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    May 2001

    GermanSpace Programme

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    HerausgeberBundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit53170 BonnE-Mail: [email protected]: http://www.bmbf.de

    Bonn 2001

    Gedruckt auf Recyclingpapier

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  • May 2001

    GermanSpace Programme

    Table of Contents

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    A. Prospects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    B. Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    2. General objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11I Space – focus on benefit and demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13II Space and Europe – concerted action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14III Space globally – co-operation and competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15IV Space – doing more by improving efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    3. Programme objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    4. Programme organisation and allocation of resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

  • 2

    Introduction

    The German and Euro-

    pean space endeavour

    can look back over

    40 years of uninter-

    rupted development and

    growing importance. For

    weather forecasting and

    communications, for TV transmission and navigation,

    space infrastructures have grown up whose benefits

    are now so all-pervading that it is hard to imagine daily

    life without them – and yet the connection with space

    is not always consciously realised. German space

    science and technology has world status and is one of

    the major factors shaping European missions.

    The usefulness of space activity for the citizen and

    scientific excellence are the two main criteria guiding

    German space policy. In Germany the public authorities

    will this year be spending some 1.9 billion DM on space

    and space science. The bulk of that money – 1.7 billion

    DM – comes from BMBF.

    To accommodate the size of the projects, space activity

    transcends national boundaries. The German space

    sector is thus tied in to the European space activities

    managed by the European Space Agency (ESA). Within

    the framework of European co-operation, German

    space research will increasingly be focusing its efforts

    in specific areas in order to improve the performance of

    industry and science. Further co-operative ventures

    can also be expected, primarily with the USA but also

    with Russia.

    Space technologies create scope for action in various

    areas of government provision and commercial activity.

    Examples include disaster warning and management in

    broad or remote areas or assessment of ground erosion

    or crop yield projections. It may not be long before pro-

    vision of some quite extraordinary services by private

    industry is taken for granted; these could include world-

    wide mobile communications systems capable of per-

    forming reliably in the remotest areas and offered at a

    reasonable price, telemedicine (remote treatment on

    trips to distant places, for example), or even tips on the

    optimum use or fertilisation of arable land anywhere on

    the planet.

    Establishing clear priorities is one way of ensuring that

    Germany and Europe take a substantial share of growth

    in these new markets and of the resulting jobs. But

    space applications will not only be playing a more

    prominent role in supporting ‘new services’ such as

    these. Space technologies will also come to play an

    increasingly important role in preserving the compe-

    titiveness of existing key areas of German and Euro-

    pean industry. Permanent availability and high data

    quality are essential criteria for a number of critical

    navigation applications, air and rail transport being

    prime examples. This is why the transport sector has

    particularly high expectations of Galileo, the European

    satellite navigation project. It is hard to imagine an

    intelligent traffic management system that did not rely

    on the latest information, communication and routing

    technologies to organise traffic of all kinds more safely,

    more effectively and with greater regard for the en-

    vironment. Indeed, space-based navigation and positio-

    ning systems are increasingly being seen as a key ele-

    ment in the networking of different transport media to

    form an integrated traffic system and in the optimisation

    of logistical arrangements at national and European

    levels. The combined operation of terrestrial and space

    infrastructures opens up the prospect of high-value,

    user-oriented applications and value-added services,

    in connection for example with digital geodata. The

    commercial and economic potential of these opportuni-

    ties can only be guessed at today.

    Satellite navigation is growing in importance in other

    economic and societal areas too, for instance in geo-

    desy, agriculture and leisure activities, quite apart from

    the significance of an absolutely precise time signal for

    globalised trade and financial markets. Given the many

    commercial openings for space developments the

    Federal Government expects a growing proportion of

    space utilisation to eventually manage without public-

    sector aid.

    Modern observation systems operating from Earth orbit

    are a source of invaluable knowledge for the Earth

  • 3

    sciences, environmental research and many other are-

    as of activity. This knowledge can for example help limit

    the drain on the world’s natural resources or develop

    reliable projections concerning atmospheric pollution.

    When the environmental satellite ENVISAT is launched

    in mid-2001 a new dimension will be opened up for re-

    search in this area.

    Data gathered by scientific satellites have also, in re-

    cent years, greatly added to our understanding of the

    solar system and its planets and of how the Universe

    has developed. Top-quality science and research will

    continue in the future to be major applications of space

    technology.

    Many of these potential space applications can only

    materialise if Europe acts together. This is no longer just

    about joint research but about developing infrastructu-

    res in European co-operation. Construction and opera-

    tion of the International Space Station as a multidisci-

    plinary facility for fundamental and applied research

    and commercial utilisation or again continued deve-

    lopment of the European launcher Ariane to secure

    guaranteed autonomous access to space are particu-

    larly good examples of this.

    The Federal Government is committed to ensuring that

    the European Union Commission, which has set itself

    the objective of developing European trans-national

    infrastructures, and the European Space Agency work

    together more closely in the future. A promising start

    was made on this front with their parallel resolutions on

    a European Strategy for Space. Specific objectives

    must now be formulated and pursued to bring sub-

    stance to this framework.

    A long-term goal is to arrive at a comprehensive Euro-

    pean space programme. The policy of concentrating

    the German space effort on what our space industry

    and science do best should be viewed in this European

    context. A series of detailed core programmes will furt-

    her develop the German Space Programme and hence

    pave the way for the future.

    The German Space Programme creates the necessary

    basis and understanding for increasing use of space

    technology in a range of industrial and political con-

    texts. It provides a road-map for strengthening the

    capabilities of European science and industry through

    the use of the space resource and space technologies,

    in co-operation with our European partners. This is

    essential if Europe is to remain competitive in relation to

    the world’s other great industrial regions and if individu-

    al citizens are to enjoy in their daily lives the benefits of

    the growing opportunities offered by space.

    Edelgard BulmahnBundesministerin für Bildung und Forschung

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    Foreword

    The German Space Programme incorporates:

    • the German participation in the ESA and EUMETSATprogrammes,

    • the National Programme’s projects, and

    • the DLR’s space R&D programme (HGF – Helmholtz re-search centres – sponsorship) in the framework of in-stitutional support from the federal and Länder autho-rities.

    Together they make up a co-ordinated, strategicallyfocussed whole.

