Heidegger - Nietzsche I, II_text

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Nietzsche VOLUMES I AND II The Will to Power as Art The Eternal Recurrence of the Same

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Same
On Time and Being
What Is
DAVID FARRELL
was originally published
nietzsche. Volume
Krell. Intro-
duction to
David Farrell
©
of
any
in critical articles
New York, NY 10022.
Designed by
 
by
the Original Manuscript
to
Nietzsche's
59
the
Relationship
Truth (Idea)
The
Will
of
Kauf-
prototypical ideologue
Nietzsche's virulence continues
"Heidegger
the conviction
Heidegger himself
insisted that
Socialism can
interview
of
1966,
26, 1976,
Heidegger asserts:
"Everyone who
hear in these lectures [that
is, the series
of lectures on
retten [Only a God Can Save Us
Now]," Der Spie-
Heidegger's
claims
his
tell us
about that
in
and
ment in the university
after the War
Freiburg in
in
a
fleet-
ing
episode
Heidegger
a
devoted his rectorship
zu
das
Path of Thinking,
he worked
the state and
Fuhrer-Rektor
of
say
the
the Spiegel interview of
including
what he left unsaid. Whether for reasons of shame or
feelings of
days,
dur-
to
wickedness
University," in Richard
University of Nebraska,
pp.
138-39
and
224-25.
See
in
The
the
while always pre-
Germany, Heidegger
sufferings
of
off
by
matter of his
concern.
meditations
evil and malignancy
the departed and on the limitations of contemporary ethical and
political thinking remain
ing and writing, though not overhasty speech. And Heidegger's
silence is
first
a
thinker
who
of his
but
a
of
heavy."
in the four volumes
reprinted in this two-volume
National
Socialism
comes
deci-
sionism,
his
protracted
and
difficult
discussion
people
must
French fleet
at Oran,
suppression
of
Nietzsche's
which
his-
virtue of its
"individual groups, classes, and
Europe
to
a
single
national
be
"international."
For
implied
in
the
and
swings
the unity of the fully
historical
Dasein
tion from other
nations nor hegemony
[Kampf]. But the genu-
ine struggle is the one in which those who struggle excel, first the one then
the other, and in which the
power
grand
to
peoples,
will allow
call for
decidedly
We find examples
 
language of academic freedom cloaks Heidegger's own plans for syn-
chronization. Yet
a
thinking:
style
is
genuine
action,
indeed,

Eye," Augenblick.
in
the
the gateway
but
possesses
the
striving;
Moment
so
last
religious
belief
thought and decision.
with
his
later
with
his
later
We
should
therefore
project,
inasmuch
hoping
to
find
in
Heidegger
matter of
supreme out of the next moment,
as out
36);
his
hope,
in other words, that a decisive thinking can shape something
momentous. "It will
will of your-
to
36).
his cri-
the heart of
disposal
to
counter
such
willfulness
is
Heidegger's
and
Nietzsche's
discussion
with
Heidegger,
Nietzsche,
must
suspect
deci-
IV, chapters 10-14.)
eternal
mastery impossible? What if
most traditional
138).
Does
not
Heidegger's
decisionism
at
times
return should
to be
and makeshifts"
direction of
which
Alfred
Baeumler
164),
return
countermovement
of
nihilism are condemned
discussion of
pp.
278-81;
for
Memory,
Verge (Bloomington: Indiana
and not
"confront"
and
nihilism (II,
to
that
itself
nihilism.
7
3.
essential rubric
essential
nothing.
to state in
the sun-
dan-
our thought
is mor-
which
being and the
tracted confrontation with
since
flinching meditation
on human
xix
to take the
nihilism
no
known
political
Jiinger's
technophiliac "symbols," spurns his language.
Heidegger's opposition
to Jiinger's
losophy in Berlin from 1933
to
the
What he rejects is
I can
largely affirm
rectorship
was
a
rectorship
was
a
emigration cannot
current
research.
8
its racial supremacy, the
tance. Here Heidegger's resistance to Party doctrine is most visible,
especially
His
account
biologistic
dogmas cause Heidegger to overreact to the point where he
is unable
or unwilling
ousness," is
would
does
to
some
body
who
and leiben,
living and
confront
the third lecture course,
question
of
Nietzsche's
putative
metaphysically,
not
biologically
(III,
46).
Even
(III,
103-4;
115-22).
Heidegger
empha-
8
Again,
see
(III,
122).
A
the
question
of
147-49),
Heideg-
ger
betrays
how
for
is
a
meta-
the culmination of Cartesian
subjectivism, Nietzsche's is one
typo,
is
"blond beast"
is "not
phrase
with
which
this
Introduc-
to extricate himself: Heidegger
much exclude reason
it
subjects
224).
sure of Nietzschean overman,
the
charge of biologism:
The breeding of human beings is not a taming in the
sense
of
a
suppres-
the accumulation
absolute subjectivity of
Nietzsche nor
Jacques
Derrida
when
he
through the spiritual
these
aggravate the thought of
metaphysics dissolve or confirm
of
race
—is this more grave or less grave than a naturalism or a
biologism
we
should
apparently
academic
volumes
will
own
way
between
Nietzsche,
Heidegger,
heidegger's
contributions
fashion
nationalism,
decisionism,
no
means
'Derrida,
Heidegger's second
major work
to
Phi-
disconcerting.
"racism" and
"Bolshevism" undermine
every "young
No
adulation
again"
(65,
16)
cul-
mination
have to be raised more perspicuously
than Heidegger
137-49
and
Nietzsche. His
need to
10
Martin
Heidegger,
Beitrage
the
contents
of
the
Heidegger and
boleths of his
matter how
Jewry
in
the
a
yet
of
reason in the equality of all is merely a consequence of Christianity,
which,
at
necessary
on
this
basis?
on such
part
to
carica-
nihilism "whether or not churches and monasteries [Kirchen und
Kloster]
hingemordet]"
(65,
139)
is not so much callous as it is out of touch.
If
the
Germany, then
sites.
CONCLUSIONS
an
sions
at
dues is our standard. No, not if we stress the
most
horrify-
ing
is reason
because
the
Party
was
too
to
of
intensity of
to pre-
Commission
that was charged with the edition. Thus the year 1938 assumes sym-
bolic importance for our theme:
as
anti-Germanism,
Heidegger
opts
of
terms
a
of
a
the
Is Heidegger's
sole important
on Nietzsche? Not at all. His reading
of eternal recurrence of the same
as
downgoing;
of the will to power as artistic creativity and the pursuit of
knowledge'
all values
as a
thinking;
of
Nietzsche
full.
No
Socialism has been taken
will
be
able
to
kind
of
philosophy
has
another
time
and
same
old
set
may be
captors
be
expunged
accounts of
Sophist
or
to
to
burn
all
the avidity of the
the
the German
Volk—none
of these
remain profoundly
and
 
