Jurutera June 2013

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Mechanical Engineering 

Transcript of Jurutera June 2013

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    Mechanical Engineering

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    APPLICATION Slope Protection Embankment Stabilization Housing & Road Project Other Civil Engineering Application

    APPLICATION Bridge Abutment Land Reclaimation Housing Development & Temporary

    Embankment Other Civil Engineering Application

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    LAFARGE CONCRETE (MALAYSIA) SDN BHD (95483-H)2, Jalan Kilang, 46050 Petaling Jaya,

    Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

    Tel : (603) 7787 2000

    Fax : (603) 7781 7675 / 7787 212 9

    www.lafarge.com.my

    Agilia is a new horizon for self-compacting and self-leveling concrete that spreads

    eortlessly. The new concrete technology used in Agilia allows for placing without

    difficulty , providing excellent quality concretes with superior surface finishes.

    Requiring no vibration , Agilia moves easily through highly congested reinforced

    areas , with no bleeding and segregation. It is robust and esthetically pleasing.

    Agilia gives flexibility on worksites at all levels, for all types of applications

    including foundations, architectural, horizontal and vertical structures.

    LAFARGE CONCRETE (MALAYSIA) SDN BHD (95483-H)2, Jalan Kilang, 46050 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

    Tel : (603) 7787 2000 Fax : (603) 7781 7675 / 7787 2129

    www.lafarge.com.my

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    June 2013 JURUTERA | 3

    JulyElectronic Engineering

    OctoberYoung Engineers Section

    August

    Mentoring Engineers - The Way Forward

    November

    Oil, Gas & Mining Engineering

    SeptemberChemical Engineering

    DecemberFacilities Management

    JURUTERA MONTHLY CIRCULATION: 28,000 COPIES

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    CONTENTS

    COVER NOTE

    New Challenges for Mechanical Engineers .............................................................5

    COVER STORYMechanical Engineering: Its Vital Role and Prospects .............................................6

    PRESIDENTS CORNERProgressing Towards a More Dynamic Culture Within IEM

    by Ir. Choo Kok Beng .............................................................................................12

    HISTORY OF IEMThe First Two Sessions of IEM Council (1958-1960) .............................................14

    FEATURE ARTICLEEnergy Savings From Axial Fans ...........................................................................16

    $IQLW\/DZV,QWHUSUHWDWLRQVDQG$SSOLFDWLRQV)RU&HQWULIXJDO3XPSV ..................20Product Development Through The Use of Rapid Prototyping ..............................28

    ENGINEERING DIGEST 30

    FORUMS7th International Conference on Cooling and Heating Technologies in 2014

    (ICCHT 2014) .........................................................................................................33

    Retreat and Brainstorming Workshop ....................................................................35

    Application of Plastic Pipes in The Plumbing Industry ...........................................36

    ,PSURYLQJ,(0V/LQNDJHVZLWK7KH0LQLVWULHV........................................................36

    The Engineering Club Outreach .............................................................................37

    FROM THE DESK OF PEMANDU

    Government Transformation Programmes Corporate Integrity Pledge .................38

    PINK PAGEProfessional Interview ............................................................................................40

    BLUE PAGE0HPEHUVKLS/LVW.....................................................................................................41

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    IEM DIARY OF EVENTSKindly note that the scheduled events below are subject to change. Please visit the

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    Note :

    1. Fixed line calls will be charged as local calls.

    2. Mobile phone calls are subject to charges by service providers.

    3. SMSes are free.

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    IEM DIARY OF EVENTSZ>^^

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    For details, please contact: Puan Lina at 07-3319705 or

    [email protected]

    COVER NOTE

    June 2013 JURUTERA | 5

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    YANG DIPERTUA / PRESIDENT:

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    NAIB YANG DIPERTUA / VICE PRESIDENTS:

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    BENDAHARI KEHORMAT / HONORARY TREASURER:

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    WAKIL AM / CIVIL REPRES ENTATIVE:

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    WAKIL ELEKTIK / ELECTRICAL REPRESENTATIVE:

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    WAKIL STRUKTUR / STRUCTURAL REPRESENTATIVE:

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    WAKIL KIMIA / CHEMICAL REPRESENTATIVE:

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    COVER STORY

    | JURUTERA June 20136

    Mechanical Engineering: Its Vital Roleand Prospects

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    COVER STORY

    June 2013 JURUTERA | 7

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    COVER STORY

    June 2013 JURUTERA | 9

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    COVER STORY

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    Date: 8-9 July 2013

    Venue: Summit Hotel USJ, Selangor

    Main Speaker: Prof. Dr. Nor Azazi Zakaria

    Fee: RM 250/day/person (RM50 discount for early bird)

    Kindly contact us for more information regarding the workshop.