    The primary contributors to the Space Programme arethe Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry ofTransport, Building and Housing and the Ministry ofDefence. This effort is complemented and accompaniedby space research in the Max-Planck society, the Helm-holtz centres, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(German research community) and in university rese-arch units and institutes and also by contributions to thework of international user and operator organisations.In drawing up the German Space Programme generalobjectives and structural criteria have been developedwith a view to giving direction and focus to Germany’sspace commitment in the longer term. It breaks downinto eight core programmes.

    The German Space Programme and its constituent coreprogrammes have come through an extensive processof discussion and co-ordination with science, industry,ESA and the space organisations of European partners.

    In the core programmes the global objectives set out inthe general programme are translated into agreedaction in the context of specific space projects. In themedium term these plans are consistent with federalfinancial planning. Beyond the existing planning hori-zon, the DLR provides longer-term planning guidance.

    The German Space Programme gives the German spa-ce community a programmatic and financial frameworkin which to operate. For partners in industry and scien-ce the programme provides the transparency and plan-ning stability they need to initiate decisions and pursueentrepreneurial objectives. Germany’s status as a relia-ble and attractive partner or competitor for its Europeanpartners is enhanced by the programme.

    This federal programme is implemented by the DLR asGermany’s space agency in the framework of the Dele-gation of Space Activities Act (Raumfahrtaufgaben-Übertragungsgesetz).

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    AA. ProspectsSpace exploration is marked by a unique combination ofinspiring vision and utility-oriented pragmatism. Spacecontributes to a wide array of human endeavours, en-riching society, industry and scientific inquiry. Elementsof a space-based service infrastructure have beenengineered to support scientific research, industrialR&D, environmental monitoring, transportation supportservices, security, resource management and disasterresponse, with the space-based equipment andsystems complementing the corresponding terrestrialinfrastructure. Only co-ordinated use of the space andground-based segments allows their full potential to beexploited. These are “global” infrastructures par excel-lence, requiring global co-operation and a global divi-sion of labour to reach scientific and political objecti-ves. At the same time, they lead to intense internationalcompetition in projects that possess economic and stra-tegic significance.

    Forty years after the birth of spaceflight, its possibilitiesare only beginning to be explored. There is an enormouspotential for innovation. Commercial exploitation of spa-ce infrastructure systems and the evolution of scientificinsights for economic applications are creating newmarkets all over the world and providing the impetus formajor new industries and higher employment. Spacehas become an indispensable prerequisite for Germanyto maintain its economic and scientific position. Spaceis opening up new dimensions in the study of the earthand our universe and in applications involving transpor-tation support services, communication and security.Public-sector activities are gaining added scope forprotecting the environment, for the discovery and explo-itation of natural resources, for disaster prediction andmanagement, and for security.

    The unique observation vantage offered by space andits global communication and navigation potential are amajor input to the development and implementation of apolicy of sustainable growth at world level. The Earth isa closed system, ecologically, economically and politi-cally. We are gradually coming to understand the inter-action of the various forces within the system and areable to take due account of the influences to which it isexposed. At political level this means for example theability to detect the imminent outbreak of famine andreact accordingly before large numbers of refugeesstart to flee. And as such developments can now beobserved even in the most remote regions, authoritative

    governments are no longer in a position to hide thefacts. Global knowledge does however add to globalresponsibility.

    The aim of German space policy is to secure significant,worthwhile investment in the future of our community,thereby safeguarding the natural basis for the lives ofpresent and future generations and improving the quali-ty of life.

    Germany’s space activities are concentrated within theframework of European co-operation. Future Europeanspace endeavours are envisioned as being organisedand structured around a network of specialised „cen-tres of competence”. While monopolistic structures willbe avoided, there will be a clear assignment of spheresof competence. A competitive process will yield propo-sals of merit, which will be carried out jointly. In order tomake this new form of organisation a reality, the part-ners will have to accept that their roles be redefined. Inplace of the goal of achieving autonomous capability,the partners must be conscious of and prepared toaccept the need for mutually supporting roles that spannational borders. The emergence of a national profile isessential to this process.

    Space – a key part of the knowledge-basedsocietyOne of the core prerequisites of the knowledge-basedsociety is for instantaneous, global availability of infor-mation. Satellite television and world-wide mobile tele-phony are the precursors of the multimedia age justbeginning. To reach any point on earth with broadbandcommunications at any time, an orbital infrastructure isrequired. Satellites provide the necessary availability ofinformation independently of location, while advancedspace-based communications systems furnish the net-working and control of information flows.

    The infrastructure and technology that have been crea-ted by space activity have unleashed tremendous mar-ket potential, which has already reached some US$ 55billion annually and is expected to increase to US$ 170billion by 2006. While launch services and the manufac-turing of satellites and satellite components representonly a small fraction of the total market in financialterms (indeed, the ratio is diminishing), the strategicleverage exercised by these technologies on the entireindustry is enormous. Technical authority in a privilegedposition at the start of the value-added chain and invol-vement in the establishment of standards and the asso-ciated interfaces makes it possible to exercise a decisi-ve influence on downstream sectors.

  • 7

    The current situation is favourable for a major upgradein Germany’s role in the global commercial space mar-ket, with the domestic industry well established andadded potency gained through the consolidation of theEuropean aerospace industry against the backgroundof a market that is, in general, growing vigorously. Notonly are the prospects positive for employment growthin the primary markets, but it will be possible also toachieve stimulating effects on the downstream marketsof satellite-based information and entertainment ser-vices.

    Space – an indispensable tool for the protectionof life on EarthWith growing realisation of the environment’s signifi-cance for the quality of human life, its vulnerability andthe risks associated with environmental changes, thesefactors are increasingly affecting the way we think andact. Satellite-based information is playing an importantrole in this process. Continuously monitoring the state ofthe environment is one of our most important collectivetasks. It is possible from space not only to determine theextent of environmental damage but also in many casesto identify the causes and those responsible. Verifica-tion of global, internationally binding environmental pro-tection agreements is becoming increasingly important.For this, space-based systems are indispensable.

    Protecting the environment is a core objective of Ger-man government policy. Greater use must therefore bemade of satellite Earth observation to meet thedemands of environmental protection. Apart from pure-ly ecological issues, there are related objectives inclu-ding disaster management, security and transportationsupport services, to the pursuit of which the GermanSpace Programme is seen as a substantial contribution.

