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  • 1

    Energy

    CSP Technologie, Potentiale und Perspektiven fr Tunesien und die MENA Region

    Louy QoaiderContributions of P. Heller, C. Richter, K. Hennecke, M. Eck, F. Trieb, R. Pitz-Paal

    Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

  • Folie 2

    1. Concentration via parabolic mirrors produces heat on a receiver (400 1000 C),

    2. High temperature heat can be converted to power in conventional power cycles, including optional thermal storage or hybridization with other fuels

    3. or can be used directly for other thermal processes (cooling, industry, chemistry)

    Basic operating principle of Concentrating Solar Systems

  • Folie 3

    Concentrating solar technologies: basic layout schemes

    Solar Receiver

    Heliostats

    Absorber Tube

    Pipe with thermal fluid

    Curved mirror

    Receiver / Engine

    Reflector

    Central Receiver

    Parabolic Trough

    Dish/Engine

    Linear Fresnel

    Absorber tube andreconcentrator

    Curvedmirror

    Solar Receiver

    Heliostats

    Solar Receiver

    Heliostats

    Absorber Tube

    Pipe with thermal fluid

    Curved mirror

    Receiver / Engine

    Reflector

    Receiver / Engine

    Reflector

    Central Receiver

    Parabolic Trough

    Dish/Engine

    Linear Fresnel

    Absorber tube andreconcentrator

    Curvedmirror

    Linear Concentration

    C: 100, T: ~ 500 C

    Point Concentration

    C: 1000+, T: ~ 1000 C

  • Folie 4

    Concentrating solar technologies: basic layout schemes

  • Folie 5

    Concentrating Solar PowerStatus of commercial technology

    Parabolic Trough HTF: Thermal Oil Mature and commercially proven technologyCompeting products with similar dimensionsPlant sizes: 14 80 MWe

    Power TowerWater/steam: First commercial systems (10/20 MWe) Molten salt: Commercial system under development (17 MWe)Air: Pre-commercial pilot plant under construction (1,5 MWe)

    Linear FresnelPrototype systems with significant industrial engagement

    Dish Systems: new product developments, large projects announced

  • Folie 6

    Projects in Spain: Plant layout Andasol

    Turbina de vapor

    Condensador

    Precalentadorde presin baja

    Sobrecalentador

    Precalentadorsolar

    Recalentadorsolar

    Generador de vapor

    Tanque de expansin

    Campo Solar

    Caldera

    Combustibe

    (Opcional)

  • Folie 7

    2 storage tanks:2 storage tanks:

    = 36 m= 36 m

    h = 14 mh = 14 m

    28.500 tm28.500 tmmolten saltmolten salt

    7,5 h storage 7,5 h storage

    Current CSP projects: Andasol 1 plant50 MW capacity, 7,5 h storage (Solar Millennium, ACS)2 km Area. Granada, Spain.

  • Folie 8

    Solar Tower PS20 (Spain, Abengoa)

  • Folie 9

    95

    96

    97

    98

    99

    100

    Ava

    ilabi

    lity

    - %

    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

    III IV V VI VII

    The SEGS Experience in California

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    Effic

    ienc

    y [%

    ]

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    Dire

    ct N

    orm

    al R

    adia

    tiom

    [W/m

    ]

    05:00 07:00 09:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00

    Solar to Electric Efficiency (gross)

    Direct Normal Radiation

    Thermal SolarField Efficiency-

    Solar Efficiencies Measured at SEGS VIon July 1997 by KJC Operating Company

    High availabilityHigh solar efficiency

    Aerial View of SEGS Plants

  • Folie 10

    Introduction of CSP in North Africa: Status

    Algeria: 150 MW Combined Cycle under constructionEgypt: 140 MW Combined Cycle under constructionMarokko: 470 MW Combined Cycle under constructionCSP Power Plants planned in Jordan und LybiaFeed-In tarifs for Renewables planned or already established

  • Folie 11

    Summary of Technical Parameters

    20Capacity of Solar portion (MWe)

    79Nameplate Capacity of gas turbine (MWe)

    76.5Nameplate Capacity of steam turbine (MWe)

    852Net electric energy (GWhe/a)

    33Solar electric energy (GWhe/a)

    4%Solar share(%)

    8000Fuel saving due to the solar portion (T.O.E / a)

    20000CO2 reduction (T / a)

    Kuraymat 140 MW Solar thermal power plant

    Source: NREA

  • Folie 12

    Status 140MW Combined Power Plant with a 20 MW Solar Plant Kuraymat, Egypt

    Conventional Power Block: NREA contracts IBERDROLA Ingenera Construccin S.A.U.

