatlytothis.TheannualcapacityofthePFBiscalculatedincon-tainerunits,sincethecmerequiredfora20’containertobeinstalledisthesameasfora40’con-tainer.Theoperaconiscalculatedat350daysperyearwithahandlingcmeofabout14hoursandarealiscccranecapacityofabout20moves/hour,themaximumcapacityofthePFBperyearamountsto: 33

=

49.000containersperyear 34

If this value ismulcplied by the TEU factor (1.64) of the Port of Hamburg, it amounts to around80.000TEUperyear.Thatwouldbeanaverageof140containersor228TEUthatcouldbemovedperday.Atpresent,morethan500.000TEUcouldbeshiXeddirectlytothewater.Thismeansthatthe6-fold capacity would be directly available. This should ensure sufficient capacity uclizacon for thePFB. 35

5. Forwardingagent

5.1. Actualstateoftrucktraffic

In2018350.000truckswerenewlyregisteredintotrafficwhichleadstoanoverallnumberoftrucksinGermany of about 3.1million trucks in the end of the year. This and a road network of nearly

350  daysyear  x 14  hrs

day x 20  moves

hour

2  movescontainer

Cf. Malchow, Ulrich (Eine „Port Feeder Barge“ mit LNG-Antrieb für den Hamburger Hafen) p.3.31 Cf. Ibit. p. 3.32

Cf. Ibit. p. 8.33

Cf. Ibit. p.8.34

Cf. Ibit. p. 8.35

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230.000kmmaketheroadfreighttransport themostflexiblemodeof transport inGermany.Also,trucksarenotlimitedtospecialroutesorcmeschedules. 36

Theinlandwaterwaytransportontheotherhandhasabout2.100vesselsundawaterwaynetworkof7.476kmavailable.Thisshowsthattheroadfreighttransportishighlybeoerequippedthantheinlandwaterwaytransportandsoismorereliableandflexible. 37

Figure7:Owncomparisonoftheroutenetworksinkilometres

Also,itispossibletoreactquickerandmorecustomisedtotransportrequests,becausetrucksdonotneedalotofpreparaconcmebeforebeingloadedandreadytodriveoff,plustheydonothavetouseoneroutebutcanavoidtrafficjamsorotherobstaclesbyusingadifferentstreet.Anotheraspectisthattruckscanbeusedfortransportofsmallamountsoffreight.An inlandwaterwayvesselcancarryupto3.000tofcargo,whichisequalto150trucks,butitisneithereconomicalnorecologicaltooperateavesselthatcarriesonlyhalforlessofismaximumcapacity.So,trucksaremoreflexibleandhighlymoreefficientwhenitcomestosmallamountsoffreight. 38

Inaddicon,thereislimitedaccesstothewaterwaynetwork,whichfurtherlimitstheflexibilityofin-landwaterwaytransport.Fewofthecompanieshavetheirowninlandportorareevenlocatednearawaterway,whichmeansthatthepre-andpost-carriagetotheinlandwaterwaymusttakeplacewithasecondmodeoftransport.Inmostcases,thissecondmodeoftransportisthelorry,asitcantravelalmostwithoutrestricconsonallroadsandcanthereforealsoreachveryremotecompanies.

Loadingandunloading trucks rarely requires special equipmentother thana truck rampanda liXtruck,whereasinlandwaterwayvesselsusuallyhavetobeloadedwiththehelpofcranesorconveyorbelts.However,thetransportofcontainersplaysaspecialrolehere,sincecranesarealwaysusedforhandlingcontainers,regardlessofthemodeoftransportusedtotransportthecontainer.

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Straßennetz 2019) https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Artikel/G/infrastruktur-statistik.html36

Cf. Kerner, Rega https://www.binnenschiffe.de/inhalte/artikel/mittelrhein/flotte.html37

Cf.Juniper & Sons GmbH (Vor- und Nachteile des LKW´s), https://www.logistikbranche.net/dossier/vorteile-nachteile-lkw.html38

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Figure8:Commercialfreighttransport-asectorinfigures 39

ThisfigureshowsthatmosttrucksanddriversinGermanyaremanagedandemployedbysmallcom-panies.About50%ofthecompanieshavefiveorlessemployeesandarefamilyrun.

InGermanythereareca.470.000truckdriversbutthecompectorsfromeasternEuropeoffertrans-portforlesscostsbecausethewagesandtaxesarelower.

5.2. Combinedtransport

Theuseofcontainersascargounitsmakescombinaconsofthe individualmodesoftransportverystraighxorward, as the containers are standardized and handling equipment is available in largequancces.However,semi-trailerscanalsobetransportedusingseveralmodesoftransport.Adiscnc-conismadeherebetweenthepiggybackmethodandthero-romethod.Inthepiggybackmethod,thesemi-traileris liXedontoatrainindividuallyandtransportedbyit.Ro-RostandsforRollonRolloff,wherethesemi-traileristransporteddirectlyontoashipor,inrarecases,ontoatrain.

Cf. Bundesverband Güterkraftverkehr Logistik und Entsorgung (BGL) e.V. (Der Gewerbliche Güterkraftverkehr - eine Branche in Zahlen) https://www.bgl-ev.de/images/39

daten/brancheninfo.pdf

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Figure9:Proporconofcombinedtransportinrelacontototaltransportin2017 40

Combinedtransportaccountedfor2.4%oftotalfreighttransportin2017.Ofthis,79%isaccountedforbycombinedtransportbyrail,asthecombinaconofrailandroad,and21%bycombinedtrans-portbywaterways,i.e.thecombinaconofinlandwaterwaysandroad.

5.3. Thefutureofcombinedtransportonwaterwaysandadvantagesforfreightfor-wardersasaresult

Asinlandwaterwayvesselscanbeusedmorecheaplyoverlongdistancesthanlorries,itcanbead-vantageousforforwarderstorelyonacombinaconofthesetwomodesoftransport.Aninlandwa-terwayvesseltransportsaloadinonevoyagethatcorrespondsapproximatelytothetransportcapa-cityof100to150lorries.Althoughaninlandwaterwayvesselissignificantlyslowerthanalorryandthereforetakesmuchlongertotransport,aconsiderablepartofthepersonnelcostsisnotrequiredsinceavesselcanbesteeredbyaboutthreetofivepeople.Theneedforfuelisalsomuchlower.Es-peciallygoodsthathavetobetransportedinlargequanccesandarenotneededjust-in-cmecanbetransportedcost-effeccvelywiththehelpofinlandnavigacon.

Cf. SGKV e.V. – Studiengesellschaft für den Kombinierten Verkehr (Kombinierter Verkehr ) p. 3.40

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Containertransportfromseaportstoinlandportsandintothehinterlandisanotherpossiblepointofcontact for inlandwaterwayvesselsand freight forwarders, as inlandwaterwayvesselsare sloweddownbythesmallnetworkofwaterwaysandtrucksarerequiredfordeliverytotherecipient.Thereturntransportofemptycontainersalsofrequentlytakesplacebylorry.Cooperaconbetweenbargeownersandfreightforwarderscanleadtocompeccveadvantageshereandatthesamecmebringanadvantagefortheenvironmentifemptycontainersdonothavetobedrivenindividually,butarecollectedbylorriesandthenbundledandtransportedbacktotheseaportbyinlandwaterwayvessel.

Figure10:Developmentofcombinedtransportvolume 41

Thegraphshowsthedevelopmentofthevolumeofgoodstransportedbycombinedtransportinmil-lionsoftons,bothforcombinedtransportbyrailandbywaterway.From2005to2017,thevolumeofgoodstransportedrosefrom70milliontonsto111.5milliontons,anincreaseof59%.Between2016and2017,thenumberofTEUstransportedincombinedtransportonwaterwaysincreasedby4.8%.Against this background, forwarders should prepare themselves for the increasing importance ofcombinedtransport.

Cf. SGKV e.V. – Studiengesellschaft für den Kombinierten Verkehr (Kombinierter Verkehr) p. 4.41

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6. Sustainabilitycomparisonoftheindividualmodesoftransport

In 2015 theUnitedNaconpublished "The 2030Agenda for SustainableDevelopment",whichwasadoptedbyallUnitedNaconsMemberStates.Thisdocumentshouldpromptthecountriestodeve-lopstrategiestogetherinaglobalpartnershipandnaconaltoimprovehealthandeducacon,reduceinequality,andspureconomicgrowth–allwhiletacklingclimatechangeandworkingtopreservetheoceans and forests. It includes 17 SustainableDevelopmentGoals (SDGs),which should lead the42

countriesintherightdirecconforabeoerfuture.

Figure11:UnitedNaconsDevelopmentProgramme

These17SustainableDevelopmentGoalsare:

1) Endpovertyinallitsformseverywhere

2) Endhunger,achievefoodsecurityandimprovednutriconandpromotesustainableagricul-ture

3) Ensurehealthylivesandpromotewell-beingforallatallages

4) Ensureinclusiveandequitablequalityeducaconandpromotelifelonglearningopportunicesforall

5) Achievegenderequalityandempowerallwomenandgirls

6) Ensureavailabilityandsustainablemanagementofwaterandsanitaconforall

Cf. Division for Sustainable Development Goals Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Sustainable Development Goals), https://42

sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300

Figure11:UnitedNaconsDevelopmentProgramme

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7) Ensureaccesstoaffordable,reliable,sustainableandmodernenergyforall

8) Promotesustained,inclusiveandsustainableeconomicgrowth,fullandproduccveemploy-mentanddecentworkforall

9) Buildresilientinfrastructure,promoteinclusiveandsustainableindustrializaconandfosterinnovacon

10) Reduceinequalitywithinandamongcountries

11) Makecicesandhumanseolementsinclusive,safe,resilientandsustainable

12) Ensuresustainableconsumpconandproducconpaoerns

13) Takeurgentaccontocombatclimatechangeanditsimpacts

14) Conserveandsustainablyusetheoceans,seasandmarineresourcesforsustainabledevel-opment

15) Protect,restoreandpromotesustainableuseofterrestrialecosystems,sustainablymanageforests,combatdesercficacon,haltandreservelanddegradaconandhaltbiodiversityloss

16) Promotepeacefulandinclusivesociecesforsustainabledevelopment,provideaccesstojuscceforallandbuildeffeccve,accountableandinclusiveinsctuconsatalllevels

17) Strengthenthemeansofimplementaconandrevitalizetheglobalpartnershipforsustainabledevelopment

Thefollowingchapterisgoingtoobtainthreesustainablegoalsofthe17SDGsonthecurrentsitu-aconofthetruckingandinlandwaterwaybusiness.Itwillbeshownwhatalreadyworksaccordingtothe17SDGsandwhatneedstobeadjustedinordertomatchtheguideline.

The17aspectsofsustainabilityareseparatedinto3maingroups:Ecological,economicalandsocialaspects. This iswhyoneaspect fromeach categoryhasbeen chosen for comparisonbetween thetruckingandinlandwaterwaytransportaconbusiness.

InthetransportbusinesssustainabilityplaysalreadyanimportantroleandthereforethegovernmenttriestoadaptmulcpleaspectsoutoftheSDGs,especiallyfortransportaconwithatruck.Thereasonforthatisthehugeshareinthemodalsplitandtheproblemaccsituaconregardingemissions.

Thefirstpointisthe3rdgoalofthe17SustainableDevelopmentGoals,named“Ensurehealthylivesandpromotewell-beingforallatallages”. Thispointshouldguidethecountriesbutalsoorganisa43 -cons to take preventacve accons in order to provide a healthy life for everybody andwell-being.Mostofthecmepeoplespendatwork,especiallylong-distancetruckdrivers,whoneedtosleepinthe truckbeside the road.Therefore, it is importantespecially fororganisacons to takeprevencveacconsand toprotect theiremployees.Regarding truckdrivers,aspects likedrivingcmesand restperiods,mentalpressureandmobilehealthcarestaconsare relevantdue tosustainability. InGer-many, the government established in collaboraconwith the EuropeanUnion a law in 2006,whichinstructsthealloweddrivingcmesandrestperiodsforthedriverofatruck.Everyorganisaconanddriverhavetofollowthesestrictinstrucconsbecauseitwillbecontrolledquitestrictly.Ifthedrivercannotmeet the requirements, he/she needs to pay a fee,which is instructed in the schedule of

Cf. Division for Sustainable Development Goals Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Sustainable Development Goals), https://43

sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300

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fines. If the deviacon is too big in most cases the organisacon needs also to pay for theinfringement. Beforethelawandsomecmessclltodayorganisaconsblackmaildriverstodriveex44 -trahours,becauseofdelaysandcmepressure. Thislawshouldprotectthedriverandhis/heren45 -vironmentinparccularregardingmentalpressure.

Whenlookingatoccupaconalhealthcareofdriversthegovernmentandorganisaconsneedtoadjustmeasures.Just20%of256interviewedGermanlong-distancedriversgotoccupaconalhealthcare. 46

Thisnumberisverylowandtheproblemisthattheemployeesarealwaysunderhighpressureduetofearofdelays.TheyaremostofthecmeonthewayandtheyhaveoXennochancetoparktheirtruckclosetoadoctor.Therefore,theproject“DocStop”wasestablishedinordertoprovidehealthcarefornotonlytruckbutalsobusdriversetc. Ifthedriverhashealthproblems,he/shecancallthe47

hotline ofDoc Stop. The hotline provides for the driver the next appropriate parking lot,which isclose to the next doctor, who contemporary takes care of him/her. This service extends all overEurope,soeverybodyhasthechancetogetappropriatehealthcareanywhereinEurope. Thispro48 -jectorserviceisagoodstrategytopromotethehealthandwell-beingofemployeesinthetruckingbusiness,butitmustbemademorepublic,soeverybodyknowsaboutthisserviceandopportunity.Thenextpointforthehealthandwell-beingofdriversisthenightlysituacons,whichisabigprobleminGermany.Mostlythedriversoftrucksneedtosleepintheirtrucksovernighttomeettherestperi-ods.ParccularlyinGermany,almosteverymotorwayserviceareabesidetheautobahnisoverloadedwithtrucksintheeveningcllmorning.Iftheyfoundaparkinglotwithintheiralloweddrivingcme,somecmes thereareno sanitary facilices,which canbeusedbydrivers.Also is it not common tohavethepossibilitytouseelectricityduringtheirovernightstay.Especially inGermany,thegovern-ment needs to construct a strategy to offer more and beoer places, where the driver can stayovernightsafeandpeacefully.

Boatmen on inlandwaterway vessels spend around 180 days per year working away from home.AddingtothisisthefactthatinlandwaterwayvesselsarepermioedtotransportcargonotonlyfromMondaythroughSaturdaybutalsoonSundaysandholidays. InGermany,the“Binnenschiffs-Arbeit49 -szeitverordnung”statesthatemployeesintheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsectorareallowedtoworkon31consecucvedays.Whilstworkersoninlandwaterwayvesselsmustnotworkaroundtheclock,thelawallowsfortheemployertoextendworkinghoursto14hoursperday. Thisalsomeans50

thatboatmenoninlandwaterwayvesselsaregoingtohavecmeoffwhilstbeingonboard.Theynotonlywork,butalsoliveonthewaterwaysforaprolongedperiodofcme,whichresults inthediffi-cultyofbeingcapabletofinda“work-life-balance”.Comparedtothetruckingbusinessitisaposicveeffectthatsanitaryfacilicesarealwaysavailableoninlandwaterwayvessels.

Ahealthylifestylecanbesustainedthroughobtainingmedicalcheck-upseveryonceinawhile.The“Binnenschiffs-Arbeitszeitverordnung”isdesignedtoenableboatmenoninlandwaterwayvesselstogetoccupaconalhealthcare,paidbytheirrespeccveemployers,onceayear. 51

Cf. VFR Verlag für Rechtsjournalismus GmbH (Aktueller Bußgeldkatalog), pp.38-39.44

Cf. B.Badura, A.Ducki, H.Schröder, J.Klose & M.Meyer (Fehlzeiten-Report, 2015), p.133.45

Cf. Ibit., p.134.46

Cf. Ibit., p.137.47 Cf. Docstop, https://www.docstop.eu/index.php?id=4248

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.49

Cf. Binnenschifffahrts-Arbeitszeitverordnung § 4, 2017.50

Cf. Ibit.51

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Thesecondpoint isthe13thgoal:“Takeurgentaccontocombatclimatechangeandits impacts”. 52

Nowadaysthebiggestissueintheworldisglobalwarming.Withoutanyrestricconsongreenhousegasemissions,thetemperaturewouldrisebymorethanthreedegreesintheyear2100,whichwouldhaveterribledimensions.Forthisreason,acommunityofstates foundedthe"ParisAgreement" in2015,whichstatestheprevenconofclimatechangebylimicngglobalwarmingtowellbelow2°Candpursuingeffortstolimititto1.5°C. Germanyisalsoapartofthe"ParisAgreement"andhencethey53

established the "Klimaschutzprogramm2030",which shouldpromote tomeet the requirementsoftheagreementsignedinParis.Themaingoalistoreducedangerousgreenhousegasemissionsby55%uncl2030.Becauseofthat,thegovernmentwantstoreduceCO2emissionsinimportantsectorslikeenergyeconomics, industry,buildings, transport, agriculture, forestry and soon. Especially thetruckisahugetargetduetoitsenvironmentaldamage.About3,200milliontonsofcargoaretrans-portedbytruckeveryyear,whoejectsabout103gramspertkmCO2emissions.Thisistencmesashighrespeccvelythreecmesashighastrainandinlandwaterwayvessel.Forthatreason,GermanydesignedaCO2 tax,whichneeds tobepaidbyeveryparty,whoproducesCO2emissions.The taxshouldriseto350%bytheyear2025andshouldprovideinducementsforclimateprotecconinpar-ccular in the economy and among consumers. Furthermore, the CO2 tax could liX the price for54

diesel,sothetruckingbusinessesandforwardersneedtofocusmoreonefficiencyandenvironment-alawareness. Specifically,alternacvetransportopconslikemodaltrafficorcombinedtrafficwould55

minimise the impacton freightprices.Mainly thesearrangements shouldprotect theenvironmentandmeettheguidelinesofthe17SustainableDevelopmentGoals.