When
formulated
yet
altogether
or have
already arrived
on the
of these writers can
laminate.
As
Nietzsche
number)
Nietzsche
the
second uniting volumes III and
IV. In order
and a new Introduction
hard-
Heidegger
(cited throughout as MHG, with volume number
in italic)
volumes as volumes
lectures and essays
in the form
the
1961 Neske edi-
based:
of "repetitions" or "summaries
that Heidegger himself eliminated when he edited the Nietzsche for
publication; second, they
also include a
number
handwritten
lectures.
Let
a
course
he
pages
we can
edition, prepared by Heidegger
If
with the
restricted,
to the
designed for
The
how the error in the published text occurred.
But
43,
48,
11.
5-6
f.b.,
insert: Streben
for
The only other serious error in the Neske edition of
which I
aware is the duplication of the word nicht at NI,
189,
line
5
minor
drawing
atten-
tion
quotations
from
Hegel,
of The Will
J.
cited in
these English volumes as WM, followed by aphorism—not page
number,
text they
checked
as
one-way concordances
present vol-
minimum, since
it is
are
a
nui-
sance.
with the
editorial mat-
me about them in
serve in
The original meaning,
for instance, may
tries to
in
I am forced to change the
words or rearrange them, it
will look as though
a translator.
beg
of
work rather
as friends
than critics.
with this project
Fynsk, Sherry
Heidegger,
Hermann
Heideg-
FIRST VOLUME
as
Art,"
a
lecture
course
delivered
course
deliv-
ered
Bremen
Club
to
the
1.
course delivered at
the University of
at the
"Metaphysics
as
History
1941,
appear
in
English
•"Nietzsche's
Metaphysics" appears as the title of a lecture course for the winter
semester of
of the
the sixty-four-page typescript in
December
of
that
year.
to
any
lecture
or
but to
Second
and catalogues of
above
information,
supplied
He explained
employed
1938-39 course ("Nietzsche's
50,
respectively.
"Nietzsche's
1944-45
course,
"Thinking
1942,
as
closing
Nietzsche.
translation in Martin
(1936-46),
related
(Tubingen: M.
thinking:
"Life .
for
the
way
by
which
is divided according to content, not hours
of presentation.
Nevertheless, the
lecture character
Nietzsche's
writings
several
with
involuted
presentation.
Considered
as
a
whole,
to
Truth"
(1943),
originated
back
and
virtue.
the philoso-
concept of
There are times of great danger in which philosophers appear—
times when

attention of
people
which
aware
of
The
Will
but
of
role
the name
for the
the chief
ultimately is will
philosophical "main
the question
possess
it.
of
a
persistent
of
Western
thought
and
responds
to
it.
Such
elucidation
the
ing.
a
far removed from life.
then he must
a
kind of philosophy
at bottom dispensable. Such
of those who
has
at
long
ground-
ing
question
of
on
(XIV,
24).
existence?
being,
will
to
power.
all earnest-
ness and
(WM,
916).
add,
still something
to be
as to what being is seeks the Being of beings.
All Being
of willing. But in
opus,
before
of Nietzsche's
In
a
he came
the world of
his
some
ground
to
spring of 1
does
not
another
25, 1900,
he died.
During the
to
say,
find
Between
a
the
preparation
of
the
deci-
sion
project
a
before his collapse
abandoned. A
its
own,
his basic position vis-a-vis
confusing that
the
basis
of
which
classic work on
published,
years preceding. What
Birth
preliminary drafts
the particular
fragments selected
edition was quite incomplete
number in the
Weimar
undertook
to
publish
a
historical-critical
complete
edition
ultimate,
do,
but
collates
for
each
extensive
*The
published fewer than a
below
the
views
will this edition
editors
succeed
in
their
are
carried
out
without
all
that.
But
we
can
never
Being.
to
series.
volume entitled
1895
and
1904),
use of this
course. Whoever
passages
are carefully worked
an expression or
saying which absolutely
closes its borders
book ...
presently
to
Jacob
Burckhardt's
letter,
by
"world history"?
If I
get to Sils Maria this summer I want to undertake a
revision
I
my "philosophy,"
Zarathustra constructed
his
philosophy
this goal,
as
much
a
of vestibule and main structure. Nevertheless, between 1 882 and
1
888
in
sics.
In
for the main structure ought to be erected this summer;
or, to put it differently, during
the next
the next six
2,
1884,
of a schema in which
I have outlined my "philosophy." The
prospects for
this look
is
altered the addressee (the
fragment of the
original, it is
the present issue:
habe,
muss
I
to
Good
(See
Three,
no.
27):
preparing:
The
Will
to
Nietzsche
his planned work
to
learn,
to
entire winter
turned
true,
I
years has been
a
you
I
really
can
bear
have
been
a
part
from childhood. Everyone else has drifted away or has been
repulsed (there was much violence
and
much
thinking,
888,
the
final word
To
my
maestro
Pietro.
most interior,
planning of the
work and its
outside.
The
plans
and
(Thus
(Beyond
Good
and
Evil,
The
Antichrist).
the other two
the
the
fact that,
ready grounded itself.
about itself, and therefore the farther
the circumference
each case by the
at
means will
fourth
fourth
part
the
another
part,
not
formulate our inquiry
it is capable of grasping in a unified way the
doctrines of the eternal
to
their
we will never
to
of
the
of the same
will
to
beings.
For
anyone
longer
merely
can become
fered
today
as
ontology
proper; it is
the other.
recurs
the most
it is
simultaneously its
We
heard
Being—that
only is
approximation of
than the thought
a
he
became
its
lectures
and
it
also
for instance in "The Anaximander Fragment," the first chapter of Martin Heidegger,
Early
Greeic
(New York:
examined. The
problem will
 
notion,
Nietzsche
is
to
is it merely
is
not
that
to
essen-
What
does
a
but
Nietzsche
thinks
thought
when
they
conceive
Being
as
sche "only" thinks
difficult
thought
meditation
has
not
yet
concerning
unequal
other than the
gether with will
tion between eternal recurrence as the supreme determination of Being
and
will
to
power
as
It is
fertile
conception
each
quite
inde-
pendent
of
the
other,
pher and Politician
thought
meditation
as
an
doctrine of will
ancient
doctrine
of
Heraclitus
it is
to
from the
of religion,
known that
utterly foreign
automatically
be
taken
as
Becoming
quick
to
day
that
a
for it. If therefore eternal recurrence and will
to
most difficult
will
to
of his meditation, and
relationship
between
the
two
of
actual
inquiry
ject
The
is
Nietzsche's
the talk about Being,
of the ground-
ing question of
of
visualize
as a
we
are
convinced
he
would
always
have
"Ludwig
Klages
body-soul-mind
of Klages'
the
of will
of
when we ask the
by the
text before
us, we
will jump
limits, is unavoid-
what
against him,
that is common
to Western philosophy.
be
to
and manner
be defined
of
beings
as
occur
by
means
New
Valuation,"
suggests
are
is advanced before-
manner
of
speaking
imprecise
ought
hith-
of the
valuations that
question-
ableness
of European
the basic character
doctrine or demand,
uppermost
times; nor
 
of us,
and
destruction.
does
not
exclude,
long stretches of time,
and
such
are
contrary,
an
critique of prior valuations,
originally, as
a new
order in
overwhelming
experience
accompany
them.
sibilities
to
same
time
develop
a
breed
attitude to
future. New
to
nations
as
valuation
itself
For that
At the same
overnight, and that no people in history has had its
truth
fall
in the knowledge
mere betting chips
undergo
of
beings
with questions
concerning their
Being and
truth is
We
other. For an
begin by presenting
in value
we
masks
may wager that we will mistake one another or betray
one
in
a
more
detailed
way.
In
life,
that
puts
the
will
of
life,
question
error without which
(WM,
493).
to be
his fundamental position in
this fact, then the
also
laughs
basic objection to
order of
yet arise. With objections of this kind it is always
advisable
to
suppose
at
consideration was after
of values should
such
"abolition"
and
At
the
outset
book,
to
which
what it is
valuing as
has its
new valuation
which
to previous
posited
general. If
new
carefully. But
we must
How
are
properly constitutes
whatever
is to
ultimate
Nietzsche
says,
"Task:
fear that life
only that. It is also supposed to
ground
the
principle,
and
establish
valuation
is
to
valua-
under the
up
values;
life
itself
values
through
us
III. Will to Power
Foreword on
Morals, Art.
Politics." These
Metaphysik (Tubingen:
M. Niemeyer,
N.Y.: Doubleday-
as
will
to
power
it
is
very start he saw beings
as
a whole in the perspectives of traditional disciplines of academic
philosophy.
As
a
further
aid
372 aphorisms
The Will
materials.
interpretation
of
Book
will
soon
become
the
chapter
suggests,
likely
be
able
to
concep-
to
fourth
chapter
by
asking,
expression
"will
to
power";
and
second,
why
as
will?
*Karl
Schlechta
indicates
that
the
372
foundly indebted
Schelling
and
Hegel a "bumbling
against
Essence
of
Human
at
interpretation
of
the original unity of perceptio
and
ap-
accidentally, Nietzsche himself
decisive
passages