    (30.9.2007)

    Solar Plant + 2 Jahr O&M: ORASCOM Construction Industries (Egypt) (Contract placed

    21.10.2007)

    Engineering and Supervision: Fichtner Solar GmbH (Contract placed 7.2.2008)

    Start of Construction April 2008

    Termination 2010

    Source: NREA

  • Folie 13

    R&D for next steps: Solar Thermal Power Test Facilities Worldwide

    PSI (CH)

    Solar One (US)

    WIS (IL)

    CNRS (F)CRTF Sandia (US)

    PSA (E)

    ANU (AUS)WIS (IL)

  • Folie 14

    International RD&D collaboration: IEA SolarPACES IA

    SolarPACES is a worldwide coalition of 12 member countries collaborating and sharing information on technology development and applications of concentrated solar energy

    MEXICO

    USA

    SOUTH AFRICA

    ISRAELEGYPT

    SPAIN

    SWITZERLANDGERMANY

    FRANCE

    EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    AUSTRALIA

    ALGERIA

    AUSTRALIA

    GERMANY

    SOUTH AFRICAALGERI

    AEGYPT

    EUFRANC

    E

    ISRAELMEXICO SPAIN SWITZER-LAND

    UNITED STATES

    COREA

    COREA

    Interested: Greece, Austria, Italy, UAE, Namibia, Portugal

  • Folie 15

    T = 400C

    p = 100 bar

    l = 500 m (700 m)

    Pth 1,5 MW

    all operation modes are realizable

    more than 8000 operation hours

    Parabolic Troughs New Transfer fluids: Example: Direct Steam Generation, DISS Test Facility

  • Folie 16

    Parabolic Troughs DSG Achievements

    potential of cost reduction determined to be 11-15% (compared to HTF)

    feasibility proven at life size test-facility

    development of absorber tubes for T = 500C

    detailed engineering of first demonstration plant finished

  • Folie 17

    Solar TowersIncrease power block efficiency

    Power block already fully developed

    Increase operation temperature

    Use appropriate working fluid

    air

    water/steam

    molten salt

    sodium

    Change power cycle

    G

  • Folie 18

    Maximum live steam parameter:

    535C100 bar

    Receiver heat transfer fluid:Molten nitrate salt

    Backup Options:

    Thermal storage is an integral part of the concept

    Technology Status

    10 MWe System demonstration at Solar 2 (USA)

    Operated from1996 to 1999

    17 MWe Solar Tres under development in Spain

    Solar Towers: Molten salt receiver

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800 [C]

    565

    CStorage Tank

    Cold SaltStorage Tank

    Hot Salt

    ConventionalEPGS

    Steam Generator

    o C565290 o C

  • Folie 19

    Maximum live steam parameter:

    565C110 bar

    Receiver heat transfer fluid:Air (1 bar)

    Backup Options:

    Thermal storage filled with ceramics

    Duct burner

    Technology Status

    3 MWth air loop demonstration at Plataforma Solar de Almeria

    1,5 MWe pilot power plant Jlich, Germany

    750

    C

    Solar Tower: Atmospheric air receiver

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800 [C]

  • Folie 20

    Rankine = 16 % (annual)

    Rankine = 16 % (annual)

    CC = 25 % (annual)

    Solar TowersSolar-hybrid gas turbine systems (SGT)

  • Folie 21

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    PS-10 Trough(HTF)

    Trough(DSG)

    Tower(Salt)

    Tower(Na/Sn)

    Tower(Air/CC)

    Tem

    pera

    ture

    [C

    ]

    Parabolic Troughs & Solar Towers Summary

  • Folie 22

    R&D concentrates on cost reduction of CSP systems

    One promising option is to increase operation temperature

    For trough systems 500C are realistic in the mid term

    For solar towers 1000C have been demonstrated

    SGT system has highest solar to electricity efficiency

    A standard technology is not likely for the future

    R&D tasks

  • Folie 23

    Mirror ShapeContour accuracy of concentrator

    PhotogrammetryDeflectometryField tests (flux around

    Performance Measurement (DLR)

  • Folie 24

    Thermal Energy Storage Activities at DLRSolid/liquid TES from 100 to 1000 C

    Various sensible TES conceptsdirected towards process heat and power generation

    oil / concrete molten salt air / solidspacked bed/fluidized bed

    Salt storagetank

    Distributionring header

    Immersionheater (4)

    Foundation

    Saltpump

  • Folie 25

    Roadmap for CSP Plants(installed Power)

    Potential of CSP in Europe: installed capacity and annual energy production

    0

    25

    50

    75

    100

    125

    150

    175

    200

    2012 2020 20300

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    TWh/

    a

    60 GW / 170 TWh

    30 GW / 85 TWh

    4 GW / 11 TWh

    GW

    inst

    alle

    d Spain Portugal Italy Greece Cyprus+Malta

  • Folie 26

    Expected LEC development

    PV Feed-In Spain

    Wind Feed-In Spain

    CSP good solar site

    Baseload C