Inlandwaterwayvesselsareoneof themosteco-friendlymodesof transport.This is thecase,be-causetheyareabletocarrygreatamountsofcargousinganenginebarelylargerthanthatofatruck.Infact,theclimateaspectisoneofthegreateststrongpointswhenpromocngtheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsector,soit isfairtosaythatothermodesoftransporthavetodomorethaninlandwaterwayvesselswithrespecttoemi{nggreenhousegases. 56

Inmanyaspectstheinlandwaterwaytransportaconbusinessisaverytradiconalmodeoftransport.SoitisnotsurprisingthattheaverageageofaninlandwaterwayvesselinGermanyliesat45.6years.Asstatedbefore,inlandwaterwayvesselsemitonlyfewgreenhousegasescomparedtothetruckingbusiness,thisdoesnotimplythatthereisnoroomforimprovementthough.OldvesselsoXenmeanolderengines.AlternacvedrivetrainsareavailablebutnotoXenusedasoftoday.TheGermangov-ernment is trying to improve this through its “Förderprogramm nachhalcge Modernisierung vonBinnenschiffen”,whichisaprogrampursuingthegoalofreducingpollutant-,noise-andgreenhousegasemissions. 57

Thelastaspect isthe9thgoal,whichisnamed“Buildresilient infrastructure,promoteinclusiveandsustainableindustrializaconandfosterinnovacon”. Thisgoalfocusonaresource-efficient,low-pol58 -lutantandclimate-friendlywayoflife,specificallyinsectorslikeindustry,infrastructure,andinnova-cons. It is important to develop and integrate this mindset, so projects of infrastructures can be

Cf. Division for Sustainable Development Goals Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Sustainable Development Goals), https://52

sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300

Bundesregierung (Weltweit Klimaschutz umsetzen), https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/nachhaltigkeitspolitik/weltweit-klimaschutz-umsetzen-18181253

Ibit.54 Cf. DVZ Online (Scheuer warnt vor Folgen einer möglichen CO2-Steuer), https://www.dvz.de/rubriken/politik/detail/news/scheuer-warnt-vor-folgen-einer-moeglichen-55

co2-steuer.html

Cf. Vortrag Arne Harms, 09.10.2019.56

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Masterplan Binnenschifffahrt), p. 13.57

Cf. Division for Sustainable Development Goals Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Sustainable Development Goals), https://58

sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300

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plannedaccordingtotherequirementsforsustainability.Also,innovaconsneedtofocusonthedailyrelevantquesconsoftopicslikesustainableeconomies,climateandresourceproteccon,energysys-temtransformacon,digitalisacon,etc. Regardingthetruck,nowadaystheseabove-namedquescon59

topicsareplayingamajorroleinprospeccveinnovaconsideasinGermany.MostoftheinnovaconsarebasedonasustainablemindsetandtheyfocusmainlyonalternacvemotorstoreduceCO2emis-sions.Forexample, lastyear inMaytheorganisacons“Volkswagen”and“Siemens”establishedtheresearch project “OL-Lkw”. It is based on hybrid trucks, which should be providedwith electricityfromanoverheadcontactline.Therefore,theychosetesttracksinthepublicroadtrafficlikeasec-conoftheA1,whichhavenowoverheadcontactlines.Theselinesshouldsupportthetruckunclitleavestheautobahnorstreetandthenthetruckconcnuestodrivewithanelectricmotorbasedonabaoery.WhethertheprojectcanreduceasignificantamountofCO2,isnowbeingexamineduncltheendof2020. Also,similarprojectslike"ENUBA"and"ENUBA2"areresearchinginthisfield.60

Also,moreandmoretruckproducerslikeforexample"Scania”trytodevelopnewengineswithdif-ferentfuelopconsinordertostaycompeccveintheupcomingtrend.Atthemomentformostofthetrucks,dieselisthemainfuel,butalternacvessuchasLNG,CNG,LPGorahydrogenfuelcellwillberesearched on efficiency and interoperability. For example, since the beginning of 2019 Scania issellingtrucks,whichareoperacngwithLNG.Thetrucksshouldhaveanoperacngdistanceof1000km for one filling. Especially for short or middle distances is the truck appropriate because thesteeple cab isnotdesigned for sleeping. Whether LNG is thebest alternacveornot,need tobe61

idencfiedinashortcme,sotheorganisaconscantransporttheircargoonenvironmentallyfriendlybases.At themomentonGermanstreetsarescllalmost3milliontrucks,whichareoperatedwithdiesel. In comparison truckswith alternacve engines or engine fuel (electro, liquefied gas, naturalgas,andhybrid)areca.46.000.That’sabout1.5%ofallthetrucksonGermanstreets. Especiallyin62

thesecconinnovaconsregardingtransportaconGermanyneedstofocusmoreonsustainability.Thecmeistooshort,tostartresearching,sothegovernmentandorganisaconsneedtopresentrealis-ableoutput,whichcanbeused inorder tomeettherequirementsof17SustainableDevelopmentGoals.

Europe’swaterwaysarefacingchallengesaswell.Whilstthe“roads”themselvesoXendonotneedalotofrepairingoranexpansion,theinfrastructureconneccngorsurroundingthemoXenistheprob-lem.Duetobeinginpoorcondicon,manyofthelocksinGermanyexperiencedowncmeonaregularbasis.ThisoXencausescongesconat these locacons,making inlandwaterwayvessels less reliablefortheirclientsandalsolosingtheshipownerscmeandmoney.Addingtothisisthefactthatbridgeheightsinmanylocaconsarerestriccnginlandwaterwayvesselstoonlybeingabletotransportcon-tainersinstacksof2or3atbest.Finally,portsarealsocalledupontoinvestintheirrespeccvesuper-structures.Whilstmany inlandwaterwayportsareableto loadordischargecargoofcertainkinds,mostportsareunabletohandleprojectcargo,whichoffersgreatpotencalforinlandwaterwayves-sels. Addingtothisisthecallingofinlandwaterwayvesselownersforportstoinstallpowerconnec63 -consashore.ThisisalsopromotedbytheGermangovernment. 64

Cf. Bundesregierung (Industrie, Innovation und Infrastruktur) https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/nachhaltigkeitspolitik/industrie-innovation-und-infra59 -

struktur-1552930

Cf. Volkswagen (OL-LKW auf öffentlicher Straße, 2018), Pressemitteilung Nr. 172/2018.60 Cf. DVZ (LNG-LKW als Klimaretter, 2019), p.6.61

Cf. Statista (Anzahl der Lastkraftwagen in Deutschland), https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/468860/umfrage/lkw-bestand-in-deutschland-nach-kraftstoffar62 -

ten/]

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.63

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Masterplan Binnenschifffahrt), p. 12.64

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Prolongedhot summershavealsobecomemoreof a challenge for inlandwaterwayvessels in therecentyears.OntheriverRhein,inlandwaterwayvesselswereforcedtotransportlessthanthemax-imumamountofcargoon132days in2018. If theclimateconcnuestochange, furtherdevelop65 -ments inthisdirecconaretobeexpected.Lastly,theGermangovernment isstrivingto implementthe“Bundesverkehrswegeplan2030”,whichaimstooffernewjobsatthe“Wasser-undSchifffahrts-verwaltung”fortheplanningandexecuconofprojects. 66

7. Comparisonofcargotypes

In the transport industry, thereare lotsofdifferentkindof cargoes.Goodscanbediscnguished inweight,natureanddimension.Themorespecificthecargo,themoredifficultitistotransport.Everypartofthesupplychainhastoknowhowtohandlethecargoandwhatistodo,ifsomethinggoeswrong.The loadsecuring isoneofthemost importantaspectforafricconlessdispatch.Especially,dangerousgoodsshouldbetransportedwiththemostsuitablemodeoftransportandwell-trainedcarrier.Thatkindofcargoescouldbeeithersolidcargo,refrigeratedcargoorliquidcargo.

Inthischapter,therewillbediscussedtwodifferentmodesoftransportaconsystemsandmostofthecommoncargoestransportedbythosetransportaconsystems.

7.1. TransportedcargoesofGermanriversandcanals

Thediagramgivesashortintroduccon,whichcargoesarethemostturntablesintheinlandwaterwaytransportacon.Notsurprisingly,bulkloadisthemostimportantcargofortheinlandwaterwaybusi-ness.Forinstance,machinesandautomocvescaninterpretedasspecialcargoes.Ontheonehand,heavy machines are project cargo, which are non-standardized cargoes. But on the other hand,automocvesneeda specialRoll-On/Roll-Offbarge toensurea fast andeasyhandling.Remarkably,most of the transported volumes of inlandwaterway cargoes decreased in the direct comparisonbetweentheyears2014to2018.

Figure12:CargoestransportedbyinlandwaterwayvesselinGermany 67

Cf. Süddeutsche Zeitung (Niedrigwasser am Rhein – Die Pegel fallen wieder), https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/niedrigwasser-am-rhein-die-pegel-fallen-wieder-1.4542529,65 Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Masterplan Binnenschifffahrt), p. 8.66

Destatis (Beförderungsmenge und Beförderungsleistung nach Verkehrsträgern), https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Branchen-Unternehmen/Transport-Verkehr/67

Gueterverkehr/Tabellen/gueterbefoerderung-lr.html;jsessionid=A92E9281311883AE17B1D46E88D732BF.internet722

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OnereasonforthiscouldbethecargoshiXfrominlandwaterwaystoroads.Asshowninthefigure,thecargovolume,forinstancemetaloresandotherminingandquarryingproductsfellsignificantlyfromapprox.55milliontonsin2014toapprox.52milliontonsin2018.Anotherexampleisthecargotypefoodproducts.Asshowninthefigure,thefoodproductsdecreasedsteadilyfromapproximately9milliontonsin2014toapproximately7milliontonsin2018.Ontheotherhand,foodproductsin-creasedsoXlyfromapprox.300milliontonsin2014toapprox.330milliontonsin2018.Inanutshell,theinlandnavigaconisnotatremendousplayerinthetransportsector.Nevertheless,inlandnaviga-conisabletomakethetransportsectormoresustainable.Furthermore,itisasolucontofacecur-rentenvironmentaspectsandotherissuesinthefuture.

7.2. Transportedcargoesonroadbynaconalvehicles

Thefollowingdiagramshowsthetransportedvolumes,whichhasbeencarriedbynaconalvehiclesin2014and2018.Surprisingly,metaloresandotherminingproductswerethemosttransportedcar-goes.Atthesecondplace,thereareothernon-metallicmineralproducts.Astonishingly,naconalroadvehiclestransportedatremendousvolumeofdifferentkindsofcargoes.

Figure13:CargoestransportedbytruckinGermany 68

Thediagramsshowdescripcvely that theroadtransportaconsystem ismorewidelyusedthantheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsystem.Itisevidentthattheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsystemhas itsmain role in carryingbulk cargoes. It is not surprisingbecause inlandwaterway vessels areabletotransportmorevolumethantrucks.Ontheotherhand,trucksaremoreflexiblethaninlandwaterwayvesselsbecausetheroadinfrastructureisextensivelyinterconnected.

Currentlythetruckisatremendousplayerinthetransportsector.Asshowninthefigure,truckscar-riedhugeamountofdifferenttypesofcargoes.Onechallengeforthefuturewouldbetheconneccon

Destatis (Beförderungsmenge und Beförderungsleistung nach Verkehrsträgern), https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Branchen-Unternehmen/Transport-Verkehr/68

Gueterverkehr/Tabellen/gueterbefoerderung-lr.html;jsessionid=A92E9281311883AE17B1D46E88D732BF.internet722

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betweendifferentmodesoftransportaconsystemstoachievethebestandsustainablesoluconforatransport.

7.3. Typicaltypesofcargoesintheinlandwaterwayandinlandtruckway

In this chapter, therewill be discuss the typical cargoes,which are transported by barge or truck.Bothmodesoftransportsareabletocarrydifferenttypesofcargoes.Nevertheless,theefficiencyofthetransportdependsonthetransportsystem.

Table2:Ownillustraconofcargoandtransportaconmode

7.3.1. Bulkinsolidform

First,thereisthebulksector.Asshowninthetable,bulkscanbedifferencatedinbulkinsolidformandbulkinliquidform.“TheKansasStateBulkSolidsInnovaconCenter”describesthisassubstancesin looseanddrycondiconssuchassugar,starch,minerals,chemicals,pigments,fillers,plasccresinandrecycledplasccs. Thetransportaconofsolid inbulkformcaninterpretedasaneasyhandling69

becauseitisjustonecargoinonestorage.Nowadays,therearemachines,whichareabletohandlethosecargoesefficiently.Nevertheless,theshipmentofbulksinsolidformcancausestructuraldam-ageonmodesoftransportduetounsuitablecargohandling. 70

7.3.2. Bulkinliquidform

Bulksinliquidformarenotinastablemanner.Thosecargoesshouldalwaysbetransportedintanksorpipelines.Manyliquefiedcargoesaredangerousgoods.Thatmeans,thosecargoesareharmfulfortheenvironmentandhumanbeings.Ontheotherhand,bulksinliquidformcanbealsofoodinliquidform,forinstance,juicesorwater.

7.3.3. ProjectcargoandHeavyLiXitems

Thosecargoesareusuallyoftremendousvalueandheavyweight.ThedimensionsofthosecargoesarenotstandardisedandtheloadingandunloadingprocessoXenneedsalotofplanning.Theplan-ningisoneofthemostcrucialpointsintheheavyliXsector.Therearelotsofdifferentinformacontotakeintoaccount.Forinstance,theCentreofgravityshouldalwaysbeknowntomakesurehowtoliXtheitem.Furthermore,thosecargoesneedalotofholdcapacityduetotheirenormousdimensions.Thereisagreatamountoflashingmaterialsinordertoensurethatthosespecificcargoesaresuffi-cientlysecuredduringthetransportaconprocess. 71

Cf. Kansas State University (Bulk Solids Innovation Center), https://bulk-solids.k-state.edu/bulk_solids.html69

Cf. International Maritime Organization (Cargoes in Bulk), http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Safety/Cargoes/CargoesInBulk/Pages/default.aspx70

Cf. Cargo stowage and securing (A Guide to good practice Second Edition Charles Bliault and North of England P&I Association) p. 56.71

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There are several aspects, which make the carriage of heavy liX items to a difficult process. Thetransportaconofheavy liX itemsneedsawell-developed infrastructure.Furthermore,theapprovalcmesofheavyliXtransportacononroadsarenotpracccablefortheshippers. 72

7.3.4. Containerizedcargo

Theepochofthecontainerturnedthetransportaconofcargoesintoahighlyefficientbusiness.Mostcargoesshippedaroundtheworldcanbetransported inacontainer. Inanutshell,acontainer isasteelboxofstandardizeddimensionsandhandlingprocesses.Thosesteelboxesmakethetransportofvariousarcclesmucheasierandcheaperbecausetheloadingandunloadingprocessisalwaysthesame.So,thereisnoneedforextraplanningorcalculacontopickupthesteelboxes.

Table3:Ownrepresentaconofcommontypesofcontainers 73

7.3.5. Containercomparisonbetweena44tonstruckandan“Europaschiff”

Thecomparisonaffectsonetruckof44tonsloadcapacityandan“Europaschiff”withaloadcapacityof1.400tons.Thepicturesillustrateanexample,howmany20’Containerscanbetransportonone44 tons truck and one “Europaschiff”. The cargo area dimensions of the “Europaschiff” is 60m x7.50m. Thetotaldimensionofastandard20’Containeraregiven inthefigure.Thiscalculacon is74

purelytheoreccalandshouldgiveanideaoftheloadcapacityofan“Europaschiff”.