    Date and venue for Johor and Sabah workshops to be confirmed.

    Topics:

    Venue: Summit Hotel USJ, Selangor

    Main S eaker: Pro . Dr. Nor Azazi Zakaria

    Date: 8-9 Jul 2013 To ics:

    MSMA 2 Workshop:

    BEM Approved

    CPD HOURS: 14Ref No: IEM13/PP/027/W

    MES-GeoF MES-BioFDMES-SurveyMES-Road EW3D DraNet SewNet PondCAD

    We also offer Individual Modules like:

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    Road & Highway

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    -Looping & branching design for peak flow & fire flow

    -Schematic diagram with pump, hydrant, valve and etc

    MiTS 1.2

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    Synchronize design changes across a single model

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    Better visualization, more accurate design, enjoys

    better coordination.

  • 7/22/2019 Jurutera June 2013

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    PRESIDENTS CORNER

    | JURUTERA June 201312

    Progressing Towards a MoreDynamic Culture within IEM

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    IEM ENGINEERING WEEK 2013

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    HISTORY OF IEM

    | JURUTERA June 201314

    THE FIRST TWO SESSIONS OF

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    Industrialplugs and

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    Mobile +60 12380 6996

    www.MENNEKES.de

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    FEATURE

    ||JJUURRUUTTEERRAAJune 20131

    16

    6

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    MMrr..RRaammiieessGGoovviinnddaassaammyy

    ENERGY consumption has become an important

    consideration to every individual globally. The word

    HIFLHQF\FRPHV WRRXUPLQGDV VRRQ ZHFRPHDFURVV

    topics related to energy. As the development around us

    UDSLGO\ SURJUHVVHV WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI HQHUJ\ HIFLHQF\

    SURSRUWLRQDOO\LQFUHDVHV(IFLHQWHQHUJ\XVDJHZLOO LQWKHlong run reduce the burden on our pockets. The business

    VHFWRUHVSHFLDOO\ZLOOIHHODQGEHQHWIURPWKHYDVWLPSDFWV

    ZKHQHIFLHQF\SOD\VLWVUROHLQVDYLQJHQHUJ\

    In my previous article pertaining to the jet fan and

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    regarding the replacement of conventional ducting design

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    represents a positive step in recovering the energy losses

    LQDGXFWLQJV\VWHPDQGLVDOVRVKRZQWREHFRVWHIFLHQW

    Often the case is that fan systems directly support production

    processes. Hence, many fans operate continuously but

    VXFK ORQJ UXQQLQJ WLPH ZLOO UHVXOW LQ VLJQLFDQW HQHUJ\

    consumption and substantial annual operating costs.

    Another investigation has been carried out on the main

    fans in a ventilation system. Among the many types of fans

    XVHGWKHPRVWFRPPRQLVWKHD[LDORZIDQ7KHD[LDORZ

    fan drives the air through the impeller in approximation of an

    axial direction. The axial fan utilises blades that force air to

    move parallel to the shaft around which the blades rotates.

    Owing to its cost effectiveness and multi-functional nature,

    the axial fan has been widely adopted in the industrial,

    commercial, consumer, institutional, and residential

    applications. In a typical car park ventilation system, these

    D[LDORZIDQVDUHNQRZQDVIUHVKDLUVXSSO\DQGH[KDXVW

    fans.

