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    Introduction to MycologyIntroduction to Mycology Richard Mandelbaum RH (AHG)Richard Mandelbaum RH (AHG)

    www.richardmandelbaum.comwww.richardmandelbaum.com

    There are old mushroom hunters, and bold There are old mushroom hunters, and bold mushroom hunters, but no old, bold mushroom hunters, but no old, bold mushroom hunters.mushroom hunters.

    If you awaken in the morning after an If you awaken in the morning after an evening meal of mushrooms you know evening meal of mushrooms you know they were good ones they were good ones

    -- Ancient Roman sayingAncient Roman saying

    Every mushroom is edible at least once Every mushroom is edible at least once

    -- Alan Alan BessetteBessette

    Beatrix Potter

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    Kingdom FungiKingdom Fungi

    �� Approximately 80,000Approximately 80,000--100,000 spp. 100,000 spp. Identified (over 16,000 “mushrooms”), Identified (over 16,000 “mushrooms”), may be up to 2may be up to 2--10x that or more10x that or more

    �� More closely related to animals than plantsMore closely related to animals than plants

    �� Fungi spp. are often panFungi spp. are often pan--globalglobal

    �� Light weight spores carried by windLight weight spores carried by wind

    �� Both sexual and asexual reproductionBoth sexual and asexual reproduction

    �� Decomposers / Decomposers / SaprotrophsSaprotrophs, , SymbiontsSymbionts, , and Parasitesand Parasites

    Kingdoms of Life

    Wikimedia Commons: Maulucioni y Doridí

    Dept. of Energy (USA) Joint Genome Initiative

    Tree of Life: Tree of Life: Darwin, Haeckel Darwin, Haeckel

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    A new view of the tree of life - Nature Microbiology 1, Article number: 16048 (2016)

    http://cells-pathogens-cholera.weebly.com/

    Decomposers

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    SymbiontsSymbionts

    MycorrhizaeMycorrhizae –– More than 90% of plant families and 80% of species have More than 90% of plant families and 80% of species have

    mycorrhizalmycorrhizal relationship. Some plants (pines, orchids, heaths) relationship. Some plants (pines, orchids, heaths) lack root hairs altogether and are completely reliant on fungal lack root hairs altogether and are completely reliant on fungal digestiondigestion

    –– Most are Most are arbusculararbuscular ((endomycorrhizaeendomycorrhizae) )

    –– Now thought to be evolutionarily crucial to plants becoming Now thought to be evolutionarily crucial to plants becoming terrestrialterrestrial

    –– Thousands of spp. of fungi are now known to be Thousands of spp. of fungi are now known to be mycorrhizalmycorrhizal symbiontssymbionts with plantswith plants

    Classification of FungiClassification of Fungi

    Kingdom FungiKingdom Fungi

    Divisions (Divisions (PhyllumPhyllum):):

    -- MyxomycotaMyxomycota (slime molds)(slime molds)

    -- PhycomycotaPhycomycota (molds, blights)(molds, blights)

    -- AscomycotaAscomycota (sac fungi)(sac fungi)

    -- BasidiomycotaBasidiomycota (most “mushrooms”)(most “mushrooms”)

    plus:plus:

    -- Fungi Fungi ImperfectiImperfecti

    -- Lichens Lichens

    Lichens

    �� Symbiosis of algae and fungi;Symbiosis of algae and fungi;

    �� Discovered in 2016 to contain Discovered in 2016 to contain one alga and two fungi (one one alga and two fungi (one yeast)yeast)

    �� Profound decomposers and Profound decomposers and pioneers and can live in pioneers and can live in extreme environmentsextreme environments

    �� Bioindicators of clean air Bioindicators of clean air qualityquality

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    Classification of FungiClassification of Fungi

    Common white button Common white button mushroom:mushroom: –– Kingdom FungiKingdom Fungi

    –– Division Division BasidiomycotaBasidiomycota

    –– Class Class HymenomycetesHymenomycetes

    –– Order Order AgaricalesAgaricales

    –– Family Family AgaricaceaeAgaricaceae

    –– Genus Genus AgaricusAgaricus

    –– Species Species AgaricusAgaricus bisporusbisporus

    Mushroom Cultivation: Mushroom Cultivation: 50 million years old 50 million years old

    (by ants and termites (by ants and termites –– humans a bit more recently…)humans a bit more recently…)

    Myxomycota and PhycomycotaMyxomycota and Phycomycota

    �� Slime molds exhibit some Slime molds exhibit some characteristics of animals, characteristics of animals, some of plantssome of plants

    �� PhycomycetesPhycomycetes probably probably evolved from protozoa: evolved from protozoa: includes bread molds, includes bread molds, carnivorous parasites on carnivorous parasites on nematodes, roundworms, nematodes, roundworms, and blights (potato late and blights (potato late blight)blight)

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    Questioning the Intelligence Paradigm: Questioning the Intelligence Paradigm: Does Intelligence Require a Brain?Does Intelligence Require a Brain?

