Attacksonmobileadhocnetworks 120420092725-phpapp01

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Transcript of Attacksonmobileadhocnetworks 120420092725-phpapp01

  • 1. RUHR-UNIVERSITT BOCHUM ARBEITSGRUPPE INTEGRIERTE INFORMATIONSSYSTEME SEMINARARBEIT Attacks on Mobile Ad hoc Netwoks Zdravko Danailov

2. i Abstract Because of the designation of the mobile ad hoc networks (MANet), namely to build up a dynamic wireless network, which has no antecedent and strictly dened infrastructure, within areas with limited or no available organized infrastructure, is possible for two types of parties to participate in MANet - authentic network users as well as malicious attackers. This fact certainly arises the question about the security. In this paperwork we pay attention to the common attacks within MANet, which differ in their essence such as Blackhole attack, Flooding attack, jamming, Worm- hole attack, trafc monitoring and analysis, DoS etc. and what can be done as countermeasures against them. 3. Contents ii Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Preliminaries 2 2.1 MANet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2 Security layers in MANet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Attacks on MANet 7 3.1 Attacks on MANet physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Attacks on MANet data link layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3 Attacks on MANet network layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.1 Flooding attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.2 Blackhole attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.3 Link Spoong Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3.4 Wormhole attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4 Attacks on MANet transport layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.5 Multi-layer attacks on MANet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4 Conclusion 15 4. List of Figures iii List of Figures 2.1 Structure of MANet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2 Single-Hop Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.3 Multi-Hop Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.4 Common Infrastructure of MANet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.5 Hybrid Infrastructure within MANet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1 Jamming/Interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Processing of Data Signal by DSSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3 Blackhole Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4 Link Spoong Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5 Wormhole Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.6 TCP Handshake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. List of Figures iv List of Abbreviations AODV Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector CTS Clear To Send DoS Denial of Service DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum e.g. for example FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum GSM Global System for Mobile Communications i.e. id est LAN Local Area Network MANet Mobile Ad hoc Network MIMA Man-in-the-middle Attack MPR Multipoint Relay OLSR Optimized Link State Routing OSI Open System Interconnection PDA Personal Digital Assistant RREP Route Reply RREQ Route Request RTS Request To Send SSL Secure Socket Layer TCB Transmission Control Block TCP Transmission Control Protocol TLS Transport Layer Security 6. 1 Introduction 1 1 Introduction In a world of fast developing technologies and internet network, accessible for everyone, where there are no clear boundaries between the functionality of the "gadgets" and the possibility to com- municate is not an option but necessity, the mobile ad hoc networks (MANet) play signicant role. As a dynamic network, which has no antecedent and strictly dened infrastructure (e.g. Wireless Access Points), MANet makes possible the connection between different types of mediums with- out any additional infrastructure e.g. mobile phones, laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), tablets, iPads etc.. Its assembly and conguration costs nothing because every single participant can play the role of a router, so no preparation or build-up of an infrastructure is needed. In other words MANet is a self-conguring and self-organizing network. For these reasons a certain level of security cannot be established within the network. In this paperwork we will pay attention to the structure of MANet and the specic security levels within the network. For the better under- standing of the infrastructure of MANet we will make also a comparison to the standard wireless networks. As we present the assembly and the conguration, we will show the vulnerabilities of the network and the different types of attacks, which are common for MANet and what can be done as countermeasures against them. In order to examine the structure and security within MANet, presenting some of the attacks, which are typical for the network, the structure of this paperwork is build-up as it follows. Chapter 2 fo- cuses on the theoretical fundamentals of the MANet infrastructure and presents some differences in comparison to the standard WLANs. It also pays attention to the specic security network lay- ers, which can be applied to this network. Prior to introducing the common attacks within MANet, the different types of attacks will be classied in order to make clear, which attack against which level of MANet security can be used. An analysis of the well-known attacks against MANet will be performed in chapter 3, as well as countermeasures, which can strengthen up the security level of the network. Chapter 4 will conclude with a summary on the MANet infrastructure and a crit- ical view on the security level of the network, which have already been examined in detail in this paperwork. Before we start with the examination of the existing attacks against MANet, we will make clear some of the basic terms which are used in this paper. 7. 2 Preliminaries 2 2 Preliminaries 2.1 MANet What is MANet? A mobile ad hoc network (Figure 2.1) is a dynamic self-conguring wireless network of mobile devices (nodes), in which every single node can act as router. This router can possess multiple hosts and wireless devices. The nodes are free to move about arbitrarily [7], but they can interact with each other though there is no strictly dened structure or centralized administration, using wireless connections [5]. Moreover they can connect via different types of wireless connections (e.g. standard Wi-Fi connection, cellular or satellite transmissions) to various networks [1]. This collection of mobile nodes "may operate in isolation, or may have gateways to and interface with a xed network."[7] Because of its properties, MANet nds very good application within areas, where it is not possible or expensive and completely unprotable to build up a predened, xed infrastructure. Figure 2.1: Structure of MANet Regarding the way of communication between two nodes within wireless networks, there are two types applicable to MANet - single-hop and multiple-hop network. By single-hop network (Figure 2.2), two nodes are in direct transmission range or more exactly they can interact with one another directly, without a forwarding of the communication transfer over a third node [4]. 8. 2.1 MANet 3 Figure 2.2: Single-Hop Networks In this specic structure, base station plays a signicant role. It is involved in the communication with every mobile node, by taking care of the channel assignment for RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send) packets. Within the single-hop networks usually are reused 7 frequencies, as the neighboring cells are using different frequencies. Figure 2.3: Multi-Hop Networks By multi-hop network (Figure 2.3), the communication transfer between two nodes is forwarded over a third node [4]. As in the both gures ( 2.3, 2.2) is shown, there can exist base stations within the network, but as already mentioned above they are not typical for MANet infrastructure (e.g. standard wireless networks possess base stations or access points and the participants communicate with one another, using this predened infrastructure). In order to show what is the most common structure of the network (MANet) we will examine Figure 2.4. In comparison to the typical wireless network, by MANet there is no need of predened infras- tructure such as access points or base stations. As mentioned, within MANet every participant (node) can play the role of a router and can establish multiple connections to other participating 9. 2.1 MANet 4 Figure 2.4: Common Infrastructure of MANet nodes by partitioning the available bandwidth to multiple channels, if they are in the range of coverage. Therefore MANet infrastructure can changes dynamically as e.g.: one or more nodes quit the network, because they are not within the range of transmission coverage one or more nodes quit the network, because they are not within the range of transmission coverage and they join another MANet infrastructure one or more nodes quit the network, because they just terminate their connection to the network one or more nodes join the network, because they are within the range of transmission cov- erage As there is no strictly dened infrastructure in MANet, it is also possible to exist a hybrid network (please see Figure 2.5), where: 1. mobile nodes can establish connection with one another within the network(MANet) 2. mobile nodes(nodes 1 and 2) can establish connection with one another over the base sta- tion(e.g. access point) 3. mobile nodes (node 2) can establish connection to other nodes, which are not participants within this particular MANet, but part of other network (node 3), e.g. Wi-Fi, o