Figure14:Ownillustraconofshipandtruckdimensions

7.3.6. Importcontainerhandling

Theillustraconbelowshowsatypicalprocessof importcontainerhandlingatacontainerterminal.Seashipswillbeunloadedbyoneorseveralgantrycranes.Thenumberofgantrycranesdependsontheshipdimensions.AXerwards,containerswillgotoacontainerstorage.Furthermore,containerswillbetransportedoutofthecontainerstoragetoaRubbertyredgantrycrane,whichwillloadcon-tainerstoatrainoratruck.Finally,containerswillbecarriedtothehinterlandbytrainortruck.

Cf. DVZ Online (Bundeskabinett beschließt neue Gebührensätze für LKW Maut), https://www.dvz.de/rubriken/logistik/schwergut/detail/news/schwergut-lage-stabil-72

probleme-bleiben.html

ContainerContainer (Shipping Container Dimensions), https://www.containercontainer.com/shipping-container-dimensions73

Cf. FH Osnabrück (Binnenschifffahrt auf dem Dortmund-Ems-Kanal), http://www.wsa-meppen.de/amtsbereich/dek/images/Binsch-DEK.PDF74

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Figure15:Ownrepresentacon-containerhandling 75

7.4. Automocves

“Ro-rocargoitemsincludeallthevarioustypesofcommercialvehiclesforroadtransport,rolltrailersandotherpiecesthataredrivenaboardtheship”. 76

Automocvesoralsoknownasvehicles/Ro-rocargoesarespecialcargoes,whichneedaspecialmodeoftransportaconsystem.Moreover,thosecargoesneedadifferentloadsecuringthanotherkindofcargoesduetothefactthatvehicleshavecres.Thatistosay,thosecargoesareabletorollawaydur-ingthetransportaconprocess.

It iscrucialthatallRo-rocargoeshavetobecheckedbeforetheywillbedispatched.Thosecargoesare already sold and ready to use. Following requirements for the transportacon of automocvesshouldbetakenintoaccount:

• Cargoeshavetobesafelystowedandsecured.

• Lashingshavetobeaoachedatproperlocacons.

• CargoesshouldalwaysbeundersurveillancetoavoidtheX.

8. Costs

8.1. Infrastructuralcostsforinlandwaterwaytransportacon

InNovember2018theGermangovernmentdecidedtoeliminatethefeesfortheGermaninlandwa-terwaysystem.Thisacconissupposedtostrengthentheinlandwaterwaytransport.Duetothecan-cellacon of the fee inland waterway transportacon providers and their clients will save about

Cf. Brinkmann, Birgitt (Seehäfen), p. 246.75

Cf. Cargo stowage and securing (A Guide to good practice Second Edition Charles Bliault and North of England P&I Association), p. 65.76

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45.000.000€peryear. OnlytheriverMoselandtheKiel-Canalarenotincluded. Thefeefortravel77 78 -ingontheriverMoselbetweenKoblenzandThionvilledependsonthecargocarried.Thetermsofpaymentaresplitintodifferentcargocategories.Thechargeappliespertonsofcargoperkilometreorpercontainer.Thepricesvarybetween0.27€-centpertkmand0.644€-centpertkm. Foracon79 -tainerupto20‘afeeof0.25€andforacontainerwithalengthofmorethan20‘afeeof0.05€arechargedperkilometre. Furthermore,afeeforpassingthe locks isapplicable.An inlandwaterway80

vesselwithmorethan600m³willbechargedwith6.00€perlock. Thecalculaconforcostsapplic81 -ablewhenpassingtheKiel-Canalisbasedoninlandwaterwayvessel’sloadcapacity.Thecostlevelisratedonhalftheinlandwaterwayvessel’sgrosstonnage, e.g.aninlandwaterwayvesselwithaload82

capacityof2,100tonsanavigacontax349€ willbechargedaswellas783€forcanaltaxes. 83 84

8.2. Infrastructuralcostsfortrucktransportacon

WhenusingGermanmotorwaysandhighwaysforthetransportaconofgoodswithavehiclewithaweightofmorethan7.5tonstollsmustbepaid.TheexcepconistheA6betweentheGerman-FrenchboarderandSaarbrücken-Fechingen,aswellastheA5betweentheGerman-SwissboarderandtheGerman-Frenchboarder. Thatmeansthatforalmosttheencreroadnetworkofabout51,000km 85 86

issubjecttotollfees.Thetoll includescostsfortheinfrastructure,thatmeansfortheactualuseofthehighwayormotorway,aswellascostsforairandnoisepollucon. Theexactamountofapplic87 -able toll feesdependson thenumberofaxles, theweightof thevehicle, theemissionclassandablanketamountfornoisepollucon. FortransporcngacontainerviaGermanhighwaysandmotor88 -waysusingaHGVwiththeemissionclassEuro6atollfeeof18.7€-centperkmincurs.Thisincludesanamountof1.1€-centfortheexternalcostsofairpollucon,0.2€-centperkmfortheexternalcostsofnoisepollucon.Themainshareofthetollfeearethecostsforinfrastructurewith17.4€-centperkm. 89

8.3. TerminalFees

ThereisadifferenceinfeeswhenacontainerisdeliveredorpickedupbyaninlandwaterwayvesseloranHGV.Ifacontainerisdeliveredorpickedupbytruckonlyahandlingfeeischarged,butifacon-tainerisdeliveredbyaninlandwaterwayvesselitmustbeconsidered,thattonnageduesandquaydueswillbecharged.Deliveringacontaineratthe“NTBTerminal”inBremerhavenbyinlandwater-wayvesselmeansfeesof279€inaddicontotonnageduesof0,50€pergrosstonnageoftheinlandwaterwayvesselforthefirst24hours,aXerthatahigheramountoftonnagedueswillbechargedforeach12hoursandquayduesof4.75€per1.000kgofdischargedor loadedcargo. Incomparison,deliveringacontainerbytruckisonly119€. 90

Cf. Schiffahrts-Verlag »Hansa« GmbH & Co. KG (Schifffahrtsabgaben werden gestrichen), https://binnenschifffahrt-online.de/2018/11/featured/5216/schifffahrtsabga77 -

ben-werden-abgeschafft-3/

Cf. Wasserstraßen- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes (Tarif für die Schifffahrtsabgaben auf der Mosel zwischen Thionville und Koblenz), p. 1.78 Cf. Wasserstraßen- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes (Tarif für die Schifffahrtsabgaben auf der Mosel zwischen Thionville und Koblenz), pp. 5-7.79

Cf. Ibit., p. 8.80

Cf. Ibit., p. 9.81

Cf. NOKBefAbgV, §5.82 Cf. NOKBefAbgV, Anhang zu Anlage §1.83

Cf. Kanalsteuertarifverordnung (Verordnung über die Entgelte der Kanalsteurer auf dem Nord-Ostsee-Kanal), p. 3.84

Cf. BFStrM, (2011), §1.85

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Infrastruktur 2019), https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Artikel/G/infrastruktur-statistik.html86 Cf. BFStrMG, (2011), §3.87

Cf. Toll Collect GmbH (Mautsätze ab 01. Januar 2019).88

Cf. Ibit.89

Cf. North Sea Terminal Bremerhaven GmbH & Co. (Reference Tarif), p. 1.90

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8.4. Coststooperateavehicle

8.4.1. Transportbytruck

Therearevariouskindsoftrucksandtrailers,sothecostsvaryalot.Itisnotpossibletocalculateoneamountthatisapplicableforanykindoftruck.Ofcourse,therearehigherexpensesforarefrigeratedtrailer,duetohigherpurchasecosts,higherfeesfor insuranceanddieselconsumpcon. Inthiscasecostsforatractorsemitrailerwithchassisforcontainertransportisusedasthebasisofcalculacon.Itisassumed,thatitisabout100.000€tobuyatractorsemitrailerandabout20.000€tobuyachassis.For different kinds of insurances like carrier’s liability, liability and hull insurances for tractorsemitrailerandchassiscostsofabout4.200€peryearincur. Anotherimportantfactorfortherun91 -ningcostsofatruckis itsdriverssalary. InGermanyadriverearnsabout2.400€ plusfurtherex92 -pensesof28€perday .This leadstocostsofabout3.600€ forpersonnelbecausetheemployer93

mustpayforsocialinsurancesforeachemployeeinrelacontotheirsalary.In2018theaveragecostsforDieselwere1.289€perlitre ,thatleadstoafuelconsumpconpriceofabout0,425€perkilo94 -metre,assumingatruckneeds33litreper100km. Oneofthehighestconsumablepartsofatract95 -orunitandatraileraretheirtyres.Runningperformancevaryalot,dependingondriversdrivingbe-haviourandposiconofthetyreonHGVsorchassis,e.g.atyreonadriveshaXwillnotlastaslongastyresonotheraxles.So,therunningperformancemightbebetween80.000and350.000km,soanaveragevalueof200.000kmisbased.Furthermore,anaveragepriceof425€pertyreisassumed. 96

AssuminganHGVrunsabout560kmaday,duetodriversworkingdaysof20daysamonth,anaver-age speed of 70 km/h, a lifecme of 1.000.000 km for the semitrailer tractor and 8 years for thetrailer, goingbyHGVmeanscostsofabout0.80€perkilometre.97

Duetolackofreliablefiguresformaintenance,repairandotherunforeseeablecostsescmated10%areaddedontop,sofinalcostsforonekilometrebyHGVare0.88€butkeepinginmindthatfurthercostsdependingontherouteliketollfeesmustbeadded.

8.4.2. Transportbyinlandwaterwayvessel

Whencalculacngcostsforatransportbyinlandwaterwayvesselusuallyadailyrateisbasedforthecalculacon.This rate includes thepurchasevalue,depreciaconandamorcsacon, staff, interest, in-surance,maintenanceandrepairandadministraconcosts.ForaninlandwaterwayvesselofthesizeofaEuropaschiffwithagrosstonnageof1.665tonsacommondailyrateisabout1.400€.Themaincomponentsofthedailyratearethecostsforpersonnelof38%anddepreciaconof32%.Itdependsontheroucnghowmuchcargocanbeloaded.Ifadraughtof2.50mispossible1.269tonscanbeloaded,whereasadraughtof2.80m leadstoapayloadof1.500tons.Themorecargo loadedthemorecme is needed for loading anddischarge,what affects the travel cme for this journey. Con-sumpconperhourisabout80litres,afuelpriceof0.55€isbased.About10%ofthecostsforfuel

Cf. Interview Schlosser.91

Cf. Gehalt.de GmbH (Was verdient eigentlich ein …?, LKW-Fahrerin), https://www.gehalt.de/beruf/lkw-fahrer-lkw-fahrerin92

Cf Springer Fachmedien München GmbH (Höhere Spesen), https://www.verkehrsrundschau.de/nachrichten/hoehere-spesen-fuer-lkw-fahrer-geplant-2447696.html93 Cf. Statista (Durchschnittlicher Preis für Dieselkraftstoff), https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/779/umfrage/durchschnittspreis-fuer-dieselkraftstoff-seit-dem-94

jahr-1950/

Cf. Schmidt, Boris, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH (LKW verbrauchen relativ wenig Diesel), https://www.faz.net/aktuell/technik-motor/motor/effizienz-lkws-95

verbrauchen-relativ-wenig-diesel-14559014.html

Cf. Interview Benditte, Technical Expert, 02.11.2019.96

Cf. Interview Schneehagen, Automotiv Expert, 15.10.2019.97

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mustbeaddedascostsforlubricants. Whencalculacngthecostsforacertainvoyagetheoperat98 -ingtypemustbeconcerned.Ininlandwaterwaytransportitispossibletooperateavesseleither14hoursin24hours,thisiscalledoperacngformA1,or18hoursin24hours,thisisformA2,orformBwhichmeansanoperaconof24hours. Itdependsontheoperacngformhowmuchtravelcmeis99neededfromtheplaceofloadingtotheplaceofdischarge.

8.5. Externalcostscausedbydifferentmodesoftransport

External costs are costs incurring by someone’s accvices but affeccng someone else and are notcoveredbytheproducer.Asanexample,inthetransportsectorthereisacar,whichexhaustsfumes,that not the driver but someone else inhales and affects his health, what leads tomedical costs.Theseareexternalcostsofdrivingacar. 100

“TheHandbookontheexternalcostsoftransport”publishedbytheEuropeanCommissiontakesintoaccount costs for accidents, air pollucon, climate change, noise, congescon, costs of well-to-tankemissions,ofhabitatdamageandotherexternalcosts likesoilandwaterpollucon,up-anddown-stream emissions of vehicles and infrastructure aswell as external costs in sensicve areas. The101

handbookshowsfiguresastotalcostsintheEuropeanUnionin2016permodeoftransport,butalsosplitsthesecostsintonne-kilometre(tkm)aswellasvehicle-kilometre(vkm).Itshouldbeconsideredthatonemodeoftransportmightproduceamuchhigheramountofcostspervehicle-kilometrethanother modes of transport but due to high differences in capacity the high amount of costs pervehicle-kilometremightendupinlowcostspertonne-kilometre.Therefore,onlycostsperton-kilo-metrewillbefocussedoninthefollowing,whatmakesitmorecomparable.

8.5.1. TheexternalcostsofHGVandInlandWaterwayvesselincomparison

Figure16:OverviewofexternalcostsofHGVandInlandwaterwayvessel 102

OverviewofexternalcostsofHGVandInlandwaterwayvessel(€-cent/tkm)

0

1,25

2,5

3,75

5

HGV IWT

Accidents AirPollucon ClimateChange NoiseCongescon Well-to-Tank Habitatdamage

Cf.InterviewArneHarms,25.11.2019.98

Cf.RheinSchPersV§3.101.99

Cf.EuropeanCommission,(Externalcosts,2019),p.24.100

Cf.Ibit,pp.5-6.101

OwnpresentaconbasedonEuropeanCommission,(Externalcosts,2019).102

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ThechartgivesanoverviewofthetotalamountofexternalcostsofHGVandInlandwaterwayvessel.Itillustratesthedifferentcomponentsoftheexternalcostspermodeoftransport.

8.5.1.1. Externalcostsofaccidents

Theexternalcosts foraccidents includedifferentcomponents likehumancosts, thesearecosts forpainandsufferingasaresultofanaccident,medicalcosts,whicharethecostsofthemedicaltreat-ment,administracvecosts,likecostsforthepolice,producconlosses,becausepeopleinvolvedinanaccident oXen cannot return towork immediately, andmaterial damage. HeavyGoodsVehicles103

(HGV)cause1.3€-centper tkm. Incomparison, inlandwaterwayvessels causeonly0.1€-centpertkm. 104

8.5.1.2. Externalcostsofclimatechange

Some Emissions like N2O and CH4but especially CO2 lead to global warming and climate change.Whencalculacngtheexternalcostsforclimatechange,thesearetheemissionsfocussedon.AnHGVcausescostsof0.53€-centpertkmandinlandwaterwayvesselresultsin0.27€-centpertkm. Re105 -garding external costs for climate change the inlandwater vessel performs economically friendlierthantheHGV.

“TheCentralCommissionfortheNavigaconoftheRhine”publishedfiguresfortheemissionofCO2,parcculatemaoers and NOx in their annual report 2017. AWell-to-Wheel base was chosen, thatmeansallgeneratedpollutantsfromthefuelextraccon,fuelproducconuptoemissionscausedbycombusconare considered. EmissionbetweenHGVand inlandwaterway vessels are compared.106

ForroadtransportaconanHGVloadedwith7.5tonsandanHGVwitharcculatedlorryloadedwith29.9tonswerechosen.Fivedifferentinlandwaterwayvesselsarepresented,a„Kempenaar“loadedwith 616 tons, a Rhein-Herne-Kanal-Schiffwith a capacity of 1.537 tons, a großesRheinschiffwith3.031tons,agekoppelterSchubverbandwith5.046tonsanda4-Leichter-Schubverbandwith11.181tons 107

Cf. European Commission, (External costs, 2019), p. 3.103 Cf. Ibit., p. 38.104

Cf. Ibit., p. 66.105

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017) p.126.106

Cf. Ibit., pp. 128-129.107

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Figure17:Representacveemissionfactorsforcarbondioxide(CO2)bulkcargo(g/tkm) 108

ThechartillustratestheemissionofCO2ingpertkm.Itisclearlytosee,thatanHGVloadedwith7.5tonsofbulkcargoisproducingaveryhighamountofCO2pertkm.AnHGVwithanarcculatedlorrytransporcngahighamountofcargoisemi{ngonlyathirdofCO2,whatisabout82gpertkm.Dif-ferentsizesofinlandwaterwayvesselsareshowninthechart.Allofthemareemi{ngmuchlessCO2thananHGVwitharcculatedlorry.AKempenaarandaRhein-Herne-Kanal-SchiffproduceabouthalftheamountofCO2aheavyHGVdoespertkmandagroßesRheinschiff,aKoppelverbandanda4-erSchubverbandemitthemostmoderateamountwithonly20-22gpertkm.