type"
(WM,
884).
Now,
or Hegel or
Schelling, in order
pendence" is not
sort dependence;
it is
itself
philosophy the Being
all the sciences
Nietzsche are the notes
in an appendix to
great
thinkers
think
the
same.
all
does
is nothing else than
to power is
all
is being talked about
in
order
to
grasp
does
not
yield
any
never
explicated
this
knew quite clearly that here he was pursuing an unusual
question.
latter is
from body
psyche
to be
thus
sheer
80).
1888;
VIII,
80).
Corresponding
to
this
is
there
the psyche and of
 
illuminate
the
doubts
something complicat-
word
a
popular
to be
is to locate it thoroughly,
so
Whether
Nietzsche's
procedure
is
the
fundamental
regard, we
there was at the
reject
ff.)
willing is
hand, or
the thing
 
not
not
wishing
at
all.
carrying
out
the
most
sense
of
sheer
who
wills
left
is
extrinsic sense in
the
willed
 
wants
does
sive
one
up
in
movement
not
properly
brought
before
get
wholly
as
resolute
openness
of resolve.
coming to
grips as
Only
he
within the scope
such decisive-
in the sense
understanding
of
will,
and
espe-
cially
The ex-
with
in
that
unhinging
conception
will.
Because
will
as
mastery
out
descriptions
of our
does
Nietzsche
editors, not
to
Power,
as
when we believe we have found that the idealistic conception
of will
has nothing
to do
be
general?
What
is
an
affect?
must do
certainly
not
modes
that
things
affects, passions,
point to
realize here
essence of will in Nietzsche's sense? Here we can conduct
our examination only as far as
illumination of Nietzsche's characteriza-
tion of will to
mean
not simply another affect, it is not
an
affect
at
and
of
an
master" in
sense
into a manner of
counter-will
remain
were,
lose
ourselves.
of
being beyond oneself in
wants
a
manifold
or outside
are in fact
essence of
that "yes," is
essence
if
the
these two. We may
it is merely
joy
and
love,
but
by
anger.
Nevertheless,
the
in
us.
But
something
cohesive power; like love, hate brings an original cohesion and
perdur-
which seizes us,
one is
simply
lift
us
up
proper
time
we take hold
and
within
us.
casts light
on what
Nietzsche calls
resolute openness, in
beings
Now
the
characteristic
Heidegger, Sein
love not only last longer, they
bring
perdurance
and
because
passion
at

of
is
only
as
willing
out
unhurried animation
of
the broadly expansive security and inner buoyancy of what is superior.
Instead of
"affect" and
too paltry a concept of the
essence
we
is,
first,
whether
is
the
epi-
and
to
be
reduced
realize that he is
is
that they expose their
always
forces
the
contemporary
"science."
When
he
does
so
can
different from the
a
latch onto
on
the
all
too
all
beings,
and
accompanying feeling
of pleasure,
these two
as an
that it refers
outline
of
the
have presented.
ourselves
particularly
attuned
to
beings
which
we
are
are.
In
feeling,
a
state
to
things,
to
our Dasein hovers. Man
us to see
rather,
in unity
to
itself,
sort
of
the willing process and reflection on it; on the contrary,
it
is
opening
up
pene-
self.
In
contrast,
of
of
being,
a
of will
is itself
"quite pleasant."
What opens
whom
opened, the one who wills. In willing we come toward
ourselves,
as
as such, one
a
of the
opening up
of
attunement).
Now
says:
a
the
state
toward
which,
the
and "toward"; then
53
original,
and even more fertile behind that single rude word, "will." If
he
calls
will
as
affect,
passion,
way
Comparison is not
than
the
consciousness, whether
Nietzsche's concept of
therefore ultimately a
distinguish
Nietzsche's
a
"On
ego
"unconscious." For Aristotle psyche means
the principle of living
things
to
be
alive,
just mentioned
the
hierarchy
of
living
creatures.
What
lives
a
considered
Is the representing-striving
by
that
will
will is
of
says (433a
basis of
which the
a
proper moving
representation
decided so
of
those of
for
will consists of
thought from the
29).
That
thinking
statements
by
conception
There
too,
however,
to representation?
when he says that will
is
do not
mean
the kind of behavior that merely accompanies and observes the other
processes
is a
intently, exclusively
the
thing before oneself, presenting
one
Hence, if we want
Nietzsche's conception
of the
conception
idealis-
have
elaborated
and
breadth of
beings); will
as feeling
(being the
concepts
it
net
as the
not
yet
is to
grasp Being means
to
such a
solitary word
to it. Hence
those who know, there
is no willing" (XII,
of
outset to
avoid the
still holds in
by
means
do,
because
the
inevitable
Will
to
Power
Nietzsche
says
(WM,
702):
—what
living organism wants, is
an increase of power.
by way
be
inserted
in it, and
a
particular
can
say
of
fact that
sense
.
,
other in an essential way. For that reason the need to destroy
belongs essentially
nullity
Phenomenology
of the negative"
force
intellect because intellect demands of her something of which she
is incapable. But
one
that
can
this power only
to
the
history
of
German
metaphysics
to
have
elaborate
a
pantheism
in
the middle
of the
nineteenth century.
since
1818,
Nietzsche while
consequence was
of
Schopenhau-
er's
tranquillity
to
in
the
vast
halls
already will to power. Power
says
made
brief
reference
to
But
the
historical context the
power means
just
as
intricate
as
the
affairs
by
proceeding
of
domi-
in Greek,
energeia. Power
come
to
potentia
philosophy
entrenches
itself
in
the
effort
thinking.
(The
text
of
will
to
power
than
is
especially
true
to
about
Aristotle's
teaching.
The
from the
formation
fore
are
power as
beings
stands
within
the
basic
discern
thrust
to
the
task
of
the innermost
historicity of
Nietzsche prop-
we are
sculpt
to ask whether there
every
things weight
and importance
secondary importance
Guiding
we must
grasps
first
grounded,
philosophy first inquires
Before the question
ground
or
doctrine
of
consciousness;
but
ground-
The opening
openness of beings we
ask what
beings and
the
question,
not
even
illumined itself is.
ground-
"Al-
truth
cannot
be
what
"also"
arise as to
are
alone provide
the guarantee
out
into
essence of
beings
as
will
to
occurrence,
truth must
Nietzsche's total
immediate
but
us

power
where what is in
from
what
is
clear
..."
phenomenon" is
to power.
art
"as
such"
belong
to
we
say,
it in its
this he does
which represents
it in
the artist
as the
productive, creative
is
beautiful
must
provide
the
standard.
'artist' is still
the
most
perspicuous
 
