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  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 1 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Die Flugsteuerung des Hubschraubersvon den Grundlagen bis zur Einzelblattsteuerung

    Dr. Oliver KunzeProduktentwicklung LX-EZF Luftfahrttechnik GmbH

    Praxis-Seminar LuftfahrtFachhochschule Hamburg

    Hamburg, d. 28.10.2004

    Die Die FlugsteuerungFlugsteuerung des des HubschraubersHubschraubersvon den von den GrundlagenGrundlagen bisbis zurzur EinzelblattsteuerungEinzelblattsteuerung

    Dr. Oliver Dr. Oliver KunzeKunzeProduktentwicklungProduktentwicklung LXLX--EEZF Luftfahrttechnik GmbHZF Luftfahrttechnik GmbH

    PraxisPraxis--Seminar Seminar LuftfahrtLuftfahrtFachhochschuleFachhochschule HamburgHamburg

    Hamburg, d. 28.10.2004Hamburg, d. 28.10.2004

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 2 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Flight Control from primary to individual blade control

    OverviewOverviewHistory / Configuration and History / Configuration and Performance of a HelicopterPerformance of a HelicopterMain Rotor / Main Rotor Control Main Rotor / Main Rotor Control DesignDesignProblems of the Main Rotor Problems of the Main Rotor

    AerodynamicsAerodynamicsVibrationsVibrationsNoiseNoise

    Individual Blade Control (IBC)Individual Blade Control (IBC)Principle of OperationPrinciple of OperationEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsIBC System DesignIBC System Design

    Conclusion and OutlookConclusion and Outlook

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 3 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Flight Control from primary to individual blade control

    OverviewOverviewHistory / Configuration and History / Configuration and Performance of a HelicopterPerformance of a HelicopterMain Rotor / Main Rotor Control Main Rotor / Main Rotor Control DesignDesignProblems of the Main Rotor Problems of the Main Rotor

    AerodynamicsAerodynamicsVibrationsVibrationsNoiseNoise

    Individual Blade Control (IBC)Individual Blade Control (IBC)Principle of OperationPrinciple of OperationEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsIBC System DesignIBC System Design

    Conclusion and OutlookConclusion and Outlook

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 4 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Comparison of 1930 Aircraft Maturity, Helicopter vs. Fixed Wing

    Do X giant seaplane:MTOW: 48to Distance: 2800km Endurance: 14h

    Helicopter by C. dAscanio:Altitude: 18m Distance: 1078m Endurance: 8:45min

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 5 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Standard Configuration

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 6 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Lockheed AH-56A Cheyenne Compound Aircraft

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 7 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Tiltrotor Aircraft Bell/Boeing V-22 Osprey

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 8 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Relative Power Required vs. Forward Speed

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    0 50 100 150 200

    V [m/s]

    P/m

    [kW

    /to]

    Helicopter Compound

    AirplaneTilt-Rotor

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 9 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Velocity Distribution over Rotor Disk (Advanced Ratio = R / V)

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 10 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Flight Control from primary to individual blade control

    OverviewOverviewHistory / Configuration and History / Configuration and Performance of a HelicopterPerformance of a HelicopterMain Rotor / Main Rotor Control Main Rotor / Main Rotor Control DesignDesignProblems of the Main Rotor Problems of the Main Rotor

    AerodynamicsAerodynamicsVibrationsVibrationsNoiseNoise

    Individual Blade Control (IBC)Individual Blade Control (IBC)Principle of OperationPrinciple of OperationEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsIBC System DesignIBC System Design

    Conclusion and OutlookConclusion and Outlook

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 11 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Rotor Blade Lift and Flap

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 12 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Blade Control System Using a Conventional Swashplate Arrangement

    +

    -

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 13 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Angle-of-Attack Distribution in Forward Flight

    Level Flight

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 14 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Main Rotor Control SystemEurocopter (MBB) BO105

    Primr-steuer,stehend

    Taumel-scheibe

    Pitch Horn

    Steuer-stange

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 15 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Conventional Mechanical Primary Control System

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 16 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Main Rotor Sikorsky CH-53G

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 17 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Main Rotor Sikorsky CH-53G

    Primr-steuerBooster

    Pitch Horn Steuerstange (hier IBC-Aktuator)

    Taumelscheibestehende Schere

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 18 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Main Rotor Control with SpiderWestland Sea Lynx MK88

    Hub

    PitchControlRod

    SpiderArm

    Spindle

    Gimbal Joint

    RollerBearings

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 19 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    NHI NH-90

    Erstflug: 18. Dezember 1995Quadruplex fly-by-wire Steuerung

    http://www.nhindustries.com/phot.htmhttp://www.nhindustries.com/phot.htm

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 20 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Main Rotor Design 1950/60s

    AEROSPATIALE AS 341 Sikorsky S-58

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 21 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Main Rotor Design Bell 412

    Damper andFeather BearingLag Hinge

    Virtual FlapHinge

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 22 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Flight Control from primary to individual blade control

    OverviewOverviewHistory / Configuration and History / Configuration and Performance of a HelicopterPerformance of a HelicopterMain Rotor / Main Rotor Control Main Rotor / Main Rotor Control DesignDesignProblems of the Main Rotor Problems of the Main Rotor

    AerodynamicsAerodynamicsVibrationsVibrationsNoiseNoise

    Individual Blade Control (IBC)Individual Blade Control (IBC)Principle of OperationPrinciple of OperationEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsEffects in Wind Tunnel and Flight TestsIBC System DesignIBC System Design

    Conclusion and OutlookConclusion and Outlook

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 23 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Limiting Phenomena Encountered bya Helicopter Rotor in Forward Flight

    Mach Number Effects

    Yawed Flow

    Reversed Flow

    Rotor Wake Interferences

    Dynamic Stall Due to Blade Vortex Interaction

    High Angles of Attack

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 24 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Vibrations:Source Flexible Structure Reaction

    Periodic and Impulsive Blade Loads

    Flexible Rotor/Body Load Paths

    Rigid Body MotionsStructural Modes

    Flexible BladeCoupledEigenmodes

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 25 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Vibration Levels of 6 Different Helicopter Types (BO-105 4- and 5-Bladed, CH-53G Aluminium and IRB Blades, Tiger, UH-60)

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45Advance Ratio

    n Bl/r

    evVi

    brat

    ion

    at P

    ilot S

    eat [

    g]

    NASA Recommen-dation

    MIL-H-8501A (1962)

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 26 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Passive Vibration Absorber and Isolation Systems

    Cabin AbsorberPendulum Absorber

    Nodal BeamIsolation System

    FlappingMass

    FlexibleLeaf

    CabinStructure

    Bifilar Absorber

    AntiresonanceIsolation System

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 27 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    BVI-Noise Generating Mechanism

    Air Flow

    Modified Vortex Strength

    Reduced Pitch during BVI

    = 90

    = 0

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 28 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Example of Helicopter Rotor Sound Spectrum (l.h.s.) and Average Time History (r.h.s.)

  • Ku LX-E 28.10.04 Slide 29 Praxis-Seminar Luftfahrt Proprietary InformationZFLuftfahrtechnik GmbH

    Helicopter Flight Control from primary to individual blade control

    OverviewOverviewHistory / Configuration and History / Configuration and Performance of a HelicopterPerformance of a HelicopterMain Rotor / Main Rotor Control Main Rotor / Main Rotor Control DesignDesignProblems of the Main Rotor Problem