    Axial Fans

    without Guide Vane

    Axial Fans

    with Guide Vane

    Basement Type of Fan Total

    number

    of fans

    Total power consumption

    (KWh) per year

    Annual electricity

    cost (RM)

    Total power consumption

    (KWh) per year

    Annual electricity

    cost (RM)

    basement

    1

    supply and

    exhaust fan

    8 80,179.20 25,857.79 73,764.90 23,789.17

    basement

    2

    supply and

    exhaust fan

    12 171,417.60 55,282.18 157,704.20 50,859.60

    7RWDO&RVWZLWKRXWYDQH 81,139.97 7RWDO&RVWZLWKYDQH 74,648.77

    Savings for Basements 1 and 2, per year (RM) 6,491.20

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    The energy consumption of these fans was investigated

    at two basement car parks of a 10-storey and 14-storey

    RIFH EXLOGLQJ $Q HQKDQFHG JXLGH YDQH GHVLJQ ZDV

    installed downstream of the ventilation main fans for a better

    HIFLHQF\(FRQRPLFDOFRPSDULVRQZDVPDGHEHWZHHQWKH

    existing fan models and the enhanced model with guidevane by measuring the power consumption in KW. The

    guide vane used in this investigation is of the adjustable

    type. Table 1 shows the compilation results of the total power

    FRQVXPSWLRQ .:K DQGWKH DQQXDO HOHFWULFLW\FRVWLQJIRU

    the existing fan model on a normal mode of operation. The

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    12-hour, 6 day per week operating duration.

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    momentum of the rotating velocity at the rotor side.

    The high velocity region at the trailing edge of the fan

    blade has been cushioned out with the guide vane and,

    TOTAL

    $118$/(/(&75,&$/

    &26750

    (T

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    FEATURE

    June 2013 JJUURRUUTTEERRAA||1

    17

    7

    WKXVWKHVWUHDPOLQLQJRIWKHRZLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIRZLVGRQHZLWKUHGXFLQJ

    swirling. As the guide vane is of a proprietary design, details of it cannot be

    published.

    7KH H[SHULPHQWDO DQDO\VLV ZDV FDUULHG RXW LQ DFFRUGDQFH WR $0&$

    WHVWLQJ SURFHGXUH 7KH WRWDO HIFLHQF\ IRU WKH DGMXVWDEOH JXLGH YDQH

    application had increased by 8% as compared to the axial fan without the

    JXLGHYDQH5HIHUULQJWRWKH$0&$VWDQGDUGWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQ

    SRZHU+DQGWKHWRWDOIDQHIFLHQF\LV

    Where, is total pressure, Q LV WKH DLU RZ UDWH DQG

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    decrease by 8%. The assumption of an 8% reduction in the power consumed

    LVSUHVHQWHGLQ7DEOH7ZREDVHPHQWVZHUHFRQVLGHUHGIRUWKHRIFHWRZHU

    7KHUHVXOWLVVKRZQLQ7DEOHDQGLQGLFDWHVWKDWVDYLQJVRI50

    per year can be accrued if adjustable guide vanes are installed for thesupply/ exhaust fans.

    In summary, the operating cost of large fans is often high enough to

    MXVWLI\LPSURYLQJWKHIDQV\VWHPHIFLHQF\ZKLFKFDQRIIHUDTXLFNSD\EDFN

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    system to be optimised at a much lower cost than the traditional cut and

    dry method.n

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    Geotechnics with geosynthetics

    Huls Engineering Sdn. Bhd. (538064-A)Lot 56, Jalan PBS 14/3 Taman Perindustrian Bukit Serdang43300 Seri Kembangan Selangor Darul Ehsan MALAYSIA

    Tel : +603 8941 9011 Fax : +603 8941 [email protected] www.hulsmalaysia.com

    NAUE Asia Sdn. BhdNo. 18-M, Jalan SR 1/9 Seksyen 9 Serdang Raya43300 Seri Kembangan Selangor MalaysiaTel : +603 8945 2927 Fax : +603 8948 9927

    [email protected] www.naue.com

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    FEATURE

    | JURUTERA June 201320

    equipment engineering community. It is worth to note that

    proper application of this law could provide a scenario

    allowing the pump to operate closer or at its BEP, providing

    PRUHHIFLHQWRSHUDWLRQDQGLQWXUQFRVWVDYLQJV+RZHYHU

    LW LV RXWOLQHG ZLWKRXW JRLQJ LQGHSWK LQWR WKH GHQLWLRQ RI

    Eulers rotor dynamics equation (interested readers are

    directed to (2); (3)).