then
we
derive
at
once
morals!"
Here
Nietzsche
says
art.
and of the work
corresponds
to
a
usage
that
was
forth. Craftsmen,
However,
art, in
such a
way that
to
means
the
artist
nothing
else
Tragedy from the
art
as
The Will
here
is
taken
up
into
The
Will
Foreword [i.e., to the
appears:
'art
as
the
proper
task
of
life,
art
as
statement
to
as
art.
But
will
to
dominated
by
religion,
finds
its
must be
senses
to
deny
the
But Nietzsche
artistic creates and gives form. If the artistic constitutes meta-
physical
activity
pure
and
the pattern of the teacher of morality who posits another
higher
world
nihilistic
philosopher
type)
must
be
deployed
the
he
gives
form
to
beings
as
they
reveal them-
selves, i.e., in man. It is with this thought in mind that
we are
to read
(

to
the
question
is
the
will
to
semblance
as
the
Being." The
to
question of
that
the
to
at
truth that "art is
on the
drains
life's
forces,
at
the
wretched,
are
art so that we
configuration of will to
the instigation of the five statements on art, we should
now
recall
stimulans
of
life
sedative). Now
we must
grasp the
statement in
terms of
its most
proper content.
of
Nietzsche's
Such is Nietzsche's
as a
procedure
for
defining
the
essence
art that we
does
not
so
doing
and
the same manner
is,
the
doctrine
of assertion or judgment as the basic form of thought. Logic
is
knowl-
edge
thought.
way it determines his
human
behavior
The word "aesthetics" is formed in the corresponding way: aisthetike
episteme: knowledge
itself toward,
character and
itself
beautiful
aesthetics is that kind
and
explanations,
man's
state
relation
of
feeling
toward
art
represented as
the
relation,
indeed
promulgated
is
with regard
state. Strictly speaking,
The name "aesthetics," meaning meditation on art and the beautiful,
is
on
producers, is old,
and the
complaint
into art
have
not
helped
anyone
to
gain
have
is certainly
under
to art from such
contemporary work.
For, in truth, the fact whether and how an era is committed to an
aesthetics,
whether
era
us
general,
of aesthetics as
of
a
this way
can we
get to
the point
where we
only with the
help of such
time
take
consideration,
of brief reference.
be
identical
was
only
such an
at
philosophy
hyle-morphe,
gin in the
conception of beings
view of their outer appearance, the demarcation and arrangement of
beings in
terms of
outer and
comes into
definitions.
The
most
With
as
a
such later
degraded to
to
the
basic
position from which the Greeks define art and the work of art.
But
The latter
about
it.
the
first
flourishes
and
what
goes
back
resides in
If man
establish himself among the beings
{physis) to which he is exposed,
if
guided
by
a
knowledge
of
them.
conducts
every
human
qualifi-
cation.
The
kind
beings are
expressly produced and generated in addition to and on the
basis of the
specially
exceptional sense. The
the
man
who
knows
and
who
goes
is already
original, broad
significance. In
Aristotle techne
is still
chean Ethics, Bk. VI). If we understand the word "art"
quite
generally
knowing,
then
the
of
pair
principal
art
and
all
manufacture
enough
to
concerning the tren-
concerning the
again
a
age.
Man
and
his
unconstrained
as to
takes
In
metaphysics
that
becomes
in our own
"object"
are the
primary and genuine beings. Everything else that may be said to be
is
measured
to be
the
things
themselves
and
to be.
Meditation on the beautiful in art now slips markedly, even exclu-
sively, into the relationship of
man's state
mode of observation for
precisely what logic

plish
a
decisive
task:
are
is
art is great because it is an "absolute need." Because
it is
a
dimension
is brought
aesthetic relation
the decline of
great art, great
poorer and the style less imposing; it is rather that
art
grasp the fourth
an
end.
The
of Hegel.
It is
happenings
since
1
830
we
have
we
might
point
to.
Hegel
never
enjoy-
ment
but
for
art
has
lost
its
power
art
and
the
art
attempt
the
"collective
art-
work."
That
effort
is
that
might
serve
is accompanied
and undergird-
by
corresponding
treatises,
the
clarify
to
any
great
genuine
and
well-
preserved
Age. One can never
It
must
be
Here we
unification,
conjoined
in
is
wanted
is
the
senses,
harmonies," the plunge
redemptive.
The
ground and superficies,
aiming toward the
arouse the
universally common
(his selection
a
ity
of
his
ferent
from
questa
musi-
cal"
Here
the
essential
character
absolute is
main
work,
which
However
itself
remains
singular for his time. It raises Wagner—in spite of his
theatricality
its essential role in existence. In that regard Nietzsche writes
(XIV,
150-51):
Without
consid-
erable
result merely from
bubbling and boiling
view of the growing
tradition,
to say
nothing of the lack of every establishment of goals for human existence.
Rising
to
substitute
for
a
solidly
grounded
in Richard
Wagner's person
his
might ride,
the
conflict
that
revulsion.
Wagner
required
Wagnerians
proper
is
a
there
were sundry essential works in the various artistic genres besides
those
of
Wagner's
a work as Adalbert
to
that
of
Wagner.
But
knowledge,
knowledge
of
history
of
course,
are
of
literature
and
the
of
such
the "spirit." Science
himself
in
commemoration
of
the
literary
are already
protected and
is still
a good
and genuine
and pro-
opment
to
be
mentioned.
recognized
Hegel
it
past,
something
nonactual,
for
became
an
object
spirit, Nietzsche's
meditation on
(1888)
physi-
ology."
and
causes by methods
of natural science.
We must keep the state of affairs quite clearly in view: on the
one
of natural science, relegated
its
tions.
basic
position
toward
art
physiology.
But
at
places to
both in
its
essence,
time
to
be
properly
For if art
"frenzy"
in
translations
Our
word
"rush"
us and
its
the
works
Heidegger
cites
Dammerung.
In
the
scientifically,
no
establishment
of
rank
or
positing
and
deliver
tantamount
to
reducing
art also
is
at
all
oscillation
different"
here.
it
says
it.
aesthetics is seriously
intrinsic, carefully projected outline
own
sketches
with
consideration:
the
extent
the
1 3. The inartistic
ability to
the Hanswurst, the
satyr, the buffo,
who plays the artist
understand why
us
here,
but
no
blueprint
or
outline
of
a
794
and
853
in
The
Will
to
Power,
except
that
these
go
of
the
to
the
a
twofold
doctrines
antithetical determinations
should provide
power. That is the goal of our presentation of the
major teachings Nietzsche's aesthetics.
to a
larger
fragments:
of inquiry within
touch upon
same
forego of
falling
beautiful.
Nietzsche
him-
self
uses
the
something
psychi-
Nietzsche
often
Although
he
sees
art
were,
we shall
published (Twi-
All the variously
rapture of
rapture. In addition, the
desires, all strong affects;
ment;
the
teeming
will.
We
can
summarize
that
rapture
is
creative
toms"
of
as
one
of
the
two
aesthetic
states,
juxtaposed
passage
the basic
Apollonian
they
are
Birth of
dreamlike;
now,
in
Twilight
kinds
I
both
conceived
as
kinds
longer be
from
the
oppo-
sition
Nietzsche's
final
explanation
pervades
the general
if
there
is
to
is rapture the basic aesthetic state?
To
the
of
rapture
Nietzsche
provides
123):
rapture is the feeling of enhancement of force and plenitude."
(Cf.
pertains
to
bodily
up
that
the
body
not
because
feeling,
as
feeling
oneself
to
be,
us
or
do
not
would
impedes
us.
True,
the
will
can
ourselves
into
being
as
a
whole,
which
a
way
a
mood.
selves.
But
In
all of this the bodily state swings into action. It lifts
a
man
out
beyond
and to grow
body," but
merely
being
actually is,"
NI,
565
(volume
of the
body as
Every feeling is
that
plenitude.
According
plenitude does not suggest
above all
an attune-
ment which
the
greatest
enthusiasm
by
one
another.
With
reason
to
religious rapture and sexual arousal (