ComparingthesefigureswiththeexternalcostsforclimatechangepublishedbytheEuropeanCom-missionintheHandbookontheexternalcostsoftransportofanHGVandanInlandWaterwayvesselasimilarityisrecognizable.Thereareabout0.53€-centpertkmforanHGVand0.27€-centpertkmforanInlandWaterwayvessel,soabout50%lesscosts.ComparingtheemioedamountofCO2perInlandwaterwayvesselitisalso50%orevenless.TheexternalcostsarenotonlycalculatedonCO2butalsoonothergreenhousegasesandspecific factors whatmightbe thereason fornotbeing109

totallyconcurrent.

8.5.1.3. Externalcostsofairpollucon

Thereareotheremissions,whicharenotconnectedtoclimatechangebutdoaffecttheairquality.Whenrunninganenginedifferentkindsofairpollutantslikenitrogenoxides(NOx),Sulphurdioxides(SO2) andparcculatemaoers areproduced,what leads todifferent impactson thehumanhealth,crops, to damage on buildings and other problems of the ecosystem like the loss of biodiversity.Theseaspectsareconsideredwhencalculacngtheexternalcostsofairpolluconcausedbytraffic. 110

AnHGVproduces costsof about0.76€-centper tkm.Whereas inlandwaterway vessels causeex-ternal costs for airpolluconof1.29€-centper tkm. Soobviously inlandwater vesselsdoproducequiteahighamountofairpollutantsincomparisontoHGV.

Representacveemissionfactorsforcarbondioxide(CO2)bulkcargo(g/tkm)

0

75

150

225

300

HGV10-20t Kempenaar GroßesRheinschiff 4-erSchubverband

CO2

Cf, Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017), p.130.108

Cf. European Commission, (External costs, 2019), p. 64109

Cf. Ibit., p. 44.110

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TheCentral Commission for theNavigaconof theRhinepublishedfigures for the emissionNOx intheirannualreport2017.

Figure18:Representacveemissionfactorsfornitrogenoxides(NOx),bulkcargo(g/tkm) 111

ThechartillustratestheemissionofNOxofdifferentkindofvehicles.AlightHGVcausesabout1.8gpertkmwhereasanHGVwithahigheramountofcargoloadedonlyemits0.3gpertkm.Thediffer-entkindsof inlandwaterwayvesselsproducebetween0.17gpertkmand0.52gpertkm.AKem-penaarandaRhein-Herne-KanalSchiffareproducingmoreNOxthananHGVbutlargerinlandwatervesselsareemi{ngupto50%lessthananHGV.Obviously,theamountofNOxpertkmdependsaloton the inlandwaterwayvessels’ sizeandcarriedamountof cargo.Thesefigures show that thegenerated amount ofNOx of inlandwaterway vessels are relacvely high andmust beworked on.TherearedifferentmeasureswhichcanbetakentoreducetheemissionofNOx. Thesemeasures112aremainlyquiteexpensive anddifficult to implement in thebusiness. Probably themost effeccveandreasonablemeasuresarethereducconofspeed,on-boardinformaconsystemsandbeoervoy-ageplanning. 113

8.5.1.4. Externalcostsofnoise

Duetourbanisaconandincreasingtrafficvolumesexternalcostsofnoisearege{ngmoreandmoresignificant.Thenumberofpeoplelivingincicesisgrowingconcnuously.Thesepeoplearetheoneswhosufferthemostfromthenoisecausedbytraffic. Noisearealldifferentkindsofsoundsthat114

arenotwantedandcausehealthproblems.“TheHandbookonexternalcostsof transport” isonlyfocussingonthecostsfornoisemadebyroad,railandaviacon.Inlandwaterwayvesselsareverysi-lentincomparisontotheothermodesoftransportandinlandwaterwaytransportaconismainlytak-ingplaceinsparselypopulatedareas,whichmakestheexternalcostsnegligible. Theexternalcosts115

ofnoisesforHGVaredependingonitsweight.A lighterHGVwithupto7.5tonscauses1.2€-cent

Representacveemissionfactorsfornitrogenoxides(NOx),bulkcargo(g/tkm)

0

0,45

0,9

1,35

1,8

HGV10-20t Kempenaar GroßesRheinschiff 4-erSchubverband

NOx

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017), p. 131.111 Cf. Ibid., p. 132.112

Cf. Ibid., p. 135.113

Cf. Ibid., p. 76.114

Cf. Ibid., p. 76.115

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per tkm,whereasaheavyHGVwithmore than32 tonsonly causes0.4€-centper tkm. For the116

graphanaveragevalueof0.5€-centistakenasbasis.

8.5.1.5. Externalcostsofcongescon

Theexpressioncongesconmustbedefinedindifferentwaystomakeitsuitablefordifferentkindsoftransports.Inroadtransportaconcongesconmeansthatavehicleslowsdownwhatleadstoadelayoffollowingvehicles. Forothermodesoftransport,itmustbeconcerned,thatschedulesareactu117 -ally prevencng them from congescon, but itmight happen, that problemswith one servicemightcauseadelayofotherservices,sothatcongesconcostsincur.Congesconscostsarethecostsforthedelayanddeadweightloss. HGVsgeneratedelaycostsof0.25€-centinurbantrafficand3€-centin118

inter-urbantraffic.Deadweight losscostsareso low in inter-urbantraffic,that it isonlypossibletostatethenumberforvkm.Theseare0.5€-centpervkmbutinurbantrafficthereare0.4€-centpertkm. “TheHandbookonexternalcostsfortransport”quotesChriscdisandBronsregardingconges119 -concostsforinlandwaterwaysystem.Theysay,it“canbeassumedtobenegligibleforEUMemberStates”. 120

8.5.1.6. Externalcostsofwell-to-tankemissions

“TheHandbookonexternalcostsoftransports”doesnotonlyfocusonexternalcostswhichareonlyrelatedtothetransportprocess.Italsoconsiderscostsofso-calledwell-to-tankemissions.Theseareemissions,likegreenhousegasesandairpollutantsthatareemioedduringtheproducconofenergywhichisneededtooperateavehicle. AHGVcreatesabout0.2€-centpertkmofwell-to-tankcosts121

whereasaninlandwatervesselonlybearscostsof0.13€-centpertkm. 122

8.5.1.7. Costsofhabitatdamage

Transportalsoeffectsthenatureandlandscape.Theconstrucconofinfrastructureleadstothelossand fragmentacon of habitat, the emissions emioed deteriorate the habitat. The calculated ex123 -ternalcostsforhabitatdamagearebasedonthenetworklengthofeachmodeoftransport. The124

costsof0.19€-centofanHGVpertkmareverysimilartothecostscausedbyaninlandvessel.Theseare0.2€-centpertkm. 125

8.5.1.8. Otherexternalcosts

“TheHandbookonexternalcostsoftransport”alsoconsidersotherexternalcostslikecostsofwaterandsoilpollucon ,costsofup-unddownstreamemissionsofvehiclesforinfrastructure,whichare126

notcoveredundercostsforwell-to-tankemissioncosts ,costsinsensicveareas(e.g.mountainous127

Cf. Sekretariat der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt (EUROPÄISCHE BINNENSCHIFFFAHRT MARKTBEOBACHTUNG 2017), p. 81.116

Cf. European Commission, (External costs, 2019), p. 87.117

Cf. Ibid., p. 88.118

Cf. Ibid., p. 96.119 Cf. Ibid., p. 104.120

Cf. Ibid., p. 105.121

Cf. Ibid., p. 108.122

Cf. Ibid., p. 117.123 Cf. Ibid., p. 118.124

Cf. Ibid., p. 121.125

Cf. Ibid., p. 122.126

Cf. European Commission (External costs), p. 123.127

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regions) andfurtherexternalicesof transport.Forall theseaspectsnoconcretenumbers forex128 -ternalcostsaregiven.

8.6. Comparisonofcostsfordifferentrelacons

Intheseexamplesthetransportcostsofa20’container(TEU)byHGVandinlandwaterwayvesselwillbecompared.Sincethecostsofaninlandwaterwayvesselofclass“Europaschiff”areavailable,thesecostsare takenasbasis.A“Europaschiff”cancarryabout87TEUbutdue to theheightofbridgesonlytwolayersofcontainerscanbecarriedwhichleadstoacarryingcapacityof56TEU. However,129

itcanbeassumed,thatinareaswhereaninlandwaterwayvesselcancarry3layersofcontainersoralargerinlandwaterwayvesselcanbeused,costsperTEUwouldbeevenlowerduetoeconomiesofscale.

Inthefollowing,fourdifferentrelaconsarepresented,whereitiscommonpracccetotransportcon-tainersbyinlandwaterwayvesselduetoappropriateshippersandinfrastructuralcondicons.Forthecalculaconitisassumedthat20‘containerswithaweightof12.5tonsarecarried.Distances,travellingcmesaswellascmesforloadinganddischargingareprovidedbyinlandwaterwayskipperArneHarms.

Cf. European Commission (External costs), p. 123.128

Cf. Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. (GDV) (Perspektiven des Containertransports per Binnenschiff im Seehafenhinterlandverkehr) http://129

www.tis-gdv.de/tis/tagungen/workshop/cs/kohlmann/kohlmann.htm

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8.6.1. Fallersleben-Hamburg

Table4:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsFallersleben-Hamburg 130

8.6.2. Braunschweig-Hamburg

Table5:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsBraunschweig-Hamburg 131

8.6.3. Minden-Bremerhaven

Table6:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsMinden-Bremerhaven 132

HGV: Europaschiff:

HGV: Europaschiff:

HGV: Europaschiff:

Cf. Interview Arne Harms, 25.11.2019.130

Cf. Ibit.131

Cf. Ibit.132

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8.6.4. Hannover-Bremerhaven

Table7:ComparisonofcostsforrelaconsHannover-Bremerhaven 133

Figure19:transportcostsofHGVandinlandwaterwayincomparison

The chart summarises the above-menconedfigures. It illustrates thedifferences in transport costsbetweenHGVandinlandwaterwayvesselsforthetransportrelaconsFallersleben-Hamburg,Braun-schweig – Hamburg,Minden-Bremerhaven and Hannover- Bremerhaven. Asmenconed above thedistancesvarybetween170and190kmbyroadand160and260byinlandwaterway.Eventhoughthedistancecoveredbyinlandwaterwayvesselismainlyfurther,theinlandwaterwayvesselismuchcheaper.Itisclearlytosee,thatthetransportcostsintotalareforeachrelaconbyinlandwaterwayvesselmorethan30%lessexpensivethanatransportbyHGV.

Theexternalcostsareincludedinthesenumbers,becausethesecostsarenotpaidbytheoneswhoactuallyfulfilthetransport,buttheydoincureventhoughsomeoneelseispayingforthem.

HGV: Europaschiff:

transportcostsofHGVandinlandwaterwayincomparison

0

53

105

158

210

Fallersleben-Hamburg Minden-Bremerhaven

HGV Europaschiff

Cf. Interview Arne Harms, 25.11.2019.133

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9. SWOTAnalysis

9.1. Trucktraffic

ThemodalsplitinGermanydescribestheallocaconofthevolumeoftransportedgoodsonthedif-ferentmodesof transportacon.When looking at thenumbers, the truckplays amajor role in themodalsplit. In2018around3.200milliontonsofgoodsweretransportedandwithatransportser-viceof300bntkm thetruckimpliesashareof74.2%inthemodalsplit. Thispartofthepaper134 135

will try to bring light to the strengths andweaknesses of trucks whilstmeasuring themenconedpointsonpossiblybeingvaluableopportunicesandthreatstothemarketofthetruckingbusiness.Thefirststepisgoingtofocusonthetrends,branches,clientsandcompectorsinthetransportmar-ket.Secondly,thispartofthepaperisgoingtohighlightthestrengthsandweaknessesofthetruckandisthirdlygoingtoderiveopportunicesandthreatsforthismodeoftransport.ThelaststepoftheSWOT-Analysisisgoingtodesignaccons,whichneedtobetakeninordertoavoiddangerousrisksortodiscernopportunices.

Nowadaysthemaintrendinthetransportbranchiscalledsustainability,whichisquiteversacle,asitregardsvariousaspectsfromecologicalandeconomicalaswellassocialstandpoints. Especiallythe136

topicsenvironmentandCO2emissionsareimportantaspects,ifthetrendsustainabilityisfaced.Thegovernment forces different parces to handle their businesses “greener”, more environmentallyfriendly,moresustainable.Inparccularorganisaconsinthetruckingbusinessareahugetarget,be-cause of the great share of truck transport in themodal split. Therefore, many organisacons arestudying for opportunices toorganisebeoer andmore green transports,which aremore environ-mentallyfriendlythroughforexampledifferentkindsofpowersystemslikeelectricpowerorLNG.

ThetransportaconbranchinGermanyisfacingvariouschallengesalreadyandalsointhenextyears.Currently,theshortageofskilledemployeesisquiteaproblem,whichisgoingtobecomeevenworse,if nothing is changing. Inparccular, the lackof truckdrivers is nowadays a challenge,because thenumber of procreacons is distressing low. But also price suppression on themarketmisgives thetransportbusinessesforthefollowingyearsinordertokeepupwiththecompeccon.

Everybusinessneedstomakeaprofitandthereforeitneedsclients,whichusetheproductsorser-vices.Inthetruckingbusiness,enoughclientsareaccveonthemarket,becausewithouttransportnoprogressintheeconomywouldhappen.Buttheproblemis,thatthecompecconisquitestrongandcght,sotheorganisaconneedstospecialiseitself.Clients,whichpreferthetruckasatransportaconmode,haveoXensmallamountsofgoodsand/orprice/cme-sensicvecargo.OXentheclientsprefernostoragestrategiesandthereforetheychoosefastandflexibletransportopportunicesliketrucking.

Whenlookingatthecompectors, it isobvious,thatdifferentmodesoftransportaconliketrain, in-landwaterwayvesselor theplaincouldbecompectors.Butwith themodalsplit inmind,noneofthemisaseriouscompectorfortrucking.

Cf.BundesamtfürGüterverkehr(MarktbeobachtungGüterverkehr,2018),p.10.134

Cf.Ibit.,p.13.135

Cf.GablerWirtschaXslexikon(Nachhalcgkeit),hops://wirtschaXslexikon.gabler.de/definicon/nachhalcgkeit-41203136

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9.1.1. Strengths

InGermany,thestreetnetworkconsistsofca.650.000kilometres onabout357.376squarekilo137 -metres. ComparedtoindustrialstrongcountrieslikeUSA(0.67km/km²),China(0.43km/km²)and138

France (1.6km/km²)Germanyhasoneof thebest roadsystemconcentracons in theworldwithacomparacvevalueof1.82km/km².JustacountrylikeJapanwithavalueof3.23km/km²possessesabeoerstreetsystem.Therefore,thetransportacononthestreetwithatruckhasnorouterestricconsand is free to drive every possible route to reach the appropriate descnacon. Different transportmodesintheinlandliketrainorinlandwaterwayvesselsarecompletelyrestrictedtotheirpossibleroutes.

Furthermore, the intense street system concentracon inGermany enables favoured "door-to-doortransports”fortheforwarder.Itispossibletoreachalmosteveryclientwiththetruckbecausemostlyeveryclienthasaccesstothepublicstreetnetwork.Also,thetruckhasnearlynostreetrestricconsso thathecanaccessor reacheveryclient.For the forwarder the"door-to-door transport" iseasyanditincludeslessplanningandeffortintotalthantransportswithachangeofmodeorextrahand-lingsliketrainorinlandwaterwayvessel.Anotherpointisalso,thatthe"door-to-doortransport"hasaminorriskofproblemsoraccidentsbecausethecarriedgooddoesn'tneedtobehandledanaddi-conalcme.Thegoodjustneedstobeloadedanddischargedonceduringthetransport.

Inaddicon, if the forwarder chooses the transportaconmode "train"or "inlandwaterwayvessel",thetruckisalmosteverycmeincludedinthetransportchainofgoods.Thereasonforitisthechar-acterisccofthetrainandinlandwaterwayvessel.InGermany,itisquiteinfrequent,thattheshipperor the consigneehas access to the rail or inlandwaterway system. Therefore, it is not possible toprovide“door-to-doortransports”andit isnecessarytotakethetruckintoaccountforthepre-car-riageandon-carriage(subdividedtransportorcombinedtraffic).Therefore,thetruckisindispensableforalmosteverytransport.