    The problem was tackled by references to multipleliterature and analysis of vendor pump curves to validate

    OLWHUDWXUH FODLPV DORQJ ZLWK HOG H[SHULHQFH E\ LQGXVWULDO

    H[SHUWV

    The discussion would also be limited to the following

    conditions, viz.:

    Pump has no entrained solid or gas (2).

    Scope does not include application to hydromagnetic

    pumps (2).

    Information presented generally cover medium range

    VSHFLFVSHHGSXPSV

    Simultaneous variation of diameter and rotational speed

    at once is not included in the scope of this article andnot recommended (4).

    9LVFRVLW\DQGXLGYDSRUL]DWLRQDUHQHJOLJLEOH(2).

    3.0 BACKGROUND

    3.1 Velocity Triangles

    $IQLW\ /DZV IRU KHDG UHOLHV RQ (XOHUV URWRU G\QDPLFV

    equation (Equation 1) which is derived from velocity

    triangles. Noticeable from these triangles as depicted in

    Figure 1(a) is that as periphery speed, U (also known as tip

    VSHHGYDULHVWKHDEVROXWHXLGH[LWYHORFLW\9IROORZVVXLW

    linearly. The same observation is noticed for variation in the

    UHODWLYHXLGH[LWYHORFLW\:1, as illustrated in Figure 1(b).

    :KHUH

    $IQLW\/DZV,QWHUSUHWDWLRQVDQG$SSOLFDWLRQVIRU&HQWULIXJDO3XPSV

    by Mr. Kelvin Mohan Thambiduray

    1.0 ABSTRACT

    2SHUDWLRQ RI URWDWLQJ HTXLSPHQW DW LWV EHVW HIFLHQF\

    point (BEP) or close to it is every operators objective as

    this leads to less wastage, higher cost savings, less wear

    LQWKH PDFKLQH DQG D EXQGOH RIRWKHU EHQHWV+RZHYHU

    in common practice, most process data acquired during

    front-end engineering design (FEED) or conceptual

    study phases do not accurately tally with actual process

    conditions during actual plant startup. This of course is

    due to many uncontrollable or unpredictable conditions

    and as a result, in most cases, pumps do not operate at

    rated points. A correction method should be implemented

    to correct this deviation or to vary pump performance

    based on process conditions that change over time,

    permitting peak performance throughout the pumps life

    F\FOH 2QHVXFK PHWKRG SUHVHQWHGKHUH LV$IQLW\/DZV

    where performance improvements are achieved by toggling

    with the impeller diameter or rotational speed. This article

    SUHVHQWVDGHWDLOHGLQWHUSUHWDWLRQRI$IQLW\/DZVDQGWKHLU

    usage for centrifugal pumps, alongside correction methodsto mitigate the large inaccuracies that have overshadowed

    WKHZLGHVSUHDGXVDJHRI$IQLW\/DZV7KHVHPHWKRGVKDYH

    been evaluated with vendor pump curves with the results

    presented and discussed.

    ,1752'8&7,21

    $IQLW\/DZVDOVRNQRZQDV)DQ/DZVGHULYHWKHLUQDPH

    from their initial usage to re-rate fans. These laws have

    proven successful in their application for fans generally

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    with was air (light gas) with a relatively low head rise

    and volume ratios that are commonly negligible. Theirapplications in other rotating equipment soon became

    apparent, as centrifugal pumps and compressors are

    both ideally governed by similar velocity triangles as fans.

    $IQLW\/DZVIRUSXPSVKDYHRIWHQEHHQGHVFULEHGLQWHUPV

    RIGLPHQVLRQOHVVQXPEHUVXVHGWRSUHGLFWRZKHDGDQG

    power changes with diameter or speed variation under

    VLPLODUDHURG\QDPLFRZDQGJHRPHWULFDOFRQGLWLRQVZLWK

    a caveat that errors can be in the order of 20% (1).