(WM,
800).
as dust,
wretched, timorous,
Rapture
is a feeling. But from the contrast of the artistic and inartistic
states it becomes especially clear that
by
the
if we give
definition
gained
earlier.
difficult,
feeling
throughout, on the basis
state
of
than
a
(WM,
814),
"Artists
because
selves, and above all they lack shame before great passion;
as
forming
it
would
have
confronting
possess,
portrays
it"
(WM,
cannot
which
his
final
For
the
state
he
ecstatic
transport
art" (WM,
configuration
supreme
But
of
his
of
art,
which
must learn
differs.
opposition is still
will
to
of
Apollonian
refuge
of
all
first public
presentation and
that
Jacob
was
already
contemporaries who Holderlin
opposi-
lofty
manner.
lin's circle of poet-friends in Homburg, contains the following lines
(Holderlin
Werke
und
Briefe,
Frankfurt/Main:
Insel,
1969,
II,
940-41):
articulation
and
sacrificed
nothing
by
way
elasticity of your
for
us
to
learn
than
to
the
Greeks.
surpassed
Greeks are not
Homer
on
they
excel
Occidental
Junonian
sobriety
receive
variously named
conflict of
historical
determination
is not
question
mark
after
thing is
ourselves
to
the
general
our national gift, we
I
said,
the
free
employment
be
found
Hei-
too
polemical
to
be
Wilhelm
to
the
work
itself,
or
in
the conglomeration of these
is
art?
incisively, everything
things
become
altogether
opaque.
and
liberate
neither how
nor what
saying
anything.
determination means. Besides,
of
art is thereby defined in terms of art, or whether it isn't rather
defined as a mode of the Being of beings.
So
to
characterized
as
rapture.
that is
arouse one
beings as
 
Misinterpretation
by
a rough sort
does
of
the
opponent
does
not
delineated in
the third
as
terms
that Kant's
Critique of
his
aesthetics,
has
of
misunderstandings,
a
happenstance
the
history
of
philosophy.
assertion by
Kant concerning
"sheer"
de-
itself
up
to
the beautiful,
relation
defined as "disinterested,"
out
of
commission
and
That
is
manifestly
we understand
the following
and
besmirched
own
effort
But
then
what
definition
of
in the
ing
be
determined
in
such
the beautiful
Before Kant
says by
beautiful" can
something beautiful,
we must
intentions,
our
enjoyment
and
must release what
it what
belongs to
of commission?
beautiful. To the
methodologically
tries
to
achieve,
in
the
object
comes
to
of
erected upon a firm
example
century still
English
is,
according
to
penhauer's
to
own
way
wanted
to
comprehend
concerning
the
decisive
sche
132),
after
the
honored
of honor."
to
the
opinion
of
Kant.
a
Nietzsche
himself
with his
prevailing misinterpretation of Kantian
its own soil
But
everything
depends
what pleases as
the
extreme
challenge,
we find
(That is
that rests
that corresponds
of
things
foreign!"
Certainly
Kant means
the concept of
discussed in terms of the Kantian philosophical effort and its
transcen-
Lust der
blossen Reflexion,
in
$37
which
favoring"
as
from Kant's side. However, to the
extent that Kant grasps
propels
us
toward
a
basic
state
the
state
essence, which is
capability, occurs according to
disclosed in rapture.
state,
acquires
capable
of,
relation
to
and
ebullition.
The
supreme
in this regard he
wants to achieve the
almost
incom-
of
strength
is
not
of historical
highest
aesthetic delights are biological
created by the
what
has
gone
before
of
the
and
realized.
But
creates
If we ask
receive no answer. For
thetics in the extreme
as
essential, about the essence of creation
as
consideration
hold also
that making music,
a
kind
The
other
side,
to
he says
kind of habitual rapture,
Ideali-
is
an-
ticipatory
discernment
what we
describes wholly in
to
destroy
us.*
1966)
I,
441,
from
lines
4-7
and
the
court
of
to the
hierarchical
order,
over things in
(WM,
803).
arous-
al
of
to
offshoot
creation corresponds precisely,
though derivatively, to observation of art. Enjoyment of the work
consists in participation in the creative state of the artist (XIV,
136).
it
from
receive an adequately delineated interpretation which would distin-
guish it from
against
creation,
. .
.
in what
he meets,
aesthetic
state.
one-sided
consideration
toward what this
form
and
thing
quite
strange,
Greeks.
as
is the enclosing
itself there
it
were
is love
a
philosophy. . . .
They
for
a learned, tormented
from the
old masters who did not read and whose only thought was to give
their
first
time
placed
time the
waxing force
and plenitude
as
such
becomes
most glorious
victory of
form. With
view
to
essence of form in relation to art.
For
that
his
point
a
bit
pression
are
estimates."
else than "the pleasurable
can easily over-
power does one
above these,
to
them,
the
trace
to
of form, is deflected
mined
by
Nietzsche's
basic aesthetic state,
back
to
the
states
them, i.e., form;
life; with
started,
and backward
as
which
rapture
and
kind of context
noun.
Art
is
distinction
is
perspectives
and
may not relin-
some dubious
limit
ourselves
to
attuning.
But
just
objective
can
contribute
to
can
see
easily
in what follows. Rapture, which does constitute the state of the subject,
can
conceptual
Kant, who
subject.
a
subject.
an object of sheer
standing
on
its
essential and original correlation
words
of
up
when
everything we
removed
from
the
grand
(XIV, 1
not mean the
of major
slow
to
be
moved
and
that
819).
is
not
a
thing
for
the
petty
and
the rigorous style, the classical style: "The classical style represents
essentially such tranquillity,
power is concentrated.
power. From
power, then
"art"
here
is grasped always in its highest essential stature. The word "art"
does
keeps it there.
arises:
"To think to
the end, without prejudice and faintness of heart, in what soil
a classical
*Number 1024
of The
old
masquerade
and
a
manner
of
gation and
a
creative
proportion
to
it belongs
of rare things.
of
rapture,
Nietzsche himself
part when we
turn
philosophy
of
orgiastics
out
of
alone
171).
But
Nietzsche
a
task.
is to determine what the perfect is? It could only
be
those
therefore know what
the
whole
say.
Yet
healthful-
one who is truthful can discern; but the one who
is truthful is determined
to
vis
the
age
to
generation had
"nature,"
"naturalness":
If Nietzsche
exaggeration
put
in
relief
of the
calculable
for
a
nature,
which
the
Greeks
of
those
condi-
is an
law
to
advance
yoke,
of
art
in
the
elaborated the meaning
but about
Dawn,
1880-81:
888
state as
to what is farthest removed from the spirit, from the
spirituality of what is
lawfulness.
However,
precisely
sudden
reversal
something to
basis
the same
to
restrained,
overcome,
and
law
of
the
grand
as
the
grand
*The brackets appear
in Heidegger's text,
is
not
measured
to
believe.
the
grand
style.
That
to
please;
that
to compel one's chaos
The
artistic
will
to
"Stimulant"
means
what
Nietzsche's
statement
about
art
reversal
of
Schopen-
hauer's
exchanged for an
be,
Wagner applies
instincts
pleases
us'
hancement
of
itself, has lost
that governs it!" Art is not only subject to rules,
must not
is it truly art.
 