Another strengthof transportaconwitha truck is theability to react fast. InGermanyandaroundGermanyisabigvarietyoftruckingcompanies,whichcantransportgoodsinashortadvance.OXenthecompaniesareabletoreact fastandprovidetransportopportuniceswithinacoupleofdays iftheyhavesparecapacity.Also, it ispossibletocarrythegoodswithatrucktoeverydescnacon inGermanywithinone,amaximumoftwo,days.Moreover,thebiggestadvantageoverthetrainis,thatthe truck doesn’t have a cme schedule, inwhich it operates like the train. Therefore, the truck ishighlyflexibleandfast,whichmakessurethatforwarderanddirectclientsfavourthetransportaconmode"truck".

Thenextpointisthepermanentdemandfortransportwithtrucks.Inthelastyears,thehaulageca-pacityoftrucksrecordedasteadyincreaseupto295.2bntkmin2018. Sincethetremendousde139 -pressionin2008,thehaulagecapacityneverregeneratedcompletelyanditwasn’tpossibletoreachtherecordvalueof2008.Butscllinthemodalsplitofhaulagecapacitythetruckdominatesthetrain(19.0%)and the inlandwaterwayvessel (6.8%)with74.2% (2018). Nocceable is thatonly the140

truck increases by 1.6%. The transportaconmodes train (-0.2%) and the inlandwaterway vessel(-1.4%)decreasesaboutaspecificamountofvaluecomparedto2017.Therefore,itisexpedientto

Cf. Statista (Länge der größten Straßennetze der Welt), https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/1856/umfrage/laenge-der-groessten-strassennetze/137

Cf. Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder (Gebiet und Bevölkerung), https://web.archive.org/web/20160929084511/http://www.statistikportal.de/Statistik-138

Portal/de_jb01_jahrtab1.asp

Cf. Bundesamt für Güterverkehr (Marktbeobachtung Güterverkehr, 2018), p. 13.139

Cf. Ibid., p. 10.140

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usethetruckinthetransportchainbecausethegovernmentwillalwaysneedtoinvestinthestreetnetworkoringeneralinthetrucktransportaconbusiness.

Thelastimportantstrengthisthecostefficiencyoftrucktransport.Therefore,itisimportanttoana-lysetheorganisaconstructure inGermanyregardingtruckbusinesses. InOctober2015,45.051or-ganisaconswereregistered inGermany. That is9.3%lessthanfiveyearsago.Ontheonehand,141

especiallyorganisaconswith2to3(-20.7%)and4to5employees(-14.3%)havedecreasedremark-ably.Ontheotherhand,organisaconswithtenandmoreemployeeshaveincreasedheavily(+11%).Also,thedemandspecificallythehaulagecapacityisgrowingsteadilyinthenextyears.Forthatreas-on, themarketbecomeshighly compeccve.Especiallyman-sizedorganisaconscangenerate lowertransportpricesthansmallerorganizaconswith1to5employees.Andalso,theimmigraconoftruckdriversfromEastEuropeminimizethepricedramaccally. Thereforeisthemarketquiteinterescng142

forcustomers,wholiketotransportgoodsatlowprices.

9.1.2. Weaknesses

Thefirstnegacvepointandalsothemostseriousissustainability,inparccularrelacngtoemissions.Thetruck isthetransportmode,whostressesmostoftheenvironment. Intable2 is itstated,thatthetruckisejeccng103g/tkmgreenhousegasesperyear.Comparedtothetrain(19g/tkm)andin-landwaterwayvessel(32g/tkm)thetruckhasanoutputofemissions,whichistencmesashighre-speccvely threecmesashighasemissionsofa trainoran inlandwaterwayvessel.Thereason forthatisthepossibleloadingcapacityofatruck,whichcannotexceedabout25tons.Incomparison,an inlandwaterwayvesselof type"Europaschiff",whocanoperatealmostoneverywaterway,canloadabout1.400tons. Thereforeitismoreenvironmentallybeneficialtousetransportaconmodes143

likeaninlandwaterwayvesselsincetheycancarrymoretonnesofgoodsatonce.Also,theexternalcostsofeverytransportmodeexhibitalackofsustainabilityforthetruck.Forexample,theaverageexternalcostsoftrafficnoiseforthetruckamountto0.79€-cent/tkm,duetotrafficsorthecircum-stance,thatthetruckoperatesclosertoprivatehomes.Incomparison,theemioednoiseofaninlandwaterwayvesselissolioleitisneglectablefortheecaluaconofexternalcoststhatiswhyitiscalcu-latedwith0.00€-cent/tkm. 144

Cf. Bundesamt für Güterverkehr (Struktur der Unternehmen des gewerblichen Güterkraftverkehrs und des Werkverkehrs), pp.14-16.141

Cf. GENIOS Branchen Wissen (Dumpingkonkurrenz aus Osteuropa), http://www.genios.de/branchen/dumpingkonkurrenz_aus_osteuropa/142

s_tra_20151221.html#3b4b155c-ae9f-4ac6-9b6f-559908929ac5

Cf. Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft (Perspektiven des Containertransports per Binnenschiff im Seehinterlandverkehr), http://www.tis-gdv.de/143

tis/tagungen/workshop/cs/kohlmann/kohlmann.htm

Cf. PLANCO Consulting GmbH (Verkehrswirtschaftlicher und ökologischer Vergleich, 2008), pp.16-18.144

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Table8:ComparisonofemissionsofeachmeansofTransportinthegoodstraffic

Thenextweaknessistheemploymentoftruckdrivers.Nowadaystheorganisaconsaresearchingforqualifiedemployees,buton themarketsat themomentareemployees for the transportbusinessrareundfavored,inparccular,german-speakingqualifiedemployees. Alsoalreadyworkingtruck145drivers areoXen fromdifferent countries like Polandor theCzechRepublic andmostly theydon'tspeakGermanorEnglish.Henceit isdifficulttocoordinatethesepeopleappropriateattheportorport gates. Furthermore on ports frequent problemswith truck drivers occure due tomissunder-standingsandaccidantes. 146

Figure20:BAB-Degreeofuclizacon

Cf.DVZ(Biszu12000USDAbwerbprämiefürLKW-Fahrer,2017),p.3.145

VortragHenrieoeOesterwind,TerminalManagementDuisports,Duisburg,12.11.19.146

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Anotherhugeweaknessisthedegreeofcapacityuclizaconofthestreetnetworksystem.Thefigure21showsexactly,thatespeciallytheautobahnisverybusyaroundbigciceslikeHamburg,Munich,etc. and around crowded areas like Ruhr. Also, the organizacon "ADAC" published last year, that745.000trafficswerenoccedongermanautobahns.ThisisthehighestrecordednumberoftrafficsinGermanyandithasquadrupledfrom2011to2018. Thereforeitisimportanttoinvestinthestreet147

networktostrengthenthestreetcapacityuclizaconformorereliabletrucktransport.

Thelastimportantpointisthetransportrestricconforacoupleofdays.InGermany,trucksarenotallowedtodriveSundaysoronpublicholidayslikenewyeareves,firstandsecondChristmasdayandsoon. Thereasonforthatisthealreadybusystreetnetworkuclizacon.EspeciallyonSundaysor148

public holidays, average consumers like to travel and therefore they oXen use their cars and theautobahn.Inordertobalancetheuclizaconandavoidbiggertraffics,thegermangovernmentadoptsthislaw.Theymadeonlyexcepconsforcombinedtraffics(rail+truck/ship/inlandwaterwayvessel+truck)orperishablegoods.Forexample,inlandwaterwaytransportaconhasnorestricconsatallre-gardingdrivingbans. 149

9.1.3. Opportunices

Themarketfortrucktransportisalreadyquitebigandvariegated.Buttheinternaconalmarketandthetradingconnecconsbetweenamajornumberofcountrieswill forecastapromising increase inthetransportbusinessinthenextyears. The“BundesagenturfürGüterverkehr”publishedexpec150 -tedprospects forall-modal freight transportsof1.7% (freight transportvolume)and2.5% (trans-portaconservice)in2020and2021inGermany. Also,theyanccipate,inparccularforthefreight151

transportonthestreet,anincreaseof2.7%offreighttransportvolumeand2.6%oftransportaconserviceinthenextyearsinGermany.Thesecircumstancesareapromisingopportunityforthetrans-portbusinessandtheappertaininginvolvedparces.Thereasonsfortheincreasecanbeontheonehand the growingmarket of all-modal freight transports, but on the other hand also the "Just-In-Time"-concept(JIT),whichbecomesmoreandmoreintegratedintobusinessstrategies. JITmeans152

thatorganisaconsnowadaystrytoreducethestorageofgoodstozerobyplanningthesupplychainasefficient aspossible. ForexampleoXen inproduccon sitspartsor goods,whichareneeded forprocesses,aredeliveredonthedaybeforeoronthesameday,whentheyareindemand.ThereforeoXenthetruckisamainpartofthesupplychain,becauseofitsstrengths.Theorganisaconsareabletousetheflexibilityandquicknessofthistransportaconmode.Especiallyinunpredictablesituacons,itisveryhelpfultohaveaflexiblecomponentinthechaininordertoavoiddeficienciesoraddiconalcosts.Furthermore,thetruckisabletoperform"door-to-door-transports",whichminimisethenum-berofhandlings.Everyhandlingincludesaparccularrisk,whichneedstobeescmatedforasuccess-fulprocess.Themostimportantrisksfororganisaconsarethepossibilityofdamagingthegoodsorasignificantdelay.Inparccular,JIT-conceptsneedcomponents,whicharedependableandsafeinor-dertoperformatahighlevel.Therefore"door-to-door-transports"reducetherisksandassistwithahighlevelperformingsupplychain.

Cf. ADAC, Staubilanz (Neue Rekordlängen), https://www.adac.de/der-adac/verein/corporate-news/staubilanz/147

Cf. Avt Akademie (LKW – Feiertagsfahrverbote in Deutschland 2019) p. 1.148 Cf. Behörde für Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz (Arbeitszeitregelungen in der Binnenschifffahrt) https://www.hamburg.de/themen/119534/binnenschifffahrt-149

arbeitszeit/

Cf. DVZ Online (Güterverkehr wächst in den Jahren 2018 bis 2020 weiter).150

Cf. Bundesministeriums für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Gleitende Mittelfristprognose für den Güter- und Personenverkehr - Kurzfristprognose Sommer 2019), 151

S.25 ff.

Cf. Roy, Jaques (Recent trends in logistics and the need for real-time decision tools in the trucking industry, 2001), S. 2.152

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Thenexthugeopportunity for the truck transportbusiness is the“Goods-structure-effect” (inGer-man “Güterstruktureffekt”). Nowadaysmore andmore naconal economies produce and consumemorehigh-qualityconsumerandcapitalgoodsthanbulkgoods.Also,itwasnoccedthattheaverageweight per transport order reduced and the demand for smaller and individualised goodsincreased. Whichleadstothefactthatespeciallythetruckprofitsbecauseofitsstrengthsandsys153 -tem advantages in comparison to train and inland waterway vessel, which obtain their strengthsmostlyintransporcnggreateramounts.

9.1.4. Threats

Oneofthemostchallengingthreatsisthedegreeofcapacityuclisaconofthestreetnetwork.Spe-ciallybecauseofthesteadyincreasinghaulagecapacityoffreighttransportonthestreetthetrafficsandroaduclisaconaregrowingaswell.Infigure21itisobviousthattheautobahnnetworkinGer-manyarealreadycongestedanditishardforthemtokeepupwiththechangingmarket.Inordertobalancethesituacon, thegovernmentalreadyupdatedtheroadtollssince2019togeneratemoremoneyforinvestmentsinthestreetnetwork.Butalsoforthenextyears,addiconaltollincreasesareimageable,whichallowthefreightratesforstreettransporttorise.Thatmeansthatdifferenttrans-portaconmodesbecomemoreinterescngforthecustomeroutoffinancialdimensions. 154

Thenextimportantthreatistheendangermentoftheenvironmentbytrucks.Intable2itisnocce-ablethatthetruckisnotenvironmentallyfriendlycomparedtotrainandinlandwaterwayvessel.Thevolumeofgoods,whicharetransportedbytruckeveryday,superimposesthevolumesoftrainandinlandwaterwayvesseltoalargeextent. Thereforeitisimportant,especiallyforthegovernment,155

toshiXvolumesofgoodsmoretodifferentmoreenvironmentallyfriendlymodesoftransportacons.In order to accelerate the process, the German government targets to introduce CO2-taxes. Theystate thatparces,whichproduceCO2,need topay for environmentallydamage.Also, theexpertsescmatethatthepriceofdieselwillraisewiththeCO2taxinGermany. Thesecircumstancesmean156

for trucking companies that the costs of transport will increase and therefore the customer alsoneedstopaymorefortheirtransportaconofgoods.Furthermore,thesetrendswillprobablybringaboutfundamentalchange,whichcanbeveryinterescngforthenextyears.

Cf. FIS für Mobilität und Verkehr (Güterstruktureffekt), https://www.forschungsinformationssystem.de/servlet/is/39447/153

Cf. DVZ Online (Bundeskabinett beschließt neue Gebührensätze für LKW-Maut), https://www.dvz.de/rubriken/politik/detail/news/bundeskabinett-beschliesst-neue-154

gebuehrensaetze-fuer-lkw-maut.html

Cf. Destatis (Beförderungsmenge und Beförderungsleistung nach Verkehrsträgern), https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Branchen-Unternehmen/Transport-Verkehr/155

Gueterverkehr/Tabellen/gueterbefoerderung-lr.html;jsessionid=A92E9281311883AE17B1D46E88D732BF.internet722

Vgl. DVZ Online (Scheuer warnt vor Folgen einer möglichen CO2-Steuer), https://www.dvz.de/rubriken/politik/detail/news/scheuer-warnt-vor-folgen-einer-moegli156 -

chen-co2-steuer.html

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Table9:InFAERnoccedpeopleon1.January2018accordingtoageandgender

Anotherrelevantthreatisthedangerouslackofemployeesorwell-trainedemployeesforthefollow-ingyears.Especiallyintable3,itisevidentthattheseccon"65andmore"gotagreatincreaseof7.9%. This shows that the exiscng drivers are quite old and that the trucking business loses a greatamount in the next couple of years. In comparison, the seccon "18 to 24" only got 1.7%,whichmeansthattheimportanttraineescannotcompensateforthelossofdrivers,whichbecomesunabletoworkduetoage.Nowinordertogetaconceivableidea,the“KraXfahrtbundesamtes”foundoutthataboutonemilliondriversare45andolderandthatabout67.000driversquittheemploymentforrecrementeveryyear.Theproblemisherethatonly27.000peoplestarttheiremploymentasatruckdriver,sothereisalackof40.000driverseveryyear. Also,thesteadyincreasinghaulageca157 -pacityinthefollowingyearsrequiresastrongbalancedemploymentsituaconinthetransportbusi-ness.Ifthesituacondoesnotimproveinacmelymanner,thenaparccularnumberoforganisaconsneedtoclosetheirbusinesses,becauseofmissingtrainees.Consequently,thecompeccongetslessandthefreightrateswillriseduetolessofferonthemarket.

AXer looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunices and threats of freight transportacon bytruck,itisnowpossibletocarryoutimprovementstrategiesforthenextyears.Whenconsideringthethreatsitbecameevidentthatdifferentsignificantfactorsdangerthemarketorthebusiness.Espe-cially thecongesteddegreeof capacityuclisaconof the streetnetwork is agrandpurpose for tollraises.Also,theenvironmentalproblemsregardingthetruckleadtotheCO2-taxundtheincreaseofthedieselprice.Allthesecircumstancesthreatenthemarket,theorganisaconsandthefreightrates.Thereforeitisrelevanttoconsidersuggesconsforimprovement.

In consideracon of the strengths, the truck is able to use its strengths in interaccon with thestrengthsofdifferenttransportaconmodesliketheinlandwaterwayvesseltominimisethesignific-antthreats.Ontheonehand,thetruckisindispensableforalmosteverytransportbecauseofitsflex-ibilityandcompacbility.Also,thestrongnetworkedstreetsystemwithalmostnorestraintsfortrucksaresignificanttoworkwiththeinlandwaterwayvessel,becausetheinlandwaterwayvesselislimitedtothenetworkofriverandcanals.Ontheotherhand,theinlandwaterwayvesselcancarryagreatercapacityofgoodsatonce,forexample,thecommoninlandwaterwayvessel"Europaschiff"canload1.400 tons. In comparison, trucks are only allowed to have amaximum totalweight of 40 tons at

Cf. DVZ Online (Wirtschaftsverbände schlagen Alarm: Fünf Punkte gegen den Fahrermangel), https://www.dvz.de/rubriken/politik/detail/news/wirtschaftsverbaende-157

schlagen-alarm-fuenf-punkte-gegen-den-fahrermangel.html

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once.Furthermore,theinlandwaterwayvesselisveryreliableandaccident-proof,sothatthegoodsarenotexposed to furtherdangers. In summary, the interacconbetweenthe truckand the inlandwaterwayvesselwouldmeanthatitwouldbepossibletoconnectflexibilityandcapacityatonce.