    Space – a key to understanding the universe,our Earth and the ecosystemSpace travel has contributed to our understanding ofthe physical universe in ways that have revolutionisedour views on the solar system and deep space. We havefound out how directly the Earth is affected by stormson the Sun, we have been deeply impressed by thevariety of planets in our solar system and we havelearnt that the universe came into being some 12 to 15billion years ago in the course of a “big bang” or againthat black holes really do exist. The new insights havereached the consciousness of the general public, whilemany crucial questions still remain to be answered, par-ticularly topical issues at the present time being the exi-

    stence of earth-like planets in other solar systems andthe existence of extraterrestrial life.

    Our understanding of these issues can be expected togrow considerably with future ventures. The Earthsciences have profited in a similar way, using the globalperspective provided by satellites to make new discove-ries that have changed the way we look at planet Earth.The unique opportunities available in space will conti-nue to furnish fundamental knowledge about Earth andabout the biosphere. Use of the special conditions thatexist in space, weightlessness in particular, for life andmaterials science experiments is also expected to makea useful contribution.

    Orbital observatories and laboratories will be used inconjunction with terrestrial systems, and the extent ofinternational co-operation and specialisation will furt-her increase.

    Space – human beings and technology moveoutwardsThe most technologically developed nations havebegun to open up space. They are doing so together andfor exclusively peaceful purposes, including that ofobtaining a sustained human presence in space. Ger-many and Europe are contributing to this effort withtheir participation in the development, construction andoperation of the International Space Station. This is anopportunity to test out new forms and rules of interna-tional co-operation on a major project for which there isno existing parallel. This orbital facility will allow scien-tists and engineers to pursue research and develop-ment work in space. Areas of activity will includegrowth sectors such as biotechnology and IT. Humanbeings working in space, whose creativity and adapta-bility have so far proved irreplaceable, will help solveearthly problems that cannot be addressed solely inearthly conditions. New knowledge will prompt innova-tion in materials science, pharmacology, biology andmedicine. The human scientist and astronaut will at thesame time be increasingly relieved of routine activitiesby automation, while robots will take over many of themore arduous and hazardous tasks.

    Forty years into the space age, this new dimension inhuman activity continues to exercise a special fascina-tion. The pioneering spirit and intellectual curiosity it sti-mulates are an excellent means of interesting youngpeople in advanced technology and generating a cra-ving for knowledge.

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    BB. Strategy1. Background The space sector in GermanyFor many years, long-term programmes and ambitiousspace projects have enjoyed political support andreceived uninterrupted financial backing from the fede-ral German government. Public monies, on the federaland the Länder level alike, go to the general and institu-tional support of science, research and education. Thisunique combination has led to the creation of a numberof specialised organisations in Germany for planningand carrying out space projects. They may be brokendown into:

    • A highly capable space industry. A complex of majorcorporations, medium-sized system and sub-systemsuppliers and small component and service providersforms an industry that is achieving success in parts ofthe international space market.

    • Internationally recognised scientific experts in thevarious space research disciplines. In universities,sometimes with support from the Deutsche For-schungsgemeinschaft, but also in non-academic re-search institutions such as the Max-Planck societyand the Helmholtz Centres, they make outstandingscientific contributions on their own initiative, whilealso contributing to forming and educating the futuregeneration of scientists.

    • Competent and highly-motivated staff and facilitiesfor designing, developing, testing, operating and uti-lising space transportation systems and a manage-ment organisation within the DLR responsible for stee-ring the German Space Programme within the overallguidelines laid down by government.

    In terms of cost of goods manufactured, the space sec-tor narrowly defined (i.e. excluding companies whichuse space systems to generate value-added services)is quite small, with total sales of DM 3.5b in 1998 (corre-sponding to some 0.4% of total manufacturing value-added, excluding construction) and some 6 000 sectoremployees. However, because this is a high-technologysector, characterised by high-value, capital-intensiverather than labour-intensive products and relying onmajor R&D, space projects tend to produce considera-ble indirect and secondary economic benefits. Theexperts polled on the subject in the second Delphi stu-

    dy 1) considered that space, especially satellite tech-nology and applications for communications and trafficsystems, would have a disproportionately high impacton Germany’s economic development.

    While the corporate consolidation process has for thepast ten to fifteen years been limited to national indu-stries, the European aerospace industry is now under-going industrial concentration across national frontiers.This is motivated by the world market demand for turn-key systems, a demand that in the long term can only bemet by powerful conglomerates which possess therequisite financial strength and which, in addition totheir prime capability, have also become globally com-petitive through horizontal integration, by utilising syn-ergies and economies of scale.

    Public-sector funding of space activity in Germany fellby approximately 12% in nominal terms from 1992 to1998. It has since been stabilised at a higher level consi-stent with planning stability. The total spending provi-sion amounts to about DM 1.9 billion in 2001, represen-ting some 0.4% of the federal budget and about 5% of allpublic spending on research and technology. Fundscome for the most part from the BMBF, at DM 1.7b. Thisrepresents 14.5% of all BMBF spending on R&D. Therest is made up of expenditures by other federal mini-stries on space applications within their competence;this includes Germany’s DM 145 million contribution toEUMETSAT.

    European co-operation and national activitiesWithin ESA and also in bilateral undertakings, France,Italy and the United Kingdom remain our main spacepartners in Europe. In financial terms, almost threequarters of German Space Programme activity is car-ried out within ESA.

    The EU is becoming increasingly active in the spacesector through utilisation of the space resource in fur-therance of its own policies, through the global repre-sentation of European interests and as an investor inspecific applications. Effective action in a Europeanframework is only possible therefore on the basis of thespace strategy jointly developed by the EU, the Euro-pean States, ESA and European industry.

    1) Delphi ’98 – Studie zur globalen Entwicklung von Wissenschaft undTechnik; Fraunhofer Institut für Systemtechnik und Inno-vationsforschung for the Federal Ministry of Education and Scien-ce, Karlsruhe, Februar 1998.