disturbed; such discovery can
ad-
no
means
our
Nietzsche only indirectly prepares
physical thought.
Our sole
Nietzsche's thought. At
beings.
The
is the essential way in which beings are made to
be
aspect
of art
way
they
are
not.
Neither
is this question in Nietzsche's view one for art history
in the usual sense:
question
that
participates
history of Dasein.
to become creative in it,
leads
directly
850
of
around
1
800,
th question
with
himself
plenitude,
not
not
active
but
always
reactive,
utterly
distinct
a
can
be
be
tive principle in art. In The
Will
to
Power,
number
846,
Nietzsche
after Being and
of the active and the
reactive. If we
to suggest
the guideline
necessarily
be
longing
because
the
ity
constitutes
be
erected
as
It
therefore
imposes
these qualities on all things, in that way taking its
revenge on them. Of
and
there is
classical art.
conceived as
the active:
the purely
Indeed it first
statements
seems
to
in that
way, how-
ever, we
the grand
style is
reveals itself only
beings. Only on
by
given in the
never expresses
thinker
always
interpretation must
therefore try
with
reservations.
the
grand
style
prevails
wherever
the
rigorous
its
strongest
antithesis
classical
type,
one
must
the
contrary,
itself
be
led
the
contrary,
Style
135
in
the grand style nascent law grows out of original action, which
is
thought
by
Hence only what assimilates its sharpest antithesis, and not what
merely
great; such trans-
which
tries
Nevertheless, Nietzsche
classical style.
more essential matter
can do with
and reac-
energeia take shape
ing. If the essence
the
Being
The
proper
aufhebt.
The
Hegelian
formulation
das
but
fourth and final
Heidegger suggests
the latter,
we
must
sume the distinction
active-reactive under one
to
an
original
which
we
are to think what Nietzsche calls the grand style and art in
general.
However,
metaphysical realm
clearer why our
no
means
arbitrary.
mantic art, springing from dissatisfaction and
deficiency, is
first of
will captures
Want-
ing-to-be-away-from-oneself
essence which unfolds
simple,
willing
wills
will
is
will
to
a
superiority
able
to
survey
what
Nietzsche
thinks
and
on
which
Nietzsche's
inquiry
general lines,
is elaborated and
remain
a
about
art
and the beautiful. For that reason path must be held clearly
in view.
aesthetic mood, to
which the
reciprocal relation of rapture
grand
ous
configuration
to say,
of
of
most familiar. The grounds for that lie in
Nietzsche's
point of view,
art is actual.
is more
532).
According
to
these
remarks
the
body
familiar to
which must
be grasped
aesthetic
not
is the
It
has
The
grounding
not
or priva-
mean
to
to
fixed
in
view.
Nietzsche
expresses
follow-
ing
the
centralizing
significance
of
and
on
the
of
The
of the sensuous.
by
as a
in
being?
What
does
"truth"
fifth
statement
must
be
presupposed
Platonism,
posits
demoted,
denigrated,
and
than
truth.
What
its essence consist?
question is always already included in the guiding question and
the
grounding
question
of
philosophy.
yet
is
most
the
the essence
essence of art
early
in
my
life
into
relation
to
truth?
Zwiespalt
say,
discordance
we have before what
some
moving
a
way
that
the point
burdens that oppressed
meditation.
Every
time
concealment
insofar
as
such basic
a
essential proximity to what
is named in such
basic words, or lapses into distance from it, the content of the name,
the
compelling force of the
vaguely aware of
In
the
The
life
of
of
language
and
the
petrifaction
for such a
ingly, it can never
word
and
of such
clearly, is nothing
to
survey
historically; it means that they ground history now and in the
times to
that
comes
thinking through
is not mere
it,
When
word,
different
arbitrary
and
signs.
and
indifferent
nant
dominion is always
mere aesthetic
which is
we have called
basic words?
connections,
excitement
apropos
of
the
question
With
the
statement
we
have
in
possession
of
"a
are
existence,
and the essence
which everything of
is
but
essence of
the
true. On the contrary, if we take the word in the sense
where a
"truth" means
matter
can
be
conceived
one
follow-
ing
essential word "truth."
every true statement as
call
is
The name
"truth" is
a
peculiar
predilection
for
that
sort
and constantly.
to
beings
to
in
question
is
a
species "house."
essence
Although
the
always
essence, is nevertheless
words
essence,
Thus
truth,
as
the
universal.
propositions,
are
universal. Nothing is clear-
among
them
a
kind
that what seems
of
thought
goes
into
it,
the
danger
of
way. But
fatal had it not for centuries barred the way to
a
decisive
something
various,
but
many, is
for
many
particu-
lar
transcending
time.
The
meta-
physically
of the
many true
that in
one and
the
metamorphosis
its
very
transformation.
selfhood
the unity of essence can be thought
when it is
the conception of
of
relativism; there
is only
right
to
such
"one" and the
"same" therein presupposed,
relativism
unfold
what
understands
first
ask
Nietzsche
route
which
deviates
question which
essence of
does
not
pose
the
the
the true and the truth of essence, and with it
the
question
the true and the truth of essence, and with it
the
question
he
ever
stake
and
measure
in
a
fundamental
way
the
question
of
the
essence
unlike
all
Aristotle.
That
of
these
and
no
matter
how
the
as
a
basic
word
entrenched in
understands
by
truth.
Above
is
the
true?
What is it here that satisfies the essence of truth; in what is that essence
itself
determined?
The
true
is
truth known.
For our
actual.
knowledge.
And depending
on the
of
the
for
suggest any more
of knowledge
in "Platonism"
Fundamental Experience of
approximation to
its
what
they
give
see
But
we
what-being and Being
must
mea-
somehow bring
vor-
stellen,
which
or to
these,
and
the
the
basis
of
the
practical:
That
suggests
in
a
essence
of
thought,
no
putting
cal-scientific
knowledge.
truth
is
the
related
which
knowledge,
and
correla-
tively
the
relation
of
beauty
extrinsic
grounds,
definitive
for
that both
merely
that
of art and
truth can
and must
in some
us
In
order
to
character-'
ize
more
it. How
basic
Platonism
a brief observation
we
of his
in
Twilight
of
the
Nietzsche's
own
For Platonism,
the Idea,
the supersensuous,
measured
development toward
matters is precisely
155
early
on
brought
him
to
Plato,
but
above
lectures
Platonic
Dialogues"
in
1871-72
to hear
We
know
how
much
to Plato's
Nietzsche
achieves
a
Ideas
is
"dialectical."
path for Nietzsche's
To the blind, to
is dead."
word may
be used
as a
is Dead,'
the use
[Tubingen: M.
but
also
the
heroes
of
self-overcoming;
we
but
want
to
be
first,
but
(From unpublished material composed during the period
of
The
Gay
Science,
1881-82;
of
the
a
whole,
not
merely
the
announcement
of
genu-
ine
goal.
Such
grounding
cannot
be
cultivation of
to
sees
individual