Thereforethetransportbusinessneedstousemoreintermodaltransportorcombinedtraffic(mostlycontainersorsemi-trailer)tomakegreateruseofindividualstrengths.Especiallythecombinedtrafficprofitsfromfurtheradvantages,becausethegovernmenttriesalsotoshiXmorecargoonthetrainortheinlandwaterwayvessel.

Firstly every vehicle,whichoperates in thepre- andoff carriageof combined traffic, is allowed tohaveamaximumtotalweightof44 tons insteadof40 tons.Thusdevelopdirectfinancialbenefitsthrough heavier transports. Furthermore, the vehicles for combined traffic are exempt from thetransportrestricconsforSundaysandpublicholidaysunlesstherouteofthetruckfromtheterminaltothecustomerorreverseexceedsnotabout150kilometers.Anotherfinancialbenefit is,thattheownerofthetruckdoesnotneedtopayforcartaxifthetruckoperatesinthepre-andoncarriageofthecombinedtraffic.Inaddicon,thetruckispayingfewerroadtolls,becauseeverytruckkilometernotdrivenontheautobahnalsomeansareducconoravoidanceofthecostsoftheroadtoll.Thesebenefitsallowthetruckingcompanytoreducetheirtotalcostsandincreasetheirprofits.Atthesamecme,theytakesocialandenvironmentalresponsibilitythroughreducconofCO2-emissions,reliefoftheroadandbeoerworkcondiconsforthedrivers. 158

Inconclusion,itistosay,thatthetruckcouldminimisetheirrisksbymakingmoreuseofintermodaltraffic.Theinteracconbetweentruckandinlandwaterwayvesselisquiteprofitableforbothsides,soit would be advisable to connect themmore than nowadays. Especially the environment and thedailytrafficonGermanstreetswouldgainstrength,whichcouldmean,thatthegovernmentwouldreduceescalacngtollsortaxes.Inparccular,thesecircumstancescouldhelpthetransportbusinesstoforceupandsurviveupcomingaddiconalcostsinthenextyears.

9.2. Inlandwaterwayvessel

Whenlookingatthenumbersofthemodalsplit inGermany, inlandwaterwayvesselsplaymoreorlessasubordinaterole.230milliontonsofgoodsaretransported,60billiontkmarecoveredannu-ally.Thesenumbersimplyashareof10.2%ofGermany’smodalsplit. Thispartofthepaperwill159

trytobringlighttothestrengthsandweaknessesofinlandwaterwaytransportaconwhilstmeasur-ingthemenconedpointsonpossiblybeingvaluableopportunicesorthreatstothebranchofinlandwaterwayshipping.

Thefirststepisgoingtofocusonthetrends,branch,clientsandcompectorsinthetransportbranch.Secondly,thispartofthepaperisgoingtohighlightthestrengthsandweaknessesofinlandwaterwaytransportaconandisthirdlygoingtoderiveopportunicesandthreatsforthismodeoftransport.

Sustainability is theword that canbeused to describe the trend in the transport branch and it isquite versacle, as it regards various aspects from ecological, economical as well as socialstandpoints. 160

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Kombinierter Verkehr – Die Zukunft ist intermodal), p. 2.158

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Verkehr in Zahlen 2018/2019), p. 242.159

Cf. Springer Gabler | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH (Nachhaltigkeit), https://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/definition/nachhaltigkeit-41203160

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EconomiesofscaleisatermthatoXencomestomindwhenthinkingaboutinlandwaterwaytrans-portacon. Developments over the recent decades have made it possible to enlarge that what isviewedasashipload. Processesarebeingdigicsed.Theseprocessesincludetheplanningofload161

distribucononthechosenmodeof transport, thetransmissionofpaperworktotherespeccveau-thority,communicaconwiththeshippingagentorevennewerdevelopmentssuchastheannounce-mentofarrivalatlockstoreducewaicngcmesandfuelwaste. Thewascngoffuelbringsustoan162 -otherimportantdevelopmentinthetransportsector,whichisoXendescribedasgreenshipping.Inthebranchof inlandwaterway transportacon this doesnot only includemoving towards less, butalso using engines running on alternacve fuels (e.g. electricity, hydrogen, LNG) or improving thedesignofships. Technologicaldevelopmentsarebringingthetopicofautomaconmore intotalk.163

Inlandwaterwaytransportaconcouldbewellsuitedasapioneerforthis,astheroucngofwaterwaysbarely changes and the speed is not as big of a factor as it could be the case for othermodesoftransport. The exiscng assistance systems in inland waterway transportacon already allow for adriverlesstransport,aslongasthereisnooncomingtraffic. 164

ThetransportbranchinEuropetodayisfacingchallenges.Cargoamountsarestagnacng ,playersin165

allmodesoftransportarebaolingtheproblemofemptytrips,ashortageofskilledlaborbecauseofthedemographicchangeandalsopricesuppressionbecauseofcabotage.

Inordertomakeinlandwaterwayshippingaprofitablebusiness,clientswhoneedtheirgoodstrans-portedareanecessity.TheseareoXen foundnearwaterways, somecmes theyevenoperate theirownquays.Cargothatiswellsuitedforbargetransportincludesbulk,non-perishablecargowhichisnotpressedforcme.Inlandwaterwaysalsooffergreatpotencalforthetransportofprojectcargo. 166

Compectors of inland waterway transportacon are the other modes of transport. These includetransportbyrail,truckorplane.Everymodeoftransportoffersspecificadvantagesaswellasdisad-vantages,whichareconsultedwhenaclientismakingthedecisionofwhichonetochoose.

AXerthislookatthetransportbranchandinlandwaterwaytransportaconingeneralitisnowcmetoidencfy the strengthsandweaknessesof inlandwaterway transport, beforederivingopportunicesandthreatsfromthem.

9.2.1. Strengthsandweaknesses

Germanyaloneoffersanetworkofinlandwaterwayswhichamountsto5.600km.AlmosteverypartofGermanycanbereachedbytheuseofriversorcanals.Inlandwaterwayvesselsareabletotrans-portgoodsmoreefficientlythancompecngmodesoftransport.Thereasoningforthisistheamountofgoodsthatcanbetransportedbyjustonevehicle.Oneshiploadcanequalupto175railwaywag-onswith40tonsloadedoreven280truckswith25tonsloaded. Besidesthemeagreairpollucon,167

inlandwaterwayvesselsproduceonlyliolenoisepollucon. 168

Cf. Hafen Hamburg Marketing e.V. (Port of Hamburg Magazine 3.15), p. 38161

Cf. Nils Braunroth, Stefan Bober (Fortschritte der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie), p. 33.162

Cf. Bundesverband der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt e.V. (BDB Report 1/2018), p. 5.163

Cf. Industrie- und Handelskammern im Ruhrgebiet (Autonomes Fahren in der Binnenschifffahrt), p. 18.164 Cf. Bundesverband der deutschen Binnenschifffahrt e.V. (Daten & Fakten 2017/2018), p. 6.165

Cf. Hafen Hamburg Marketing e.V. (Port of Hamburg Magazine 3.15), pp. 10-12.166

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (SPC), 11.11.2019.167

Cf. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur (Masterplan Binnenschifffahrt), p. 5.168

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Figure21:Inlandwaterwayvesselvs.truck

Achallengethatinlandwaterwayvesselsarebarelyfacingiscongescon.Trafficflowisalmostalwaysuninterrupted.Addingto this is theabilityof inlandwaterwayvessels to transportonSundaysandholidays.Thismakestransportbyinlandwaterwaysreliable.Manydifferenttypesofgoodsarewellsuitedforinlandwaterwaytransport.Projectcargoforexamplecanbecarriedwithoutapermitfromanauthority,asitisotherwiseneededforatransportbytruck. Inlandwaterwaytransportaconis169

onlyfacingveryfewaccidents,whichmakesdangerousgoodsaperfectfit,astheycanalsobetrans-portedinasafedistancefromthepublic,withalmostnotremorandinlargequancces. Further170 -more,thetransportcosts inthisbranchareverylowcomparedtoothermodesoftransport.1.000tkmby inlandwaterwayvessel cost12.60€,whilst the same transportby rail or truck costsmorethan45€respeccvely. Digiczaconhasalsofounditswayintothebargeshippingsector.Shipsare171

usingsoXwareon-boardtoforexampleplanthecorrectdistribuconofcargo,solicicngcargotoavoidemptytripsortoconveynecessarypaperworktoassociatedauthorices. Alreadytodaytheinland172

waterwayvesselisamuch-neededmodeoftransport.ThisisprovedbytheshareofthehinterlandtransportthebranchholdswhenlookingatthemodalsplitoftwoofthemostimportantEuropeanports:RooerdamandAntwerp.InlandwaterwayvesselsinRooerdamareresponsibleforthetrans-portofmorethan40%ofallgoodsinthehinterlandtraffic,thebargeshareinAntwerpliesat30%.TheLowerRhineisfrequentedbyaround200.000inlandwaterwayvesselseveryyear,thisimpliesanaveragetrafficof550bargesperday. 173

Whileinlandwaterwaytransportacondoesofferanumberofstrengths,therearealsoweaknessestomencon.Oneof these is the speedof transport. InGermany, inlandwaterwayvesselsareonlyal-lowedtotravelatamaximumspeedof15kilometresperhour. ContainertransportisoXenlimited174

not by ship capacity, but by bridge heights.Many containerised transports can only be donewithstacksof twohigh.Whileprojectcargo isverywell suited for transporton inlandwaterways,mostportscan’toffertheproperequipmentneeded inordertoeitherplaceheavy loadsonshipsor liX

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (SPC), 11.11.2019.169

Cf. Vortrag Arne Harms, 09.10.2019.170 Cf. via donau – Österreichische Wasserstraßen-Gesellschaft mbH (Handbuch der Donauschifffahrt), p. 19.171

Cf. Interview Arne Harms, 26.11.2019.172

Cf. Bundesverband der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt e.V. (Zahlen und Fakten), https://www.binnenschiff.de/system-wasserstrasse/wasserstrasse/173

Cf. Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Minden (Höchstgeschwindigkeiten des Kanal- und Wesergebiet), http://www.wsa-minden.de/schifffahrt/hoechstgeschwindigkeiten/174

index.html

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theseoff.Digicsacon is a term that characterises the transport branchof today. Thenon-compre-hensivenetworkofthecellularnetworkismakingdevelopmentsintheareaofbargeshippingdiffi-cult. Longandhotsummersthreatenthereliabilityofbargeshippingaswell.RiverdraXsbecome175

toolowandslowdowntraffic.ThishasbecomenocceableontheriverRhine,asbargeswereforcedtocarry lesscargothanusualon132days in2018. Theupsideofthiscondiconwasthiscausing176

policcal interest,which is something thebarge shipping sectordoesnotoXengetdue tohavingaweakerlobbycomparedtoothermodesoftransport. Anotherfactorwhichinfluencesbargeship177 -pingisthereliabilityof locks.Lockfailurescausecongesconandslowdowntraffic. Furthermore,178

thegrowing lackofskilled labor isnotanunknownoccurrenceforthebranchofbargeshippingaswell.WorkinginbargeshippingoXenmeansnotbeingabletocomehomeforlongerperiodsofcme.This ismakingaproperrealizaconofwhat isreferredtoasa“work-life-balance”difficult. Inland179

waterwaysinGermanyareseparatedintosixmainclasses.Theclassesregulatewhichbargesareal-lowedtousetherespeccveriverorcanal.ManywaterwaysarerestrictedduetoalowdraX.Othersarerestrictedbecausetheydonotoffersufficientbreadthforcertainbargesizesorthebridgesontherespeccvewaterwaywerenotbuilthighenoughforbargeshippingatallsizes. 180

9.2.2. Opportunicesandthreats

The sector of inlandwaterway vessel shippingoffers a numberof opportunices ofwhich their re-speccvepotencalsarereadytobescoopedout.Oneofthebestopportunicesthatinlandwaterwayvesselscanofferishelpingwiththereleaseofstreettrafficandcitycores.ItisestablishedbyGermanauthorices thatmany roadsareheavily frequented.This canbeviewed in the followingdepiccon,whichhasbeencreatedbythe“BundesamtfürStraßenwesen”in2010:

Figure22:BundesamtfürStraßenwesen,2010

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner, 11.11.2019.175

Cf. Süddeutsche Zeitung (Niedrigwasser am Rhein), https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/niedrigwasser-am-rhein-die-pegel-fallen-wieder-1.4542529176 Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner, 11.11.2019.177

Cf. Vortrag Arne Harms, 09.10.2019.178

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner, 11.11.2019.179

Cf. ShortSeaShipping Inland Waterway Promotion Center (System der Klassifizierung von Binnenschiffen auf Europäischen Wasserstrassen), https://www.shortsea180 -

shipping.de/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/System-Klassifizierung-EWS.pdf

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Inlandwaterwayvesselsareabletohelpwiththereleaseofstreettraffic,becauseonevesseliscap-able of transporcng loads that could otherwise only be transported by asmany as 280 trucks. 181

WhilstroadsareoXenhighlyfrequented,inlandwaterwaysareabletoofferalargeramountoffreecapacity.

Furthermore, inlandwaterwayvesselscanbeusedtodevelop intermodal transport.An intermodaltransporttakesplacewhenevergoodsaretransportedbymorethanonemodeoftransportineitherthesameloadingunitorvehicle.Theintermodaltransportoffersavarietyofposicveaspects.Truckstakingpartinthisareallowedtotransportwithaweightof44tonsinsteadoftheusuallyallowed40tons.Addingtothis is therepealof thebanontrucksonSundaysandholidays.Finally, intermodaltransportalsohelpswiththeaforemenconedreleaseofstreettraffic,sincepartofthetransport istakingplaceoneitheraninlandwaterwayvesselorarailwaywagon. 182

Today’sopportunicesoXenlieinthedigiczaconofprocesses.Thisisalsothecaseforinlandwater-waytransportacon.Alreadytoday,boatmenoninlandwatersusesoXwarewhenonboard.Thismayforexampleincludeastaffplanningprogramoraprogramassiscngwiththecorrectdistribuconofcargoonboard.Future innovacons in this sectormay includesoXwarehelpingboatmenon inlandwaterstobecomeabletoannouncetheirupcomingarrivalatalock. 183

Projectcargoistransportedbyinlandwaterwayvessels,yetthereisasufficientamountofspaceoninlandwaterwaysforfurthertransportofthistype.Oncemore, inlandwaterwayvehicleswouldbeabletohelpwiththereleaseofstreettraffic.Addingtothisisthefactthatprojectcargotransportsbytruckare inneedofapermit fromauthoricesbeforetheycanbemoved.Theobtainingof theap-provalmaytakealargeamountofcme,whichcouldbesavedbyshipperschoosingtouseinlandwa-terwayvesselsfortransport,asthereisnopermitneededforit. 184

Thetopicofautomaconcouldbearealiscc,upcomingtechnologyforinlandwaterwayvessels.Sinceinlandwaterwayvesselsdonot transportgoodsatahigh speed,waterway roucngsbarely changeandtherearenobigwavesforthevesselstodealwith,thisinnovaconfitswell,especiallyincmesinwhich there isa lackof skilled labour. In fact, the technology tobringautomated inlandwaterwayvesselsontothemarketalreadyexists toacertaindegree,as thesoXwarealreadytoday isabletosafelyguidethevesselsthroughriversandcanalsaslongasthereisnooncomingtraffic. 3Gnet185 -workspeedbandwidthisallthatistechnologicallyneededtointroduceautomacontothemarket.

Incmesofarisingawarenessforclimatechange,shippersarelookingfurthertowardsvehiclesthatemitlesscarbondioxidecomparedtoothermodesoftransport.Duetothis,thebranchofinlandwa-terwayvesselsismovingmoreintothespotlight.Thisimpliesthatespeciallynewlygeneratedtrans-portneedstodayhaveabeoerchancetobetransportedbyinlandwaterwayvessels. Lastly,anim186 -portanttermintoday’slogisccsisthe“just-in-cme”principle.Animportantpartofthisistheredu-cingofstoragespaceusedinfactories.Duetotheirhighreliabilityandslowspeeds,inlandwaterwayvesselsaresuitedfortakingoverinthissector .187

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.181

Cf. Studiengesellschaft für den Kombinierten Verkehr e.V. (Was ist KV?), http://www.sgkv.de/de/der-kombinierte-verkehr/was-ist-kv182

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.183 Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.184

Cf. Industrie- und Handelskammern im Ruhrgebiet (Autonomes Fahren in der Binnenschifffahrt), p. 18.185

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.186

Cf. Vortrag Arne Harms, 09.10.2019.187

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Whilstthestatedopportunicesofferachanceforgrowthintheinlandwaterwayvesselsector,therearealsoanumberofthreatsthat,ifnotproperlyscrucnised,willharmthedevelopmentoftheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsector.