    The objective of this article is to bring awareness and put

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    /DZV IRU DSSOLFDWLRQ LQ UHUDWLQJ SXPSV ZKHWKHU GXH WR

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    methods generally overlooked by the general rotating

    Figure 1: Velocity triangles (a) variation in periphery speed (b) variation

    UHODWLYHXLGH[LWYHORFLW\

    Equation 1

    +6SHFLF+HDGN-NJ&u0HULGLRQDOYHORFLW\PV

    83HULSKHU\YHORFLW\PV

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    FEATURE

    June 2013 JURUTERA | 21

    $IQLW\/DZV

    $IQLW\ /DZV DUH GHULYHG IURP WKH EDVLV WKDW KHDG

    DQG RZUDWH DUHERWK GHSHQGHQWRQ YHORFLW\ WULDQJOHV

    for geometrically similar impellers, and under ideal

    conditions (as presented in Figure 1), they react linearly

    to change either individually or simultaneously.

    )OXLGRZUDWHGHQHGE\JHQHUDOWH[WERRNVVXJJHVW

    the following:

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    directly proportional to diameter and speed change. The

    following was proposed by A.J. Stepanoff and suggest (5)

    LWVYDOLGLW\IRUDFRQVLGHUDEOHUDQJHRIVSHFLFVSHHGV2 .

    :KHUH

    +HDGEHLQJDIXQFWLRQRIWZRYHORFLWLHVDVLQGLFDWHG

    in Equation 1 with velocity being a product of rotational

    speed and impeller diameter as indicated in Equation 2a

    then suggest;

    3RZHU3EHLQJGHQHGDVDSURGXFWRIRZDQGKHDG

    is then represented by referring to Equations 2c and 3b;

    Equations 2c, 3b and 4b all represent the general

    $IQLW\/DZVDSSOLFDEOHIRUSXPSV3. It should be noted

    WKDW RWKHU IRUPV RI WKHVH ODZV H[LVW E\ HLWKHU KROGLQJ

    one of the variables on the right side of these equations

    constant or implementing correction constants, whichwould be elaborated further in Section 4 of this article.

    GlobalBritishEducation

    since1821

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    a reputation for world-class teaching and practical,

    leading-edge research, which has made us one of the

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    establish a successful career in areas such as

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    Equation 2a

    Equation 2b

    Equation 2c

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    N = Rotational Speed, rpm D = Impeller diameter, m

    r = Impeller radius, m

    Equation 3a

    Equation 4a

    Equation 3b

    Equation 4b

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    FEATURE

    | JURUTERA June 201322

    (9$/8$7,212))$1/$:6

    4.1 Effect of Scaling / Similitude

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    that geometrical and dynamic similarity be maintained; to

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    ratio whilst ensuring constant Euler, Froude and Reynolds

    number (6). The effects of Froude4 and Reynolds5 number

    for pumps are however, generally negligible unless detailed

    loss investigation is required. Jacques and Florjancic

    both added to these recommendations by implying that

    $IQLW\ /DZV FDQ EH DSSOLHG DFFXUDWHO\ E\ PDLQWDLQLQJ

    SXPSV HIFLHQF\ VSHFLF DQG VXFWLRQ VSHFLF VSHHG (4),(3). Jacques further suggested that only the same impeller

    and not one geometrically similar be used for scaling as

    manufacturing variation on wetted parts surface properties

    ZLOO DIIHFW WKH DFFXUDF\ RI$IQLW\ /DZV(4)

    (refer Section4.1.1 for further information).

    %\SDUDSKUDVHFRQVHUYDWLRQRIXLGLPSHOOHUH[LWDQJOH

    EHIRUHDQG DIWHUPRGLFDWLRQVZRXOGHQVXUHWKHDFFXUDF\

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    variation in slip. As illustrated beforehand in Section

    3.2, observation suggests that variation in impeller outer

    diameter and rotational speed are major factors which

    govern corresponding change in the pumps performance.

    The following sub-sections will elaborate the effect of

    variation in these parameters on pump performance.