groups,
classes,
and
sects,
nor
excelling unfolds
within them.
"grand style." If we
Beyond
Good
section 208
in
Germany
intrinsic
law
of
Nietzsche
say
of
the
to
become
master
of
one's
and ques-
the inquiry in view if we are to understand what
is taken
of
philosophy.
The
theory
domi-
nating
emerges.
It
flows
from
a
too
perspicacious
and
too
probity
and
self-critique of
of morality
sim-
ple,
as
opposition
to
determination
the sensuous.
the
will
to
overcome
receive
enhanced
significance.
The
inversion,
and
along
overcoming of nihilism. But
as
the
countermove-
ment
to
in art, must
perspective of
the foundation
of the
in
the
rapture
of
affirmation of the
ous, as a
which
to art apparently
becomes one of
exclusion, opposition, and
about,
indeed,
which
he
point of departure
fore
actually
exists
to
the
that
Plato
decides
which
result
art.
This
among
the
Greeks
how the
see
our
on our
corresponds
know-how,
requires
the
greatest
amount
techne thus
of
Dasein,
Finally, if
and the producing
poiesis.
to be
as
"poesy"
becomes
the
special name for the art of the word, poetic creation,
testifies to the
and
consider
question
determines
thereby
arises
to
know,
of the essence of the polis that emerges from the
dialogue itself.
aims
to
con-
sists
knowl-
edge
of
dike
and
dikaiosyne.
This
dike
is
all
the
should
behavior
grounded
in
essential
knowledge,
does
not
wish
The
unconstrained
self-grounding
of knowledge, and not
of faith, inasmuch as
the proclamation
that
to Plato, in
sustaining
at
all.
p.
139,
line
11,
On
dike,
cf.
Being;
it
results
the
fact
Being
of
beings,
is
to,
regard to the possible
to its established
at
the
which
at
the
same
be
primarily in the Sym-
with
a
view
to
the
extensive
circumscribed form.
we
sole
Plato asks
whole and in
nor does
are
beings that set
the
Allegory
order
to
final
book.
Here
to
say
that
shall now
and
we are inclined to
a
particular
We
should
resist
both
mimesis which
its
inner
possibility
and
Those
sister to that of
mimesis.
Only
significance
are needed in order that we fix our eyes on
the
following discussion.
view
of
Plato's
age,
it
relationship?
is
pany
ti
synnoo
ti
may be."
word." This they
accustomed
to
means. That customary
a
If
therefore
at
Platonic philosophy which
is reached when
present inquiry
Socrates
(i.e.,
Plato)
says
tauton
onoma
epipheromen.
"We
are
accustomed
to
posing
mean "concept"
but the
We may
a
both
define
taneously
we name
with one
in
use
in
many
homes.
(596
b):
What
matters
in such
In
one that continues to
encounters
us
"is,"
Platonically,
in
ta
polk,
"for
embracing the many." Hence
point
from which
it may ask: how is it with those many produced items,
those
know something
with greater penetration, still taking
as
use.
They
general use
one-another, those who are mutually
known to and
use
things
in
the
*Der
Stellmacher
word because
essence of technology;
of
the
production
of
tables
the
the
of
tables
in
general.
And the outward appearance of such a thing as a table? How
is
it
production? Does the
all
"practice"
who
he
craftsman's tools
must
be
is
to
basic insight that Plato strives
to
attain.
But
there
craftsmen
rather hazy, precisely
that what
It
"is."
We
us. Something produced
it come
said "to be."
What is
outward
appearance,
Being,
that in
it the
worker is one
he
cannot
make.
implements
and
guides
him:
the
tablemaker
looks
to
of shoe.
his
own
field.
there
is
such
such
a
tropoi
poiei,
While
meditating
on
means
how
he
maintains
himself,
he turns to and
he
so.
What
does
suggest
for
way the
which the tabiemaker
by
producing
hapanta,
"anything
and
everything,"
directions."
Tachy
men
panta
we
mentioned
just
now."
With
think
accomplishes such production of outward appearance; it allows all
beings to become present
is
thereby also of
ART
phainomena,
ou
mentoi
onta
and
by
is
the
same,
the
self-showing
to
what
becomes
present
(house),
same
to
the
extent
the
toiouton gar
but as
else."
Ouk
alethe
as
idea
produces
question
is:
what
does
"real"
in
this
case
by
To
ask
it
another
way:
given
table,
being;
or
is
manufacturing
a
kind
of
to
produce table "itself"? we have already heard that there is
also
to
pure
as
already
granted
to
unto and
What is it
say
what the bedframe is," and thereby what it is as
such:
which is essential
on
then
the
craftsman
touch with
beings themselves,
ei kai touto
aletheian.
"In
tured
stone of the
house, in each
summarizes
and
describes
in
a
more
pointed
way
lackadaisical
is
essence. Dull eyes
eyes
see
something
else,
even
ousa,
"for
what
means
of
Greek
philosophy,
so
holds
sway.
means that
mediation, by itself, in its pure outward appearance.
What presences
not
That such a thing
I believe, that a
Mia de ge hen ho tekton. "But
it is
at
selfsame
shows
fashion
everywhere
genuine
being
we
also
spoke
of
the
self-showing
itself.
The
to
grasp
the
correctly,
which
such
a
realm
do
peak of the Platonic
god
were
Let
us
illustrate
and
immutability.
What
would
happen
if
the
god
were
to
allow
several
Ideas
to
emerge
for
one
thing
one
of
them
appearance
that
both
Hence
Now,
according
to
Plato,
of each
fact that when two
poietes
singularity of
item
which
the mimetes?
in
which
t
jj
e
painting
of
bringing-
forth
table
in
the
picture
the carpenter
the
definition
of
Greek-Platonic
concept
portraiture,
not
the
fact
same
thing
once
again; what is decisive is that this is precisely what he cannot
do,
that
duplicating
the
same
thing.
by
his
estab-
lished
the
table, which is one and the same. Me ti diapherei
aute
heautes
(598
a),
the
way
it
primit:
by
showing
a
particular
as
this
particular
thing,
in
its
singularity,
he
makes
Being
particular
animal,
Diirer in Der
Platonism
a
discordance
discordance
truth.
Obviously,
the
discordance
lies
hidden
Nietzsche's
philosophy
in
the
reverse
form.
directive
that
would
indicate
by
way
of
and
never
could
relate
to
each
by being
apart they
from
opposition,
that
Thus
"discordance"
first,
a
severance
word
ambiguity. For if
There
can
cases
of
mere
distance
and
opposition,
but
remains
there as a
matter of fact
art, we may not conceive of it and pigeonhole it
according
to
later
medita-
tion
on
art,
beauty
art and
In
his
discussions
beautiful" without
after
the
youth
who
serves
as
things
—the
beautiful,
the
soul,
and
love
speech
and
language,
with
great
compel-
ling
manner;
Every
by
no
means
a
jumbled
so
all
essential
be
taken
to
be
it rather belongs to those years which comprise the akme
of Plato's
creative life.
even
less
case
of
art,
Decisive for
correct understanding
and art
demonstrate
that
on
the
is discussed.
such.
at
or symmetry
in existence. The
simply
be
impossible
in the
particular
being.
upon Being
achieve its end,
appearance
fall prey
from man.
only such
that they
not even
the fore even
to
it,
and
his
most
most
intrinsic
possession,
 