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    In Resolutions adopted at the ministerial meeting of theESA Council in May 1999 and at the December 1999 EUResearch Council meeting, the EU Commission and theESA Executive were instructed to jointly elaborate acoherent European strategy on space. In pursuance ofthis instruction, the two bodies went on to produce ajoint document on a European Strategy for Space (ESS).This was approved by the relevant EU and ESA authori-ties at ministerial level on 16 November 2000.

    The main points to emerge from the ESS and the asso-ciated Resolutions can be summarised as follows:

    • the strategic importance of space for economic andpolitical growth in Europe;

    • the need for European independence in key strategicareas;

    • the importance of Galileo (positioning and navigation)and GMES (initiative for Global Monitoring for Environ-ment and Security”);

    • the need for sustained public support;

    • the global competitiveness of European industry as aindustrial policy priority;

    • the need to make efficient use of the European spaceinfrastructure, the ISS in particular.

    The ESS also establishes itself as the fundamental refe-rence for all further European R&D activities.

    A successful national programme following establishedpriorities, emphasising commercial utilisation of spacetechnology and systems, and the DLR space division’sinstitutionally funded R&D activities („Grundfinanzie-rung”), complement the international activities. Thisensures Germany remains a respected, expert partnerfor co-operation and strengthens our position as apowerful competitor.

    Strengths and weaknessesGermany is involved in virtually every aspect of space,with the notable exception of military systems. Indeed, ithas become a leading supplier in some areas, including:construction of scientific satellites, manufacturing com-ponents and subsystems for space vehicles andcommunications satellites, integration of orbital sys-tems for manned spaceflight, space robotics, X-ray

    Figure 1: Civil space expenditures in France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom rounded and partly estimated 1999 figures; Ger-many excl. EUMETSAT, MPG and DFG (Source: Jane’s Space Directory, CNES, ASI, BNSC)

  • 10

    astronomy, sensor technology (especially SAR), weat-her and climate research, satellite-assisted meteorolo-gical and ocean monitoring, processing and enhancingof EO data, and the design and manufacturing of highlytemperature-resistant materials and structures.

    Decisions taken at the ESA Council’s last meeting atministerial level (Brussels in May 1999) have createdcontinuity and a stable planning environment while set-ting some new priorities in future-oriented applicationsareas: new impulses were given to scientific Earthobservation and to satellite navigation, while bearingout and consolidating earlier programmes in extra-terrestrial research, space transportation, and spacestation development and utilisation.

    At the present time, a considerable proportion of Ger-many’s available resources is committed to two ESAinfrastructure projects, the international space stationand the Ariane launch vehicle. Added to the contribu-tions for ESA’s mandatory science programme, thislimits our scope for participating in new optional appli-cations programmes within the German Space Pro-gramme. Looking further ahead, the proportion of fun-ding assigned to space applications projects shouldhowever begin to rise again.

    Growing significance of commercialspace activityGovernments remain the main customers for spaceactivities, and public budgets the main funding source.However, for the past several years the presence of pri-vate enterprise has been growing, in space projects tar-geting a rapid commercial return under normal marketconditions. The federal government expects continuedsustained growth in commercial space activities.

    Research performed by EUROCONSULT also indicatesin the years ahead a combination of stagnating publicexpenditure and growing commercial markets for spaceapplications and services (see Figure 2, page 11).

    Government spending on space will remain constant inthe medium term. A growing demand can however beexpected in connection with social measures and pre-ventive action by government, especially with regard toenvironmental monitoring and security aspects. Growthin the space sector in Germany must come above allfrom a substantial increase in the commercial marketfor space goods and services and from greater private-sector involvement both upstream and downstream(see Figure 3, page 12). The national space programme

    will be instrumental in achieving this result, through forexample support for user and market-oriented productdevelopment and methods or again the promotion ofinnovative ventures and pilot projects.

    The international contextThe number of countries actively pursuing their ownprogrammes for developing and operating space tech-nology is growing world-wide, and is no longer limitedto the developed industrial states in the G8 group, butalso includes a growing number of newly industrialisedcountries. Almost all countries rely on space technologyand associated services to some extent. The traditionalspacefaring superpowers, the United States and Rus-sia, still have the largest and most diversified space pro-grammes. In terms of spending Europe, taken as a who-le, holds second place world-wide. Most countries ofwestern Europe have a national space programmewhich they pursue in parallel to the joint ESA program-me. However, there are large differences amongst themwith regard to the size of their programmes, the pro-gramme contents and degree of specialisation. This maybe illustrated by comparing the four largest ESA mem-bers, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, asshown in Figure 1, page 9. In Figure 4, page 13, fundingfor space is compared to overall economic significancefor a number of European countries and the USA.

    The USA and Russia continue to use space extensivelyfor military and security purposes, as they have sincethe early days. Inside Europe, France and the UnitedKingdom possess substantial military space budgets,while Italian and Spanish activities in this sector arecomparatively minor. Germany has not developed anymilitary satellite systems to date. To meet the communi-cations demands of German troops in UN units the usualapproach is to lease transmission capacity from civilsatellite operators or NATO partners. The need to identi-fy and monitor potential crisis situations at an early sta-ge and the evolving role of German forces in the newsecurity environment point to an increasingly evidentdemand for a surveillance capability. Experience gainedduring the Kosovo conflict emphasise the urgent needfor a national core capability in satellite reconnaissan-ce. A core capability of this kind provides autonomousaccess to original imagery and is also the basis for par-ticipation in a European association to which the part-ner nations bring complementary capabilities. In theframework of the common foreign and security policy(CFSP) a European position on these issues is currentlybeing elaborated with the EU.

  • 11

    Co-operation with Russia is relatively recent, but hasalready led to numerous successful joint projects, suchas the two flights to Mir by German cosmonauts, as wellas creating a number of private-sector joint ventures.The German-Russian intergovernmental agreement onco-operation in the exploration and utilisation of outerspace for peaceful purposes, concluded on 10 April2001, lays the basis for even closer co-operation.

    Outside Europe, Germany’s international co-operation inspace exploration and technology is most prominent inthe long-standing relationship with the United States,our most important partner. Other important non-Euro-pean partner countries are Japan and India, the latterabove all in Earth observation.