    4.1.1 Impeller Diameter VariationIt is common practice with most pump vendors to

    construct impellers to be slightly larger than theoretically

    FRPSXWHG DV UDWHG RZ ZLWKLQ RI %(3 LV

    generally acceptable (7). If required pump performance

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    the minor effects neglected during detailed engineering

    calculations and also safeguard against under tolerance

    LQ FRQWUDFWXDO WHUPV 'HYHORSLQJ DQ LPSHOOHU WR LWV H[DFW

    theoretical calculated size might prove to be detrimental

    FRPPHUFLDOO\ DQG WR WKH GHOLYHU\ VFKHGXOH LI WKH RZ

    properties end up not meeting process requirements andremanufacturing is required.

    +RZHYHURQHVKRXOGWDNHQRWHWKDWWKURWWOLQJWKHRZ

    would mean the pump is over-sized, leading to detrimental

    effects, and to name a few:

    +LJKHUPDQXIDFWXULQJDQGRSHUDWLRQFRVW

    +LJKHU HQHUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ DV WKH SXPS ZRXOG EH

    UXQQLQJRQSDUWORDGGXHWRUHGXFHGSXPSHIFLHQF\

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    premature wear)

    Possibility of pulsation (if inducers or suction impellers

    DUHXVHGWRUHGXFHWKHKLJKHU136+URIDODUJHUSXPS

    +LJKHUSRVVLELOLW\RIVHDOIDLOXUH

    +LJKHU YLEUDWLRQV DQG QRLVH OHYHOV GXH WR SDUW ORDG

    operation) (3).

    Reducing impeller diameter on the other hand does

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    effects besides the higher capital cost; if performed

    properly and within the allowable range. Most literatures

    would suggest the upper limit of the allowable range to

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    WKH DOORZDEOH UDQJH PLJKW FDXVH FRQVLGHUDEOH HIFLHQF\

    drop and unstable pump performance due to increase in

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    H[LWWREHFRPHKLJKO\XQVWDEOHLQFUHDVLQJWKHWHQGHQF\RI

    EDFNRZLQWKHSXPSHVSHFLDOO\LQKLJKHQHUJ\DQGGRXEOHVXFWLRQRZSXPSV(1).

    $OVR$IQLW\/DZVFDQEHHDVLO\DSSOLHGWRHVWLPDWHWKH

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    are breached to the geometrical similitude, before and after

    the impeller trim. Factors which contribute to this include

    failure of geometrical impeller trim to vary proportionally

    with:

    Impeller surface roughness (commonly negligible with

    WKHH[FHSWLRQWRDSSOLFDWLRQRI$IQLW\/DZLQKLJKKHDG

    RURZRSHUDWLRQV Impeller width and internal leakage clearances

    Impeller to casing ratio

    These mentioned factors cause increase in slip, which

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    Due to this, impeller diameters are often trimmed in

    SKDVHVRIVPDOOLQFUHPHQWVDQGUHWHVWHGXQWLOGHVLUHGRZ

    conditions are achieved. Each time the impeller is trimmed

    it would require to be re-balanced which could results in

    FRVWO\PRGLFDWLRQV

    A silver lining to the setbacks introduced by the usage of

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    by Figure 2; a correction chart for impeller diameter trim

    to compensate for hydraulic mismatches and mechanical

    imperfections ;(9). Validity of this chart has been tested with

    two separate pump vendor performance curves and initial

    observation shows that improvement of accuracy ranging

    EHWZHHQWRDSSUR[LPDWHO\0RUHLPSRUWDQWO\XVDJH

    of the correction factor as indicated in Figure 3 and Figure 4

    prevents impeller over cut, which is not correctable unless

    by change of impeller or variation of rotational speed. The

    question that lies here is what if the driver is not variable

    speed, which is the common case in most scenarios where

    impeller trimming is practiced. Do note however, even with

    WKHXVDJHRIWKHFRUUHFWLRQIDFWRUWKHH[DFWUHTXLUHGWULPLV

    not indicated with negligible effects, this is especially thecase when referring to Figure 3. This is highly likely owed

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    laws is highly not recommended as addressed later. Note

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    FEATURE

    | JURUTERA June 201324

    ',D>

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    as demonstrated on Figure 4, which is likely owed to its

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    Other methods that may also be applied to make impeller

    trimming more favourable is trimming of vanes in an oblique

    cut instead of the entire shroud (for closed impeller designs).