the
need
for
be something
to
the
fore
most
readily.
But
that,
according
to
Plato,
and
scope
in which the beautiful comes to language we were basically
already
to
of
sets
the
standard
dikaiosyne, that is, in the well-
wrought
to the extent
we call "beings," it is here very difficult to discern.
Fleeting
appearances
are
obtrudes. In
tois
teide
Being with blunt instruments, clumsily, scarcely at
all; and
of the
itself
same
time
which
shines
beautiful
the keenest
way we
can apprehend
things through
radiant and
the
En-
make the verb
a
way
that,
the
outset
remains
essentially
bound;
that man
scintillate,
to
Being
as
as an
object, is
become
capac-
ity
to
understand,
ances
which
brings
the relationship
between beauty
is
proper
to
by
himself
to
of man
is that
earlier viewed
the unconcealment
their
unconcealment."
to the
true. That
view
upon
Being,
and
because
Being must
their
belong-
ing
together
here
as
well.
 
so
without
the
overturned; what-
it can pronounce felicitous,
he means
at
something
else.
Only
of his labors in
become
clear to him. That clarity waxes as Nietzsche grasps the necessi-
ty
overturning of
sets
the
inversion
however, we
must keep
of Plato.
being. If we take the inversion strictly
in this sense, then the vacant niches of the "above and below" are
preserved, suffering
only a
change in
when the
in general is set aside as such, when the former
positing
of
apparent
the true
appearances. Only
his final
we are
higher
to
the
be
566)
 
in
all
brevity,
so
that
we
can
see
occurred
prior
to
him.
The
more
clearly
believes
that
history
by
means
being
original
when
nism
and
its
overcoming
by
Nietzsche relates
the
virtuous
Here the
at
all,
but
the essential definition of
it is
attainable here
any
virtuous; it
in repudiation
closest to
us, the
closest to
us, the
"true world"
repents')."
which
drew
its
defini-
tive
boundaries
insidious, ungraspable
preted
as
the
world now becomes even
being displaced ever farther beyond and away from this world;
it
grows
as what
order
to
salvage
ade-
quate
grounds
for
the
world
light
mathematical-scientific inter-
discernible
Being.
Because
Nietzsche
between Plato and
Kant. In that
way he distinguishes
the bygone Kantian philosophy
chief principle,
altogether
unat-
tainable
Such rejection
Prob-
lematic.}"
Therefore:
here
senses.
"5.
The
'true
world'—
use
for
nothing,
which
is
no
longer
even
obligating
way
in
philosophy.
sets in
quotation marks.
of which
abolished.
But
notice
does
sens and of cheerful-
Here
Nietzsche
thinks
own metamorphosis,
the sensu-
Nietzsche does
with mere fore-
noon. In spite of the fact that the supersensuous world
as
and
say, so does
world we
sheer abolition
animation of the
of this step
the shortest
shadow; end
own philosophy.
divisions
comports
himself
to
how
the
phrase
"high-
become that
not
mean
some
in the
to
Plato
and
Platonism
and
along
with
collapses
means.
recall
that,
an
affirmation
final division
affirmation of the sensuous, and along with it, the nonsensuous
world
an
offer them
possess.
What
abolition of
the nonsensuous.
well
as
the
be
cleared
for
a
on
the
order, now
new hierarchy
and new
must
be
changed.
To
that
only
when
ascribe
to
and ordering
basis of the
of its motion
true
being,
to be
defined afresh.
We are
the
outset
has
aimed
in
now
of
the
contradictions, not
and
regard to the essence
its principal
to
possible
by.
Accordingly,
the
the char-
acter of
multiplicity
its perspective.
against others.
is in
deline-
ated,
"sensuous."
The
penumbra;
it
Semblance
the actual. The
perspectivally constructed
of which possesses
one
another.
In
case
stands
acter
which
entire
perspectivally,
is
but
petrifying
only an
it i always
ultimately
decides."
Truth,
and shows itself
biguous.
itself
a
that
reality
would
be
intrinsically
its ungraspable, fluid, Protean nature (XIII,
50;
of
truth as a
sense of "mere"
293).
most
intimately
with
clarity
and heightening
of the
brings
and nothing
lating
transfiguration.
essence of reality,
and if reality
the
statement
closes (WM,
the supreme
truth
im-
mobilizing
art
the
"will
truth.
Platonism.
Discordance
the
by
virtue
granted
by
it belong both
the
real
on the one hand
to remain real,
created in
are
the essence of reality with equal originality, they must diverge
from one
another and
and change is deeper, more 'metaphysical' [that is to say,
corre-
sponding
more
the will
to
when
we
art,
receives
most
tremen-
semblance; it
as
permanence,
is
to
period
often
misinterpreted.
tion of
any
the
less
prepared
to
undertake
to be
good
taste—
inquiry.
To
but
art
we have
discussed, will
to truth.
of
the
of Being becomes essential.
style.
Fourth, "life" here means neither mere animal and vegetable Being
nor that readily comprehensible and
compulsive
busyness
everyday
The
some sort
cal,
although
"Being
and
Becoming."
which we can estimate how it is with "truth," and
in
science,"
preparation of
the
Winter
Semester
1936-37
It
was
Heidegger's
practice
to
write
out
his
lectures
on
unlined
sheets
manuscript sheet is covered recto with
a
reserved
for
major
emendations.
as
by
quite common in the southern German states. It is said
to
be
a
angular. To
in
that
to
A
33/14.
It
at NI,
page is found
are
were
made
added
in
all
of
33/14
iiberhaupt nicht
hinaus
wollen.
of
semicolons and
words
several
phrases
(underlined) becomes
revised.
The
holograph
will,
according
to
its
say,
"In
each
case
the
edge
of
the
page
and
could
as
easily
of
adding
a
the
to
as
that
33/14
with
but one of them minor ones. Two further major emenda-
tions from
body
comes the second important change. Three lines
in the holograph
at
NI,
53,
line
18,
or
"bracketed
out"
the
allzu

all too "rationally."
Heidegger often bracketed
print
than
in
speech.
are
delighted
a
general
reference
to
WM
to
Power
juxtapose
the
mastery to the
the
remarkably faithful
but
available
since
the
mid-1970s)
period to
always: willing out beyond
a
significant
p.
41
NI,
189,
line
5
from
Freiburg, whose
Neske edition
and
oneself;
it
is
to
become
the
great
artist,
Germany no one
themselves
by
to
a
name
for
in which beings
from one
a
the
paradoxical
Nietzsche's
philosophy.
or
community
of
both
the task
accomplishment
The published text of
nature of
20-25
compare
Niemeyer,
Writings,
ed.
D.
F.
Krell
the
Heidegger
designates
he
can
of
Occidental
philosophy,
"What
as
a
whole
work. That work
but must be read
to
however, but
of
"Was ist
we try
thought in
a unified
contrast it to
initiates the interpretation
as
a
is
a
being?"
That
question
way
point
where
of all beings,
art is pro-
aesthetics
(section
13)
focuses on the
5),
Nietzsche's physiology is
carries to an
sense
constitutes
the
it mean
questions evoke
be
considered
the
"foremost"
question
in
sec-
tion
19,
inquire into the
Book
will
to
not
at
this
point
draw
Each
doctrine
If
Nietzsche
describes
of
overturn-
ing,
history
counter-
movement,
Heidegger
if there
be
a
knowledge to
art, he
which
during
the
segregated the
tial
does not pose the
to
the
very
of
an
appari-
to a perspective that is essential to life in a
way
the
formulate:
since
all
course
for
during years
more than
first-rate lyric
his
name
continually
vengeance.
a flaw
which
things
intact.
It
is not until the publication in 1918 of Ernst Bertram's Nietzsche:
An
Essay
in
embodies "the incurability
two; his
which the
fasci-
nation
of Yeats'
A Vision.
he
must,
B.
Yeats,
extravagant
style
therefore
and
Kurt
Hildebrandt
reject
Bertram's
not
Nietzsche does
conducted
him;
he
remains
foreign
to
in poetry,
but the
became its victim."
with Plato and
in search of values which will halt the degeneration of
man and
as "judge" is of
hardly a fortunate one. Stefan George and his circle dream
of
a
foresee
the
development
of
of
Greek
and
Nordic
civilization,
for the
Sibyl-
lenverlag,
1922).
Jahr-
hundert
(Breslau,
of philosophy and a
to 1945,
IV:
Nihilism.
Baeumler's
which
ap-
pear
to
of
philosopher
of
cultural
revaluation,
was
philos-
ophy
of
'life.'
by
transcendent
world,
but
even
though
it
von
Hartmann,
Henri
Bergson,
If
Baeumler
is
an
enemy
"orgiasts"
of
Dionysus.
17
His
psychological
faux
pas
those
discussion of art
style, he does
so against the
din of the
already
to
an
Understanding
19
Jaspers'
work
resists
be felt in
Totality of
neither the
courage he