    2. General objectivesSpace as a high-tech domain demonstrates an advan-ced level of engineering and industrial capability. Inaddition to the numerous innovative applications whichspace technologies find in science and industry, theirmastery is of considerable strategic significance. Jointprojects exploiting the strengths of the national indu-stries make space an integrating factor in internationalrelations. A hallmark of the German space effort is theemphasis on international co-operation, first and fore-most on the European level but including also partners-hips that bridge the Atlantic and span the globe. Theambitious projects which this entails demand soundtechnical, economic and financial planning andmanagement. In addition to being a means to an end,international co-operation also contributes to Europeanintegration, maintains the fruitful historic ties with theUSA and continues partnerships with Russia and othercountries.

    Figure 2: Evolution of world space markets (Source: Euroconsult, DLR)

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    The German Space Programme is based on the follo-wing general programme objectives:

    • Societal objectives: Taking the necessary action tomaintain the material basis for human existence is anongoing, high-level duty for governments. Space acti-vity can and must make a major contribution to suchaction in the fields of meteorology, environmentalmonitoring, disaster prevention and management, re-source management, mobility and the preservation ofpeace. The aim of this space programme is to expandthe resources available for these purposes, both quali-tatively and quantitatively, and ensure those resourcesare used. Space activity is also particularly well suitedto encouraging young people to acquire a scientific ortechnical education.

    • Economic objectives: State support for space re-search will increasingly be directed at projects offe-

    ring economic opportunities, with applications and uti-lisation potential. This will help firms working in thespace sector build on the potential of the space indu-stry to develop products and services that will createsignificant new commercial markets on a global scale.This will not only consolidate employment in the high-tech sector but also create new high-quality jobs. TheGerman Space Programme should promote and sup-port this process, this being the area of space activityin which the greatest growth can be expected.

    • Scientific objectives: The unique capabilities of spacetechnology should be exploited to achieve ground-breaking new insights into the nature of our planet andthe universe. The key criterion for support is the scien-tific excellence of the projects concerned. Techno-logical spin-offs can thus be generated, profiting otherscientific and economic areas. For it is one of the aims

    Figure 3: Evolution of primary, secondary and tertiary markets to 2006 (the elements cannot be divided with any confidence)(Source: Euroconsult, DLR)

  • 13

    of space activity to modify the image men and womenhave of themselves and of their place on Earth and inthe Universe. Space is also about overcoming existinglimits and awakening a thirst for knowledge as a driverfor further progress.

    The German space community is faced with the chal-lenge of reacting to rapid and far-reaching changes byconstantly redefining its objectives and adapting itsongoing and planned activities to the new conditions.Many of the necessary measures to be taken will haveimplications for some or all of the overall objectivesalready identified.

    They can be grouped under four action areas, as set outbelow:

    I Space – concentration on benefit and utility

    II Space and Europe – concerted action

    III Space globally – co-operation and competition

    IV Space – doing more by improving efficiency

    Having identified these principal action areas, it will bepossible to draw up a detailed road-map not only tomeet the anticipated challenges over the next decadebut also to actively shape future developments.

    Space – focus on benefitand demand

    Space activity seeks to furnish the necessary infra-structure to achieve societal, economic and scientificgoals.

    Future projects will be given priority if they offer concre-te solutions to specific problems. They will have to formpart of an identified value-added chain or address fun-damental scientific questions. The „end user” must inall cases be identified. Actual demand and utility will bethe governing criteria rather than a project’s technicalattractions.

    The emphasis on demand and utility requires a highdegree of involvement by, but also co-responsibility of,space system and space services users at an early sta-ge in the design, funding and implementation of spaceprojects. Some of the more important user groups are:

    – federal government agencies that rely on space-based services;

    – regional and local authorities;

    – universities and research institutes; and

    – commercial entities, and in particular industrial andservice companies.

    Space activities should be concentrated on promisingareas in which Germany enjoys a leading position or

    Figure 4: Relative space expenditures and economic potential (1998) (Source: Euroconsult, Worldbank)

    I

  • 14

    IIwhere there is a real prospect of achieving such aposition.

    German industry has the capabilities and must be invol-ved in exploiting the growth potential of new space mar-kets. The goal of the German Space Programme is tosignificantly augment German industry’s share of theworld commercial space market, partly through public-private partnership. In co-operating with the privatesector a major concern will be to develop the conceptof public-private partnership as a way of opening upand securing a place in commercial markets.

    Public-private partnership is clearly distinct from themodels that have prevailed hitherto – relationship bet-ween commissioning authority and contractor or bet-ween the body awarding a subsidy and the recipientthereof. Such partnerships are for a limited period oftime and are specifically directed at achieving the aimsof the project. They are characterised by:

    • clear economic potential that cannot be realisedwithout state involvement ;

    • close co-operation in a partnership determined by acommunity of interests;

    • project implemented in the light of the commercialgoals;

    • management responsibilities determined with referen-ce to the commercial environment, the agreed risk-sharing arrangements and the partners’ financial com-mitments;

    • continuous monitoring of current market conditions inrelation to the projected return on investment, primari-ly on the part of the industrial partner;

    • contractually binding relationship between the part-ners.

    By relying on the PPP model of project management,projects will be designed to meet the criteria of demandand economics. The PPP model increases industry’sand users’ participation in funding and promotes risk-sharing, helping to relieve the pressure on the publicspace budget and freeing resources for attractive newventures. At the same time the state enters into a lon-ger-term commitment, which may extend beyond thedevelopment phase.

    Technologies, processes and products developed in thespace sector have a potential for enhancing competiti-veness in other areas. Such potential needs to be iden-tified early on in design and development andcorresponding action taken where appropriate. Alltechnology transfers should be guided by market

    demand; all necessary support measures should betaken, including assistance with marketing and finan-cing.

    Space and Europe –concerted action

    Increasing concertation of European space efforts ispart of the political development of Europe, and isnecessary to meet the global competition. For this rea-son, the common European space activities remain atthe centre of Germany’s efforts. Numerous successfuljoint projects have made Europe a space leader. Inrecent years, however, the situation has changed fun-damentally, marked by increasing global competitionand commercialisation, for example. The consolidationof the European space industry under the influence oftougher competition is rapidly creating larger organisa-tions.