    This reduces the effect of balancing issues and provides a

    PRUHXQLIRUPH[LWRZDWWKHLPSHOOHUH[LW+RZHYHUFDUH

    also should be taken when performing this to ensure that

    shroud mechanical strength is not compromised.

    ,W LV VDIH WR SHUIRUP LQWHUSRODWLRQ RI DFWXDO RZ GDWD

    being utilised (vendor to test and validate impeller with

    VLPLODUVSHFLFVSHHGDWYDU\LQJVL]HVDQGH[WUDSRODWLRQ

    under any circumstances avoided. If a new impeller is

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    complete hydraulic analysis is recommended. The failure

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    Figure 3, showing an undersized impeller, which would

    ultimately lead to dissatisfactory pump performance. Pump

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    Figure 2: Impeller trim correction [Image adopted from (9); (8)].

    Figure 3: Comparison with and without correction factor proposed on

    JHQHUDOYHQGRU$SXPSFXUYH6,6SHFLF6SHHG

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    FEATURE

    June 2013 JURUTERA | 25

    SURFHVVFRQGLWLRQVDUHH[WUDSRODWHGEH\RQGDFHUWDLQRZWKUHVKROG

    $QRWKHU LPSRUWDQW OLPLWDWLRQ WR FRQVLGHU LV WKH DSSOLFDEOH VSHFLF

    VSHHGUDQJH ZKLFK $IQLW\ /DZVJRYHUQ 3XPSV ZLWKORZ VSHFLF VSHHG

    are designed to maintain the impeller clearance width for a considerable

    distance away from the outer diameter; this disrupts the width to diameter

    ratio which maintains a near constant change as seen in middle range

    VSHFLFVSHHGSXPSV+LJKVSHFLFVSHHGSXPSVRQWKHRWKHUKDQGKDYH

    YHU\VKRUWEODGHV+HQFHWKH\DUHYHU\VHQVLWLYHWRGLDPHWHUFKDQJH (5) due

    to possibility of inadequate vane overlap causing hydraulic problems to

    arise(9)&RQVHTXHQWO\ERWKWKHVHVSHFLFVSHHGUDQJHVGRQRWFRUUHVSRQG

    ZHOOZLWK$IQLW\/DZV0HQWLRQHGLQ6HFWLRQWKDW$IQLW\/DZVUHO\RQ

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    DVLJQLFDQWDPRXQWIRUVPDOOFKDQJHVLQGXW\SRLQWUHQGHULQJ$IQLW\/DZV

    highly unreliable in these cases(4).

    4.1.2 Impeller Rotational Speed Variation

    $QHIFLHQWZD\WRFRQWUROSXPSSHUIRUPDQFHHVSHFLDOO\LQIUHTXHQWO\YDU\LQJ

    process conditions is by changing the impeller rotational speed with variablespeed drive system (VSD). Use of VSDs with electric motor drive include

    YDULDEOH IUHTXHQF\ GULYH 9)' K\GUDXOLF FRXSOLQJ RU VWHS JHDU ER[

    :KHUHHOHFWULFPRWRUGULYHLVQRWXVHGWKH96'GULYHFDQEHYDULDEOHVSHHG

    steam turbine, gas turbine, reciprocating engine or even hydraulic power

    recovery turbine. Note all of these VSD systems have different limitations on

    allowable speed range which must be taken into account.

    6LPLODUWRGLDPHWHUWULPPLQJVSHHGPRGLFDWLRQGRHVKDYHLWVOLPLWDWLRQV

    too. For one, the larger number of equipment required directly increases

    FDSLWDO DQG PDLQWHQDQFHFRVW DQGVNLG IRRWSULQW /LPLWDWLRQVFRQFHUQLQJ

    WRDFFXUDF\RI$IQLW\/DZVZLWKVSHHGFKDQJHDOVRH[LVWDVWKLVLPSDFWV

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    roughness not varying proportionally with speed change. Nevertheless,