    “Slime molds do not blindly ooze from one “Slime molds do not blindly ooze from one place to anotherplace to another——they carefully explore they carefully explore their environments, seeking the most their environments, seeking the most efficient routes between resources. They do efficient routes between resources. They do not accept whatever circumstances they find not accept whatever circumstances they find themselves in, but rather choose conditions themselves in, but rather choose conditions most amenable to their survival. They most amenable to their survival. They remember, anticipate and decide. By doing remember, anticipate and decide. By doing so much with so little, slime molds represent so much with so little, slime molds represent a successful and admirable alternative to a successful and admirable alternative to convoluted brainconvoluted brain--based intelligence. “ based intelligence. “ Scientific American, Nov 7, 2012Scientific American, Nov 7, 2012

    NakagakiNakagaki, , Smart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinthSmart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinth, , Research in Microbiology, Research in Microbiology, VolVol 152, Issue 9, Nov 2001, p.767152, Issue 9, Nov 2001, p.767–– 770770

    AdamatzkyAdamatzky, , Slime Mold Solves Maze in One Pass, Assisted by Slime Mold Solves Maze in One Pass, Assisted by Gradient of ChemoGradient of Chemo--Attractants Attractants , , NanoBioscienceNanoBioscience, IEEE , IEEE Transactions on Transactions on VolVol 11 , Issue 2, p.13111 , Issue 2, p.131--134134

    Stemonitis sp.

    Physarum polycephalum

    AscomycotaAscomycota

    �� 5050--65,000 spp. of 65,000 spp. of AscomycetesAscomycetes identified; identified; 75% of overall fungal spp.75% of overall fungal spp.

    �� Most develop myceliumMost develop mycelium

    �� Includes:Includes: –– PenicilliumPenicillium

    –– Yeasts (no mycelium)Yeasts (no mycelium)

    –– Plant pathogens (Chestnut blight, Dutch Elm Plant pathogens (Chestnut blight, Dutch Elm disease)disease)

    –– Ergot (Ergot (ClavicepsClaviceps purpureapurpurea))

    –– Fungal components of most lichensFungal components of most lichens

    Ascomycota (cont’d)Ascomycota (cont’d)

    Includes small number of Includes small number of significant edible and significant edible and medicinal “mushroom” medicinal “mushroom” fruiting bodies:fruiting bodies:

    TrufflesTruffles

    Poria Poria cocoscocos

    MorchellaMorchella spp. spp. (morels)(morels)

    As well as As well as

    Cordyceps spp.Cordyceps spp.

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    BasidiomycotaBasidiomycota

    �� Approximately 30,000 spp. identifiedApproximately 30,000 spp. identified

    �� Two major ClassesTwo major Classes

    ��GasteromycetesGasteromycetes: Puffballs, stinkhorns, : Puffballs, stinkhorns, rusts, smutsrusts, smuts

    ��HymenomycetesHymenomycetes: Coral fungi, tooth : Coral fungi, tooth fungi, bracket fungi, fungi, bracket fungi, boletesboletes, gill fungi, gill fungi

    Class: Class: GasteromycetesGasteromycetes

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    Class: Class: HymenomycetesHymenomycetes

    Class: Class: HymenomycetesHymenomycetes

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    Class: Class: HymenomycetesHymenomycetes

    Mushroom ReproductionMushroom Reproduction

    Mushroom ReproductionMushroom Reproduction Photo credit: CampbellPhoto credit: Campbell

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    Mushroom Reproduction: spores Mushroom Reproduction: spores of of AgaricusAgaricus bisporusbisporus

    Identifying MushroomsIdentifying Mushrooms

    ��SubstrateSubstrate

    ��HabitatHabitat

    ��Time of yearTime of year

    Mushroom AnatomyMushroom Anatomy

    �� Fruiting Body shape, size, colorFruiting Body shape, size, color

    �� Cap features: shape, surface textureCap features: shape, surface texture

    �� Gills: attachment to stem, spacingGills: attachment to stem, spacing

    �� Pores / teeth / spinesPores / teeth / spines

    �� Stem/Stem/stipestipe: texture, attachment to cap: texture, attachment to cap

    �� Other: turning color upon bruising, odor / Other: turning color upon bruising, odor / tastetaste

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    Mushroom Mushroom AnatomyAnatomy

    The oldest hallucinogen is The oldest hallucinogen is thought to be the thought to be the

    flyfly--agaricagaric mushroom, mushroom, Amanita Amanita muscariamuscaria, ,

    discovered in Siberia by discovered