    Development of European strategy is particularly impor-tant for Germany, which already carries out about 70%of its space activities in an ESA framework (see Figure 1on page 9) – unlike the other major partners, Italy andFrance. This is why Germany involved itself in this pro-cess at an early stage, incorporating the following basicpositions in European space strategy:

    • greater co-operation between and integration of allEuropean space programmes;

    • reorganisation of co-operation arrangements betweenthe main players, such as the EU, ESA and the nationalagencies;

    • creation of a European network of public centres;

    • greater emphasis in applications programmes on userdemand and the market, through public-private part-nerships in particular;

    • further increases in efficiency;

    • further development of industrial policy, with a view toencouraging internal European competition and tostrengthening the SME/supply industry sector;

    • negotiation of fair trading regulations at world level;

    • full use of the space resource to pursue co-operativepolicies in Europe (e.g. Global Monitoring for Environ-ment and Security, GMES, or the Global NavigationSatellite System, GNSS).

    As a European organisation responsible for long-termsatellite missions, EUMETSAT is in this connectionacquiring increasing importance in the area of Earth

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    III

    observation from space. As the largest contributor toEUMETSAT, Germany is actively shaping the futureEUMETSAT programmes to meet the above demands.

    The EU and ESA• Science and infrastructure programmes presently

    constitute the bulk Germany’s contribution to ESA. Pro-grammes with a scientific content, i.e. deep-spaceexploration, earth observation for scientific purposes,and basic research in microgravity conditions, shouldbe allowed to develop continuity and greater autono-my in the framework of a mandatory programme.

    • Applications programmes conducted in an ESA frame-work should be arranged in the light of the programm-e’s specific demands, with decision-making processesand organisational forms adapted to the requirements.

    • Within the EU programmes, applications and market-oriented projects must be allowed to develop morefreely with a view to strengthening the competitive-ness of the European space sector at world level.

    • A longer-term aim is to bring ESA closer to the EU inorganisational terms. This will provide scope for ESAto act under delegation from the EU. First steps in thisdirection will have to include co-operation on joint pro-jects, especially Galileo, and management by ESA,under delegation from the Commission, of Commis-sion-led space activities.

    European National Space AgenciesThe consolidation process initiated by the industryshould lead to a corresponding movement on the side ofthe agencies, as part of the continuing political integra-tion of Europe. This movement will go from strictly stra-tegic co-ordination to a co-ordinated space network oftechnical centres and ultimately to a thoroughgoingdivision of labour with dedicated centres of competen-ce. The priorities are as follows:

    • In the short term, the public space agencies must workto achieve closer strategic co-ordination, against thebackground of industrial consolidation. This could bedone through the creation of space forums, to contri-bute to the assessment, harmonisation and integrationof sector-based programmes, of technology develop-ment lines and strategies.

    • In the medium term, a co-ordinated network of public-sector space facilities should be set up in the form of aEuropean competence centre system or “union ofcentres”.

    • German centres having systems capabilities areessential to complement the core capabilities of Ger-man industry in selected areas (Earth observation,scientific satellites, operation and utilisation of man-ned and unmanned systems are some examples).

    The consolidation of the European industryThe process of consolidation which the European indu-stry is undergoing in a drive to make it more competitiveon a global basis must be supported while protectingthe interests of German industry. With growing concen-tration there is a need to ensure healthy competitionand functioning market mechanisms. For this reason:

    • the established core specialisations of German sub-sidiaries of European space concerns should be main-tained and strengthened;

    • the further development of suppliers and SMEs,through product specialisation and occupation ofattractive niche markets for instance, should beencouraged in order to ensure they are competitive intheir dealings with large system firms operating on aglobal basis;

    • action should be taken to allow suppliers and SMEs tocompete at sub-system, component and equipmentlevel;

    • industrial policy and support measures and the associ-ated rules, particularly where support for SMEs is con-cerned, should be harmonised in Europe;

    • ESA’s machinery to guarantee industrial return shouldbe brought gradually into line with EU industrial andsupport policy;

    • public-private partnership models in commerciallypromising areas should be applied in a uniform way inEurope.

    Space globally –co-operation and competition

    The goals of the German Space Programme representmajor scientific, engineering, industrial and economicchallenges. These can only be met by combining effortsthrough European and also international co-operation.The aim must be to promote German interests on a glo-bal scale through the framework of a European spacestrategy.

    Germany will continue to pursue its objectives in suchnon-commercial space activities as space exploration,

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    IV

    space science and manned spaceflight, relying onlong-term partnerships. In so doing, it will be importantfor German or joint European co-operative inputs to besubstantial and significant components of the missionsconcerned.

    Germany must remain a serious participant in the incre-asingly competitive world-wide markets for space ser-vices, as it is in other export-oriented industries. For thisobjective to be realised, it is important to

    • concentrate on activities with a considerable strategicor economic potential and an established strong posi-tion of the German economy,

    • accompany the process of consolidation of Europeanindustry by a common European industrial policy and aharmonised regulatory framework,

    • work towards the recognition of conditions for faircompetition on a world-wide basis, and

    • form strategic national and industrial alliances asnecessary.

    Space – doing moreby improving efficiency

    At the May 1999 ESA ministerial conference the priorityof applications and utilisation was recognised, with keydecisions taken on space transportation, earth observa-tion and navigation. This orientation will be followedthrough in the national programme with the referenceprojects („Leitprojekte”) in the areas of multi-media andSynthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies, withRapid Eye, with the ASTRA space transportation tech-nologies project, and with the increased emphasis onrobotics. New projects must and will be accommodatedin the medium-term budget framework.

    This is why one of the primary goals must be to use theavailable resources economically and efficiently. Toachieve this end, the following measures are recom-mended:

    • a European network of centres of competence willpromote rationalisation;

    • European and national activities should be focussedand closely co-ordinated;

    • users and operators must become more involved inspace projects by playing a greater role in programmeconception and assuming part of the financial respon-sibility (PPPs);

    • competition should be encouraged in all phases ofresearch, development and innovation by opening upthe bidding process to suppliers and SMEs in parti-cular;

    • the principle of “design to budget” should be strictlyrespected for project management;

    • impediments to efficiency should be removed (geogra-phic return and automatic adjustment for inflation);

    • costs should be reduced through performance-basedincentives;

    • subsystems and interfaces should be standardisedand off-the-shelf components used wherever possible;and

    • public operation should be transferred to industrywherever significant and lasting cost advantages maybe expected to result.