Eventhoughinlandwaterwayvesselsarepartlyalreadyinnovacngthewaythattheydobusinessbyusingdigicsacon.Theinlandwaterwaytransportaconsectorisscllquitetradiconal.Inordertonotget leX behind in progress by othermodes of transport, further investments into digital develop-mentswillneedtobetaken. 188

Climatechangeisalsoatopicthatthreatenstheprogressofinlandwaterwaytransportacon.Incmesofprolongedheatperiodsinthesummercme,draXlevelsofriversandcanalsaredeclining.Thereli-abilityofinlandwaterwayvesselsisthreatenedbythisdevelopment.Thecmeoftransportistakinglonger,becauseinlandwaterwayvesselsareeitherforcedtoslowdownorsimplycan’tloadasmuchcargoastheynormallywould.AgoodexampleforthisistheriverRhine,asinlandwaterwayvesselswereforcedtocarrysignificantlylesscargothanusualon132daysin2018. 189

Thetransportsectoringeneralhasgrownalotovercmebecauseofworldwidetrades.Animportantfactorneededtoensureeconomicgrowthforthebranchisglobalizacon.If,forexample,policciansdecidetotakemeasureswiththegoalofshieldingtheircountriesfromimportsofforeigncountries,thetransportsectorisgoingtosufferfromtheconsequencesofthisdecision.Inlandwaterwayves-selsexcelwhentheyareallowedtocarrycargoonlongdistancetrips,astheimpactofloadinganddischargingcostsbecomeslesssignificantthisway.Inordertorealizemorelongdistancetransportsbyinlandwaterwayvessels,manyportsaretaskedwithdevelopingportinfrastructureaswellastheirsuperstructure,because thenumberofports thatare capableofhandlingheavyorbulky cargo, ismanageable. 190

Whilsttheinlandwaterwayvesselisoneoftheleastcarbondioxidesemi{ngmodesoftransportatthemoment,othersare improvingtheirecological footprint.Newenginetechnologiesthatusehy-drogenorelectricityasapowersourcearebeingdevelopedandinvestmentsinothertransportsec-torsarebeingmade.Iftheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsectorisnotabletokeepupwiththein-novacons,thebranchmayloseoneofitsbiggestadvantages.

Inlandwaterwayvesselsareprimedforthetransportofbulkcargo.Asvisibleinthedepicconbelow,30.8million tonsofcoalhavebeentransportedby inlandwaterwayvessels in2017.This impliesashareinthetotalofinlandwaterwayvesseltransportsinGermanyof13.8%. 191

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.188

Cf. Süddeutsche Zeitung (Niedrigwasser am Rhein), https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wirtschaft/niedrigwasser-am-rhein-die-pegel-fallen-wieder-1.4542529189

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.190

Cf. Bundesverband der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt e.V. (Daten & Fakten 2017/2018), p. 8.191

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Figure23:Goodstransportedbyinlandnavigacon 192

Incmesofclimatechange,itisthegrowingendeavorofthepublictoswitchthepowersourcefromtradiconaltomorerenewablerawmaterials.Addingtothisisthefact,thatcoalisanunlascngmater-ial. The inland waterway transportacon sector is threatened through this, since it is unknown toworkersinthebranchwhichkindofcargomightbeabletofillthegapthatwillbeleXbythedeclin-ingnumberofcoaltransports.

Thelackofskilledlaborisanincreasingthreattomanybranches.Theinlandwaterwaytransportaconsectorisnotexcludedfromthisaswell.BoatmenoninlandwaterwayvesselsareoXenworkingfor2or3weeksstraight,followingaprolongedbreak.Duetothis,manypeopleworkingintheinlandwa-terway transportacon sectorare facing challengeswhen trying tofinda “work-life-balance”,whichmakesitdifficultforrecruiterstofindmocvatedandsuitabletrainees. 193

Duetothelobbiesofothermodesoftransportbeingstrongerthantheoneoftheinlandwaterwaytransportacon branch (in Germany), investments into this transportacon sector are less extensivecomparedtoothers.Thisresultsinpartsoftheinfrastructurebecomingobsolete,whichismostvis-ibleatthelocks.Longandnumerousdowncmesaretheresulthere,oXencausingcongestedwater-waysinthelockareas.Addingtothis istheproblem,thatplannedprojectstorenewexiscnginfra-structureareoXenonlyprogressedslowly.Afurtherlackofinvestmentsmayintensifythisproblem,whichwouldthreatentheotherwisehighreliabilityofinlandwaterwayvessels. 194

Theinlandwaterwaytransportaconsectorisstrivingtobeconsideredequalintheeyesofstakehold-ers.AnoXenweakerlobbyoranotveryvisiblemarkecngofthismodeoftransportarereasonsastowhytheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsectorisoXenoverlooked.Aslongastheequalitybetween

Bundesverband der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt e.V. (Daten & Fakten 2017/2018), p. 8.192

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.193

Cf. Vortrag Jan-Hendrik Donner (spc), 11.11.2019.194

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themodes of transport is not provided, inlandwaterway transportaconwill concnue to be facingmanyofthenamedthreatsandchallengesinthenearfuture. 195

Thefinal stepof this SWOT-analysiswill try todesigna listofaccons tobe takenwith thegoalofstrengtheningthedevelopmentoftheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsector.Usefulmeasuresmayincludethefollowing:

▪ Increasingpublicawarenessoftheinlandwaterwaytransportaconsector▪ Increasingpublicspendingtostrengthenthewaterwaysinfrastructure▪ Fundingofintermodaltransport▪ Mocvacngportstoinvestintheirrespeccvesuperstructure▪ IncreasingbridgeheightsanddraXs▪ Gatheringfurtherindependentdataforimprovedinvestmentdecisions▪ Developmentofpowersourcesashoreforinlandwaterwayvesselstouse▪ Increasedfundingofinnovacveprojectsintheareaofinlandwaterwaytransportacon▪ Astrongerinlandwaterwaytransportaconlobby▪ Furtherimprovementofenginetechnologies

Cf. Vortrag Arne Harms, 09.10.2019.195

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10.Creaconofprojectfilms

Thefinalproductofourprojectaretwovideos.Thesevideosshouldshowtheviewofthebargeop-eratoraswellastheviewoftheforwarder.Forbothvideos,eachwithalengthofthreeminutes,dif-ferentactorsofthebrancheswereinterviewed.Ontheonehand,ArneHarms,managingdirectorofaninlandnavigaconcompany,playsacentralrole. Inhisopinion,all logisccsplayersmustworkto-gethermoreclosely.JensHolhs,managingdirectoroftheportofBraunschweig,wasalsoaskedbyusaboutthistopic.Healsobelievesthattheinlandwaterwayvesselwillplayanimportantroleinthefuturelogisccschain.Theinlandwaterwayvesselhasaveryimportantcharactercomparedtoothermodes of transport. Last but not least, a long-standing freight forwarder was also interviewed.WolfgangWeber,founderofEKBLogisck,focusedonenvironmentalimpacts.

Figure24:iMoviefromAppleshownoniPadandiMac 196

Bothvideoswerecreatedwith iMovieaccordingtothecustomer'sspecificacons. iMovie isavideoedicngprogramfromApple.ItisinstalledonallcurrentApplecomputersunderMacOS.Since2010thereisalsoasimplifiedversionavailableforthemobileiOSdevicesofthemanufacturer,whichwillbe extended more and more. The operacon of the program is easy to learn even for untrainedpeople.AXera fewhours thebasic funcconsareunderstoodandcanbeused.For thisprojectweworkedwith iMovie10.1.13, the latestversion.Thegeneratedvideomaterialwas importedwitharesoluconof1080p.Allinall,wehadabout37gigabytesofvideomaterialavailableatthebeginningoftheedicngprocess. Itwasrecordedataresoluconof4Kwiththehelpofvariousmobilephonedevices.Severaltripodsandgimbalwereusedtostabilizetherecordings.

Inorder tosimplify theassignmentof the individualvideosequences, theyweresortedout in thebeginning.AXerwardsusablematerialcouldbe imported intoanewproject in iMovie.ThevariousvideosequenceswerebuiltoneaXertheotherusingapreviouslycreatedstoryline.Theaudiocon-

Apple Inc. (iMovie), https://www.apple.com/de/imovie/196

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tentwas thenseparated fromthevideosequencesandadapted individually. Finally,we linked theindependentpartswithblacktransicons.SinglepartsofthevideoswerecreatedusingPowerpoint.SimilartotheanimatedPowerpointfortheIWTSwebsite,variouselementsflyintothepictureatthispoint.Forexample,thetopicIWTSisbroughtcloserbyspeechbubblesatthebeginningofthevideo.Theendingofbothshortfilmshasasimilarstructure.Atthispoint,individualtextsandlogosaredis-played.ThePowerPointfileisexportedasMP4videoandimportedintoiMovie.Thefollowinginteg-raconintothecorrespondingvideothenturnsouttobesimple.

WefoundtheimplementaconoftheEnglishdubbingvoiceverycme-consuming.Itwasrecordedbystudentsoftheproject.Theseparatevoicetrackwasthenimportedandplacedattherightlocacon.The possibility of cross-fadingmeant that the original German voice of the interviewees could bemadealmostsilent.TheEnglishvoicethenfuncconsasthemainvoice.

Theinclusionofpicture-in-picturerecordingsalsoprovedtobeextremelydifficult.Partly itwasde-siredtoshowgraphicsandvideomaterialandtoplaythemwhiletheinterviewisbeingconcnued.DuetothesuccessfulfuncconofiMovie,wewerealsoabletointegratethisformofpresentacon.

Figure25:iMoviefromAppleshownonanMacBookPro 197

Finally,itcanbesaidthattheedicngofthevideosturnedouttobeverycme-consuming.Ittookalotofcmetoviewthematerialanddeterminethe individualvideosequences for thefinalvideo.Thesubsequentedicngbecamemorefluidoverthecme.Weaoributethistotheincreasingexperienceindealingwiththeprogram.

Apple Inc. (iMovie), https://www.apple.com/de/imovie/197

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11.Conclusion

Allinall,itcanbesaidthatinlandwaterwaytransportaconcanbeanessencalplayerinasustainabletransportaconchain,butatthemomentitsunderrepresented.Tomakeachangeintheallocaconofthesharesofthemodesoftransportinlandwaterwaytransportaconneedstobepromotedandbe-comemorecompeccve.

Theproject“InterregNorthSeaRegion#IWTS2.0”isanimportantfactortopromoteinlandwaterwaytransportacon in the logisccs sector andmake supply chainsmore sustainable. Young logisccs ex-pertswerechosenastargetgroupforthetwoproducedimagevideosbecausetheyarethedecisionmakersoftomorrow.

Thewebsitewww.project-iwts20.euwascreatedtogiveimportantinformaconandfactsaboutinlandwaterwaytransportaconandshallguidemembersofthetargetgrouptotakeinlandwaterwaytrans-portaconintoaccountwhenplanningtransportaconchains.

Tobeabletogivetheabove-menconedfactstothetargetgroupthissciencficpaperexplainsinlandwaterwayvesselsindetail.Therearetwodifferentkindsofinlandwaterwayvessels.Ontheonehandthere are pushed barges which are not motorised and on the other hand “goods-motor-barges”whicharemotorised.Thesizesofinlandwaterwayvesselshaveincreasedinthelastyears.Theactualnumberscanbefoundintable1.About2.100inlandwaterwayvesselswereregisteredinGermanyin2018.

AlmosteverykindofgoodsaretransportedbyinlandwaterwayvesselsinEurope.Nexttoliquid-andsolidbulkcargoalsoRo/Rocargoandcontainersaretransportedonwaterways.Butthetransportedvolumes of themenconed kind of cargoes have decreased during the last years due to low cdescausedbyextremehotanddrysummers.Furthermore, inlandwaterwayvesselsbenefit fromtheirlargecapacicesthatiswhytheyaremostbeneficialwhentransporcnglargeandheavycargoessuchabulksorprojectcargoes.Butalso,forcontainer-andRo/Rotransportaconinlandwaterwayvesselscanbeprofitable.

MostinlandwaterwayvesselsareregisteredinWesternEuropeduetothefactthatalargeandwell-appointed canal- and river network is available in this region. About 30.177 km ofwaterways areavailableinEurope.Inordertomaintainthenetwork,it is importanttoinvestintheinfrastructure.EspeciallyinsomepartsofGermanylocksandcanalsecconsarenotuptodateduetoincreasedin-land waterway vessel sizes and outdated technologies. That is why the federal government haslaunchedthe“FederalTransportInfrastructurePlan2030”whichstatesthat6.5billion€willbeinves-ted inthecanal-andrivernetworkuncl2030.Themost importantpartoftheEuropeanwaterwaynetworkistheRhine-andDanubeareawheremostinlandwaterwaytransportstakeplace.Especiallythepre-andon-carriagesfromandtotheseaportsofRooerdamandAntwerpensurelargeporconsoffreightvolumes.

Inlandwaterwaytransportaconcanalsobeessencalincitylogisccsconcepts.Manycicescomplainabouttoomanytrucksinthecitycentres,butmostcicesarealsolocatednexttoariveroracanal.Soinlandwaterway vessels canhelp reducing road traffic in the city centres by shiXing cargoes fromtruckstoinlandwaterwayvessels.GoodexamplesforsmallbargecityconceptsarethebeerboatinUtrechtandtheportfeederbargeinHamburg.

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In order tomake informacon and data about inlandwaterway vessels comparable it needs to becomparedtoasecondmodeoftransportacon.Roadtransportaconwaschosenbecauseitisacom-pectorforinlandwaterwaytransportacon.

TruckingisthemostcommonmodeoftransportaconinGermany.About3.1milliontruckswerere-gisteredinGermanyin2018.Aroadnetworkofapproximately230.000kmmakesthetruckthemostflexiblemeanoftransportbecauseitcanreachalmosteverydescnaconinGermanyduetothefactthatalmosteverycompanyandprivatehouseholdshasaroadconneccon.

Topointoutthesustainabilityofinlandwaterwayvesselsasustainabilitystudywascarriedout.Firstofallthe17sustainabilitygoalswhichwereagreedbythe“UnitedNacons“wereexamined.The17goalscanbeseparatedintothreemaincategories:Ecological,economicalandsocialgoals.Next,onegoalofeachmaincategorywasselectedwhichappliesforinlandwaterwaytransportacon.

Fromthesocialgoalsthe3rdgoalnamed“Ensurehealthy livesandpromotewell-beingforallatallages”was chosen. Countries and companies should ensure that everyone can lead a healthy life.With regard to truck drivers, this means guaranteeing sufficient break cmes. This can only beachieved if sufficient infrastructure isprovidedwithavailableparking spacesand sanitary facilices.The current situaconon inlandwaterway vessels is different.Onboard, employeesworkup to14hoursaday.Sinceaninlandnavigaconskippertravelsonashipforaround180days,theinlandnav-igaconworkingcmeregulaconscpulatesthataninlandnavigaconskippermayworkontheshipfor31consecucvedays.Hereitisdifficulttocreateaproperwork-life-balance.Forthisreason,familiesareincreasinglyaccompanyingtheskipperontheinlandwaterwayvessels.Comparedtotrucks,itisposicvetonotethatsanitary facilices, forexample,arealwaysavailablebecausetheyareperman-entlyinstalledontheship.

Fromtheecologicalcategorythe13thgoalnamed“Takeurgentaccontocombatclimatechangeandits impacts”was selected.Without limicng greenhouse gas emissions, the global temperaturewillconcnuetorise.GermanyisapartytotheParisConvencon.Themaingoal istoreducedangerousgreenhousegasesby2030.Forthisreason,thegovernmentwantstoreduceCO2emissionsinmanyareassuchasenergyproduccon,theindustrialsectorandthetransportsector.Around3.200milliontonsofgoodsaretransportedannuallybytruck.At103gCO2pertkm,truckemissionsarearound10cmeshigherthanthoseofinlandwaterwayvessels.Themajorityofinlandwaterwayvesselsareop-eratedwithanenginethat isnotmuch largerthanthatofatruck.The inlandwaterwayvesselcanthereforecontributetothesegoals.Finally, itcanbesaidatthispointthatinlandnavigaconisverytradiconal.Theshipshaveanaverageageofover45yearsinwhichonlyafewinnovaconshavebeenimplemented.Atthispointthereisaneedtocatchupinordertofurtherreduceemissions.