    3. Programme objectivesIn what follows the strategic outlines of the core pro-grammes are linked to the overall objectives developedabove. For each of the eight core programmes, namely:

    • telecommunications,

    • navigation,

    • earth observation,

    • space exploration,

    • microgravity research,

    • space station,

    • space transportation, and

    • space technology.

    a detailed account is given separately, together withoperational objectives and milestones.

    Broadly grouped under „applications technologies”,telecommunications, navigation and earth observationoffer the best prospect for obtaining leverage on publicsupport for private-sector initiative, taking into accountthe complete value-added chain. Germany’s commit-ments in this area must be guided by her economic andpolitical interests.

    • The emphasis in telecommunications is on broadbandmultimedia applications. COMED and optical satellite-to-satellite links will be important demonstration pro-jects, with crucial technologies and components beingdeveloped to allow German industry to gain marketentry and to create or consolidate its competitiveness

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    on world markets; the goal is to significantly increaseGermany’s share of the world market for satellitessystems and components within five years.

    • In navigation, Germany’s space programme is aimedprimarily at construction and utilisation of the Europe-an satellite navigation system, Galileo. A high degreeof private-sector involvement is desired. With a signifi-cant degree of involvement by Germany, it is hopedthat German and European industry will capture anappropriately large share of the rapidly growing, lucra-tive market for navigation services. Here, too, a sectorresponsible for substantial added value must bedirectly supported by developing technologies forground equipment and for services under national pro-grammes.

    • Applications-oriented Earth observation is concernedwith the development or further development of pu-blicly-funded systems in the METOP and MSG seriesfor meteorology and oceanography, with continuousenvironmental monitoring and with security-relatedreconnaissance. It is concerned also with the deve-lopment for private-sector exploitation of operationaland commercial applications for new markets anddata services, such as cartography for agriculture andforestry, precision-farming, prospecting for raw mate-rials, land resource management and disaster monito-ring. Public support of commercial activities will givehigh priority to implementation of a satellite radar con-cept, which would be designed jointly with partnercountries in Europe and would involve the nationalindustries in a PPP framework. In the field of opticaltechnology, the Rapid Eye system, again a public-pri-vate partnership venture, should shortly be going ahe-ad. A satellite radar system and Rapid Eye could in thefuture become integral parts of a European globalEarth observation system (Global Monitoring for Envi-ronment and Security, GMES). This initiative is concer-ned with the monitoring of international environmentalagreements and the observation of factors thatinfluence the environment.

    There is a long tradition of scientific study of the struc-ture and nature of the universe, including planet Earth,from the superb vantage point offered in space. Germa-ny can point to major successes in this area, examplesbeing the X-ray telescope ROSAT or again the ERS 1 and2 environmental satellites. This track record will beadded to as from late 2001 with the XMM X-ray satelliteand the ENVISAT environmental mission. Scientificmissions, with their advanced engineering, act to

    stimulate technical progress and have an importantspin-off potential. The scientific use of space also pos-sesses cultural relevance, with its profound influenceon humanity’s worldview. Even more than in the past,space-based scientific research must be seen as acomplement to and extension of Earth-based research,and must be measured by the criterion of „scientificexcellence”.

    • Exploration of the universe seeks to improve ourunderstanding of the origin, structure and evolution ofthe universe as well as illuminating our own originsand the conditions and future prospects of life. Obser-vatories in Earth orbits have unimpeded access to thefull electromagnetic spectrum for studies of cosmicobjects, being free of the influence of the Earth’satmosphere. Space probes explore distant objects,extending to direct contact or landings on planets andcomets. Future astronomical research will addressquestions regarding the evolution of stars, galaxiesand the universe as a whole, relying on observationsmade in different parts of the spectrum, especially theinfrared and the gamma and X-ray spectrum. Withinthe solar system, it is the study of Mars which is of par-ticular interest at present: comparative planetary stu-dies promise to shed light on the evolution of the Earth-like planets and hence also of the Earth itself. Solarobservation remains an important research area. Thesearch for planets outside the Solar System that arecapable of supporting forms of life similar to ours willgain momentum, relying on new technologies that arealso required to answer fundamental physical ques-tions such as the existence of gravity waves.

    • Microgravity research involves the transfer of terre-strial laboratory facilities into the unique conditions ofspace, in particular microgravity and cosmic radiation,for life and materials science experiments and deve-lopment work. The mainstay of this research, alongsi-de the continued use of unmanned flight opportunities,will be the International Space Station, acting as a‘laboratory in space’. Life sciences research is fo-cussed primarily on exploring human organ andsystem functioning and their interaction as the bodyadjusts to weightlessness. The knowledge gained willhave great significance for routine clinical diagnosticsand treatment procedures (e.g. telemedicine). Materi-als science research centres on detailed investigationof solidification processes and fundamental mecha-nisms in combustion. The aim here is to reduce thecost of developing innovative materials, optimise pro-duction processes on Earth and develop more effecti-

  • 18

    ve, more environmentally acceptable combustion pro-cesses. Work on three-dimensional colloidal plasmas(plasma crystals) – a state of matter still unknown onlya few years ago – should, in addition to the fundamen-tal aspects, generate longer-term applications poten-tial for plasma processes in the field of technology.

    • Scientific Earth observation aims at furthering basicscientific research into the conditions required forpreservation of the ecosystem, studying for examplethe mechanism and the rate at which the stratosphericozone layer is thinning, or the influence of man-madefactors on global atmospheric warming. In addition, itprepares the way for the introduction of new operatio-nal Earth observation applications, primarily for mete-orology and for environmental research and monito-ring. Significant and continuing involvement in ESA’sEarth observation programme is the priority. A majorfeature of the national support programme, in additionto complementary missions, is data processing, valida-tion and calibration for users. In the DLR’s internal R&Dprogramme the focus is on data collection, processingand scientific evaluation thereof.

    The construction of a space infrastructure is a taskwhose proportions, complexity and cost can only bedealt with in the framework of international co-opera-tion, preferably on a European scale. For this reason,infrastructure projects will remain among the core ac-tivities of the German space effort within Europe.

    • Europe and Germany are involved in the constructionand operation of the international space station (ISS).Europe’s share of total station costs is approximately6%, and Germany is shouldering a major part of this, at41% of the total cost of European development. ThisGerman contribution to ISS development, decided in1995, is currently constraining Germany’s ability to pro-mote future-oriented projects with applications andgrowth potential. In the operational and utilisationphase, Germany’s contribution will need therefore tobe scaled down. Existing commitments will be respec-ted. In addition to the important development role play-ed by German industry, German facilities will performimportant operational tasks. To improve efficiency andreduce the public sector’s share of the risk carried, it isintended to delegate a large share of operationalresponsibility to private industry. It is imperative thatEurope’s contribution remain within the limits set forthfor the programme, in particular the agreed cost enve-lope. For the second phase of ESA’s ISS exploitationprogramme, on which a decision has yet to be taken,

    the aim is to increase involvement of other MemberStates in order to broaden utilisation potential andshare the financial load.

    The success of this project depends on the spacelaboratory being integrated in the ground-based rese-arch infrastructure and resources being used intensi-vely and efficiently. To create a stronger incentive forprivate-sector involvement, Germany will strengthenits promotion of user-funded research.

    • For space transportation the main objective remainsthe preservation of Europe’s autonomous access tospace on a competitive basis. In the Ariane program-me, at the heart of Europe’s space transportation acti-vities, the responsibility for responding to marketdemands (cutting production costs, improving missionflexibility and reliability, increasing launch capacity)should increasingly be transferred to industry. Germa-ny’s contribution to the continuing development of theAriane launcher family within ESA is intended to pro-tect Germany’s substantial share of development andproduction work and the high-tech employment itinvolves, consolidating Germany’s role as an indispen-sable partner for Europe’s space transportation pro-gramme.

    For the future generation of space transportation vehi-cles, a major reduction of launch costs is the maingoal. It seems likely that this can be achieved onlythrough partly or fully reusable systems. Efforts shouldbe directed towards achieving the leadership rolewhich Germany can be expected to play within Europein stage design, high-performance structures, controlsystems and propulsion components. Aerodynamicsand propulsion will be the key to retaining systemcapability in the future; more use must be made of theexpertise that is represented in German universities, inparticular the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemein-schaft) research areas, and within the DLR itself. Forthis reason, much of this work will be conducted at thenational level during the early stages. It is on the basisof such work that Germany will have a full voice indesigning new European launcher systems.

    In the final analysis it will be market promise andcosts, i.e. private-sector considerations, that will deci-de on the future of an expanded family of Europeanlaunchers, including smaller vehicles. As far as Ger-many is concerned, this could be achieved using exi-sting systems, such as the German-Russian joint ven-ture Eurockot, within the framework of a reorganisedArianespace company.

  • 19

    • In space technology Germany’s accomplishments as aleader in robotics design must be oriented to meet theprojected demand in the space sector. This will makeit possible to relieve the routine workload on the astro-nauts working in the space station and to replacethem for some of the hazardous EVA work. It can alsoact as the stepping stone to future applications suchas roving robot satellites used to maintain and repairsatellites and space stations and highly autonomoussystems that will be capable of exploring the surfacesof other celestial bodies. There is a great potential fornon-space spin-offs from such systems and technolo-gies. A mission in one of the named areas, for examplein the framework of international space station utilisa-tion, can only be accomplished by way of internationalcooperation between specialised bodies, due to thehigh demands for resources.

    4. Programme organisation andallocation of resources

    The complete German Space Programme, including theEuropean programmes (ESA and EUMETSAT), thenational programme (project support) and the DLR’sR&D programme, works within a framework of eightcore disciplines (Figure 5).

    Unification of programme planningWith the DARA-DLR merger completed, the organi-sation is ready to pursue a single strategy encom-passing all three areas of German space activity. Whilethe three funding channels remain strictly separate, themanagement of future core programmes will aim atachieving the closest possible co-ordination of the in-dividual programme elements, focussing their contentand exploiting the respective strengths as part of a har-monised overall programme.

    Figure 5: Organisation of the German Space Programme

  • 20

    The DLR’s space R&D programme serves the publicgoal of planning for future needs and tasks, in particularfor environmental protection, security, communicationsand transportation support services. There is thus acommonality of objective with the national programme,and both their evolution will be even more closely co-ordinated. The DLR’s R&D programme is primarily con-cerned with development of space technologies inresponse to concrete requirements and marketdemand; it includes developing operational and supporttasks and their transfer to the German industry. TheDLR’s institutes also make their own, highly respectedcontributions where their individual areas of scientificendeavour are particularly promising.

    German universities and other public research in-stitutions play an independent and indispensable rolein Germany’s overall space effort. Thus, they perform

    the vital function of educating future generations ofscientists and introducing them to real-life practicalprojects. Those institutions have been involved in inten-sive discussions of the contents of the German SpaceProgramme and will participate in advisory bodiesand DLR strategy workshops in the interest of achievinggreater harmonisation of all German space activities.

    Funding and allocation of resourcesFigure 6 shows annual average spending undermedium-term financial plans for the period from 2000to 2004. Spending funds come from various sources:

    • The German contribution to ESA is largely funded outof the Education and Science Ministry’s (BMBF) bud-get. Funding for some projects is also provided fromother budgets; in particular, the transport ministry

    Figure 6: Annual programme expenditures (million DMs) averaged over the planning period 2000-2004

  • 21

    (BMVBW) contributes to funding for the Meteosat andMetop meteorological satellite programmes, to thebudget of the operating organisation EUMETSAT andto construction of the Galileo satellite navigationsystem. Programmatic priorities and funding alloca-tions for the medium term were established at ESA’sMay 1999 ministerial conference. Figure 6 on page 20shows the allocation of average German contributionsamongst European programmes from 2000 to 2004.

    • The national programme is funded out of the Educa-tion and Science Ministry (BMBF) budget. Most of thisspending is in the form of contracts and paymentsawarded for projects or programmes in German indu-stry or research institutions. The national programmeoffers more possibilities for activities in support ofnational interests than does the ESA programme. Itincludes the costs for Germany’s space management.

    • The DLR’s R&D activities are funded out of the budgetof the Education and Science Ministry, out of DefenceMinistry (BMVg) funds and by contributions from thefederal Länder, the latter amounting to some 10% ofoverall funding. The DLR’s spending is grouped intothe four principal research areas: space, aviation,energy and transportation.

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