Theninthgoal"Buildresilientinfrastructure,promoteinclusiveandsustainableindustrializaconandfoster innovacon"oftheUnitedNaconswasfurther invescgated.Thisgoal focusesonaresource-efficient, low-pollucngandclimate-friendlywayof life,especially insectorssuchasmanufacturing,infrastructureandinnovacon.Withregardtotrucks,thissustainablewayofthinkingplaysanimport-antroleinfutureinnovaconsinthefieldofenginetechnology.Alternacveengineconceptstoreduceemissionsarebeingdevelopedanddrivenforward.Inlandnavigaconfacessimilarchallenges.Locksmustbemaintained,repairedandenlargedtoensuresmoothoperacon.Inaddicon,soluconsmustbefoundforlowbridgesinordertobeabletoofferthepossibilityofincreasedcontainertransportby inlandwaterway vessels. Furthermore, a suitable infrastructuremust be provided in the ports.Shore power conneccons for inland vessels or cranes for project cargo are scarce inmany inlandports.Awiderangeofrequirementsaresetoutinthe"InlandNavigaconMasterPlan".Withitsfocus

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on "infrastructure", "environmental friendliness and fleet structure", "digicsacon", "strengtheningthemulcmodaltransportchain"and"moreskilledworkers",thisshouldcontributetomakinginlandnavigaconmoresustainableandaoraccve.ThesemeasureswillalsobringtheUNclosertoitsgoalinthisrespect.

AsafurtherpointaSWOTanalysiswascarriedout.Forinlandnavigacon,strengthsintheareaofpro-jectcargoandbulkcargoescouldbeidencfiedduetotheirhighcarryingcapacity.Inaddicon,thereareonlyafewrestricconsonthetransportofgoodsbyinlandwaterway.Moreover,inlandwaterwayvessels can relieve overcrowded roads by transferring flows of goods from the road towater as amodeoftransport.Amodernpushedbargewithfourpushlighters,forexample,cantakeandtrans-porttheloadofaround280trucksof25tonseach.Althoughinlandwaterwayvesselstravelslower,theytravelmoreconsistently.Trafficjams,accidentsoroccupiedrailwaysecconsregularlyslowdowntherailwaysandtrucks.Inaddicon,theinlandwaterwayvesselcanbeusedasaso-called"floacngwarehouse".Opportunicesthusarisefor inlandwaterwayvessels incombinedtransport.Transportchainscanthereforebemademuchmoreeco-friendlybyusinginlandwaterwayvesselsinthemainrun.Theabove-menconedgoalsoftheUnitedNaconscanthereforebesupported.Oneweaknessofinlandwaterwayvessels,bycontrast,isthatgenerallynodoor-to-doortransportcanbeofferedandtheyareaccordinglydependentoncombinedtransport.Thelackofrecruitmentofnewemployeesisamajorriskforthesector

Onthecontrary,thecostanalysisshowedthatnotonlythetransportedtonofcargoperkilometreischeaper than fora truck,butalsotheexternalcostsofan inlandnavigaconvesselaresignificantlylower.ThetotalcostsonanexampleroutefromBremerhaventoHanoverforthetransportofacon-taineramount,accordingtoowncalculacons,to201€foratruckandonly139€foraninlandwa-terwayvessel.Aspartofthis,externalcostswerealsotakenintoaccount.Theyarecostscausedbutnotcoveredbyameanoftransport.Forexample,aspectssuchastheemissionofpollutants,noiseandaccidentsareconsideredandassessedwithanequivalentvalue.Arateof4.2centspertonne-kilometrehasbeencalculatedforatruck.Whereastheratefor inlandwaterwayvessels isonly1.9centspertonne-kilometre,therateforinlandwaterwayvesselsisonly1.9centspertonne-kilometre.

Finally,itcanbesaidthatinlandwaterwayvesselsoffermanyadvantages.Theseadvantagescanonlyberealisedwithoutthecompecconofthetransportcarriersinordertobeabletoofferthemostfu-ture-orientedandsustainabletransportsoluconpossible.Inlandwaterwaytransportaconshouldbemoreconsideredbythelogisccssectorwhenplanningtransportaconchains.

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ListofCitedLiterature

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DVZ:Schwergutlagestabil(Hrsg.),URL:hops://www.dvz.de/rubriken/logisck/schwergut/detail/news/schwergut-lage-stabil-probleme-bleiben.html[29.10.2019]

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FHOsnabrück(Hrsg.),Projektarbeit(LeitungHerrBode):BinnenschifffahrtaufdemDort-mund-Ems-Kanal:URL:hop://www.wsa-meppen.de/amtsbereich/dek/images/Binsch-DEK.PDF[20.12.2019]

FISfürMobilitätundVerkehr(Hrsg.),Güterstruktureffekt,(Güterstruktureffekt,2019),2019,URL:hops://www.forschungsinformaconssystem.de/servlet/is/39447/,[29.11.2019]

GablerWirtschaqslexikon(Hrsg.),Nachhalcgkeit,(Nachhalcgkeit),URL:hops://wirt-schaXslexikon.gabler.de/definicon/nachhalcgkeit-41203,[20.11.2019]

gehalt.deGmbH(Hrsg.),Wasverdienteigentlichein…?,LKW-Fahrerin,URL:hops://www.-gehalt.de/beruf/lkw-fahrer-lkw-fahrerin[16.10.2019]

GENIOSBranchenWissen(Hrsg.),DumpingkonkurrenzausOsteuropa–deutscheSpedico-nenverlierenMarktanteile,(DumpingkonkurrenzausOsteuropa,2015),2015,URL:hop://www.genios.de/branchen/dumpingkonkurrenz_aus_osteuropa/s_-tra_20151221.html#3b4b155c-ae9f-4ac6-9b6f-559908929ac5,[17.11.2019]

GesamtverbandderDeutschenVersicherungswirtschaq(Hrsg.),PerspekcvendesCon-tainertransportsperBinnenschiffimSeehafenhinterlandverkehr,(PerspekcvendesContainertransports),URL:hop://www.cs-gdv.de/cs/tagungen/workshop/cs/kohl-mann/kohlmann.htm,[24.11.2019]

GesamtverbandderDeutschenVersicherungswirtschaqe.V.(GDV)(Hrsg.),PerspekcvendesContainertransportsperBinnenschiffimSeehafenhinterlandverkehr,URL:hop://www.cs-gdv.de/cs/tagungen/workshop/cs/kohlmann/kohlmann.htm[20.11.2019]

Interna&onalMari&meOrganiza&on(IMO)(Hrsg.),InternaconalMaricmeSolidBulkCar-goes(IMSBC)Code,URL:hop://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Safety/Cargoes/Cargoe-sInBulk/Pages/default.aspx[20.12.2019]

Juniper&SonsGmbH(Hrsg.),Vor-undNachteiledesLKW,URL:hops://www.logisckbran-che.net/dossier/vorteile-nachteile-lkw.html[27.10.2019]

KansasStateUniversity(Hrsg.),BulkSolidsInnovaconCenter:URL:hops://bulk-solids.k-state.edu/bulk_solids.html[20.12.2019]

Kerner,Rega(Hrsg.)URL:hops://www.binnenschiffe.de/inhalte/arckel/mioelrhein/flot-te.htm[11.11.2019]

Schiffahrts-Verlag»Hansa«GmbH&Co.KG(Hrsg.),Schifffahrtsabgabenwerdengestri-chen,URL:hops://binnenschifffahrt-online.de/2018/11/featured/5216/schifffahrts-abgaben-werden-abgescha�-3/[03.11.2019]

Schmidt,Boris,FrankfurterAllgemeineZeitungGmbH(Hrsg.),Lastwagenverbrauchenre-lacvwenigDiesel,URL:hops://www.faz.net/aktuell/technik-motor/motor/effizienz-lkws-verbrauchen-relacv-wenig-diesel-14559014.html[8.12.2016]

ShortSeaShippingInlandWaterwayPromo&onCenter(Hrsg.),SystemderKlassifizierungvonBinnenschiffenaufEuropäischenWasserstrassen,URL:hops://www.shortsea-shipping.de/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/System-Klassifizierung-EWS.pdf[12.11.2019]

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SpringerFachmedienMünchenGmbH(Hrsg.),HöhereSpesenfürLKW-Fahrergeplant,,URL:www.verkehrsrundschau.de[09.08.2018]

SpringerGabler|SpringerFachmedienWiesbadenGmbH(Hrsg.),Nachhalcgkeit,URL:hops://wirtschaXslexikon.gabler.de/definicon/nachhalcgkeit-41203[20.11.2019]

Sta&sta(Hrsg.),AnzahlderLastkraXwageninDeutschlandnachKraXstoffarten,(AnzahlderLastkraXwageninDeutschland,2019),2019,URL:hops://de.stacsta.com/stacsck/daten/studie/468860/umfrage/lkw-bestand-in-deutschland-nach-kraXstoffarten/,[02.12.2019]

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Interviewreferences

Bendiee,André,TechnicalExpert,Baoermann&TilleryGmbH,Bremen

Harms,Arne,Inlandwaterwayskipperandmanagingdirector,LudwigHarmsFinanzdienst-leistungene.K.,Elsfleth

Oesterwind,Henrieee,TerminalManagementDuisports,Duisburg

Schlosser,Sina,SPEDITIONS-ASSEKURANZVersicherungsmaklerGmbH,Hollenstedt

Schneehagen,Heiner,AutomocvExpert,Baoermann&TilleryGmbH,Bremen

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ListofAppendices

1. InterviewHeinerSchneehagen,Kraqfahrzeugsachverständiger,Baeermann&TilleryGmbH,15.10.2019:

• Leistung:

• SZM:ca.1.000.000kmChassis:Leasingdauernormalerweise8Jahre

2. InterviewArneHarms,GeschäqsführereinerBinnenschiffsreedrei,24.11.2019:

• KostenSchiffstypEuropa

• Zeit-/Marktwert3.050.000€Abschreibung152.500€Personal180.000€Zinsen64.050€

• Versicherung36.000€Reparatur20.000€Reparaturrücklage12.000€Verwaltung15.000€

• Summe479.550€

• Einsatztagep.a.340Tageskostensatz[€]1.411€

• Großtonnage[t]1.665Ladetonnage2,50m[t]1.269Ladetonnage2,80m[t]1.500

• VerbrauchproStunde[l/h]80PreisproLiter0,55€

• Europa

• Personal38%Zinsen 13%Abschreibung 32%Versicherung 8% Reparatur 4% Reparaturrücklage 3%Verwaltung3%

• DasEuropaschiffwardasMaßfürdenBaudeutscherKanäle,heuteistesdasGMS

• TankschiffeinderBinnenschifffahrthabendreiUnterzeichnungen:

• TypNADN9.3.3

• TypCADN9.3.2

• TypGADN9.3.1

• DieUnterschiedegrob:G=Gas;3Hüllen;Drucktanks

• C=Chemie;Doppelhülle

• N=abgestuXerTypC;meistdurchUmbauvomEinhüllerzumDoppelhüllerbzw.altesBaujahr.

• Offizielle Unterscheidung: siehe ADN 1.2.1 (Begriffsbescmmungen); „Schiffstypen“. Dort auchZeichnungenvorhanden.

Interview30.11.2019:

• DescnaconenfürdenVergleichwürdeichwiefolgtvorschlagen:

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• Fallersleben-Hamburg• Braunschweig-Hamburg• Minden-Bremerhaven• Hannover-Bremerhaven

• DievierRelaconensind"reale"Staconen,dietäglichperEurop-BiSchibedientwerden.

• Hannover:VW-Nutzfahrzeuge-WerkFallersleben: Container-BiSchi-Hafen von VW Wolfsburg Braunschweig: große GVZ-Stacon; u.a.DHL-DrehkreuzundWeitereMinden:2Container-Terminals(einsdavoninII-2019eröffnet)

• Fallersleben-Hamburg: Reisezeit:1,5Tage(SchleusenzeitenundTideistbereitsinklusive)Distanz:160kmfürBe-undEntladunginsgesamt:1Tag(je0,5Tage)

• Braunschweig-Hamburg: Reisezeit:1,5Tageinkl.SchleusenundTide(vonFallerslebennachHamburgmuss1Schleusemehrdurchfahrenwerden.Die10kmMehrdistanzkompensierendie1Schleuseaber,dadurchbleibtdieReisezeitgleich)Distanz:170km

• Be-/Entladung:1Tag(2x0,5)

• Minden–Bremerhaven: Reisezeit:1,5Tage1TagBe-/Entladung(je0,5)

• Hannover-Bremerhaven: Reisezeit:2Tage1TagBe-/Entladung(je0,5)

3. Interview André Bendiee, technischer Sachverständiger, Baeermann & Tillery GmbH,02.11.2019:

• StückpreisReifenca.EUR350–EUR500

• LaufleistungabhängigvomEinsatz,FahrerundQualität:80.000–350.000

• AntriebsachsenhabeneinergeringereLaufleistung(AntriebskräXebeanspruchendenReifenstärk-er)

• ReifenvomChassishabenebenfallsgeringereLaufleistung(hoheGewichtedurchLadung)

• ReifenvonFernfahrernhaltenlänger–wenigerbremsenundbeschleunigen

• ReifenvonBaustellenfahrzeugeundKurzstreckenfahrzeuge(Verteilerverkehr)haltenentsprechendkürzer.

• Ichdenke,wennduvoneinemPreisproReifenvon rundEUR425ausgehstduvoneinerdurch-schniolichenLaufleistungvon200.000km,dannliegstdugutinderMioe.

• Reifen sind einfach sehr anwendungsspezifisch und jeder Unternehmer wird diese auf sein Ein-satzgebietundseineAnsprücheanpassen,daReifenkeineunerheblicheKostenstellesind.

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• FürdasErneuernvonReifenkannstduca.EUR50rechnen–hängtsehrdavonab,woundwerundzuwelchenStundensätzen.VieleSpediconenmachendasauchselbst in ihreneigenenWerkstät-ten.

4. InterviewSinaSchlosser,Spedi&ons-AssekuranzVersicherungsmaklerGmbH,14.10.2019:

• VersicherungskostenLKW:

• SZM:Kasko+HaXpflicht=3.000€/JahrVerkehrshaXung:=800€/Jahr

• Chassis:HaXpflicht:150€/JahrKasko:250€/Jahr

• Gesamt:4.200€/Jahr

5. Vortragvon Jan-HendrikDonner,ProjektManagerbei ShortSeaShipping InlandWaterwayPro-mo&onCenter(SPC)vom11.11.2019:

• SchubleichterimViererverbundentlastetdieStraßeum2.000.000PKW-Überfahrten

• GenehmigungenfürSchwerlasoransporteaufderStraßedauernsehrlang

• BeimBinnenschiffkeineTransportgenehmigungnöcg

• 5600kmWasserstraßenallein inDeutschland ->gutesbestehendesNetz, fastalleTeileDeutsch-landskönnenmitdemBinnenschifferreichtwerden

• KohleläuXbaldnichtmehr->nochmehrfreieKapazitätenaufdenWasserstraßen

• Niedrigwasserzwarproblemacsch,hataberRuckinderPolickherbeigeführt

• BelastungenaufStraße+Schienesindgroß

• Problemder3-lagigenContainertransportedurchBrückenhöhen

• SGKV:ChancendesKombiniertenVerkehrs

• Problem:VieleHäfenhabennichtdas Equipment, um schwere Ladungauf Schiffen zuplatzierenbzw.vonihnenzulöschen

• ReduzierungderkrebserregendenParckel

• KeinSonn-undFeiertagsverbot

• BinnenschiffalsLager

• IdencfizierungvonRundläufenundKonsolidierungvonEinzelverkehren

• HoheVersorgungssicherheitdurchungestörtenVerkehrsfluss

• FachkräXemangel zwar bei allen Verkehrsträgern, Binnenschiff braucht aber kaum Personal (beihoherLadungsmenge)

• SchwacheLobbyfürdasBinnenschiff

• BinnenschiffereinerderbestbezahltestenAusbildungsberufeDeutschlands

• WenigAufnahmevonDateninderBinnenschifffahrt,dieseistabernöcgumVerbesserungenher-beizuführen

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• BelastungderVerkehrswegemaximalinSchleusengebietenproblemacsch

• Schleusen->Verstopfung,Ausfälle

• UmsetzungvonInfrastrukturmaßnahmenschleppend

• BeieingefahrenenTransportenistesschwierig,aufdasBinnenschiffumzulegen

• NeueTransportau�ommenhabengrößereChancenaufdasBinnenschiffumgelegtzuwerden

• Digitalisierung:NöcgistVoranmeldungbeiSchleusen

• BinnenschiffenutzenanBordjetztbereits:Personalprogramm,Gefahrgutprogramm

• WenigBereitschaXzurWeiterbildung

• Mobilfunknetzmussdringendausgebautwerden

• 3GNetzkönntefürautonomesFahrenbereitsausreichen

5. InterviewHenrieeeOesterwind,TerminalManagement,DuisburgerHafenAG,12.11.2019:

• LKW-FahrerhäufigosteuropäischerNaconalitätundsprechenteilweisewederDeutschnochEng-lisch

• HäufigeUnvorsichcgkeitenbeiPassierenderGatesoderbeimOperierenaufdemTerminal

• Port-GatesdesÖXerenbeschädigt

• StehenuntergewissemZeitdruck