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    KLJKRZRSHUDWLRQVDVIULFWLRQORVVHVEHFRPHPRUHSUHGRPLQDQWLQWKHVH

    scenarios(3)$OVRDVDGGUHVVHGLQ6HFWLRQIRU$IQLW\/DZVWREHXVHG

    Figure 4: Comparison with and without correction factor proposed on general vendor B pump

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    FEATURE

    | JURUTERA June 201326

    )LJXUH$IQLW\/DZV3XPSYHQGRU$IRUURWDWLRQDOVSHHGYDULDWLRQ6,6SHFLF6SHHG

    DFFXUDWHO\ FRQVWDQW SXPS HIFLHQF\ LV UHTXLUHG 7KLV

    however is not seen in practice, being supported from a large

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    WKDW FHQWULIXJDO SXPS HIFLHQF\ DV D IXQFWLRQ RI PXOWLSOH

    variables, one of which is rotational speed(2). Though for

    small speed changes the effects that cause inaccuracy to

    $IQLW\/DZVDUHPRUHWKDQRIWHQQHJOLJLEOHDVLOOXVWUDWHGRQ

    Figure 5. A pump manufacturer had introduced a method

    VKRZQLQ(TXDWLRQWRHVWLPDWHWKHQHZSXPSHIFLHQF\

    after speed variation

    (10)

    .

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    applied to vary rotational speed, one should be cautious and

    take mechanical limitations of the pump into consideration,

    as increasing the rotational speed without a proper rotor

    dynamic study may cause the shaft to operate dangerously

    FORVHWRLWVFULWLFDOVSHHGUHVXOWLQJLQH[FHVVLYHQRLVHDQG

    vibration, with pump part failures following suit. Increasing

    the shaft size to counter this effect can be considered with a

    detailed engineering study, as the shaft size directly affects

    WKHURWRUG\QDPLFVSHUIRUPDQFHDQGHIFLHQF\RIWKHSXPS(9)3UXGHQFHVKRXOGDOVREHWDNHQZKHQWKH136+PDUJLQ

    of the pump in operation is very small, as common pump

    136+UFXUYHVZRXOGVKRZLQFUHPHQWRI136+UDVVSHHG

    is increased(11).

    &21&/86,21

    $IQLW\ODZVKDYHQRWDOZD\VEHHQXVHGLQSUDFWLFHRZLQJ

    to the common fallacy of low accuracy predictions and

    unreliability. This is compounded with competition frompresent day high speed computational hardware and

    advancing CFD software with the capability to accurately

    PDSQHZRZFRQGLWLRQVIRUYDULDWLRQRIURWDWLRQDOVSHHGDQG

    impeller diameter. These factors are main causes as to why

    QRWPXFKDWWHQWLRQKDVEHHQSDLGWR$IQLW\/DZV+RZHYHU

    this article brings to light the possibility of these laws being

    XVHG UHOLDEO\ WR HVWLPDWH H[SHFWHG RZ FRQGLWLRQV ZLWK

    tolerable accuracy during feasibility stage or even during

    trouble-shooting, if applied with proper care and the methods

    outlined. Although further thorough research is strongly

    VXJJHVWHGEHIRUHHOGDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKHVHODZVLVSXWLQWR

    practice. Future works to be considered should include

    HVWDEOLVKLQJ D SURYHQ TXDQWLWDWLYH UDQJH IRU PD[LPXP

    LPSHOOHUWULPURWDWLRQDOVSHHGYDULDWLRQDSSOLFDEOHVSHFLF

    VSHHGVDVZHOODVDSSOLFDEOHKHDGDQGRZ1HYHUWKHOHVV

    caution should always be taken especially when trimming

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    RZ FRHIFLHQWV DUH JUHDWO\ LQXHQFHG E\ JHRPHWULFDO

    properties.

    Equation 5

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    FEATURE

    | JURUTERA June 201328

    Product Development ThroughThe Use Of Rapid Prototyping

    by Ir. Dr Tan Chee Fai

    THE competition and rapid development of the world

    market is causing the industry to produce more quality

    LQQRYDWHGSURGXFWVLQWKHVKRUWHVWWLPH,QWKHUVWSODFHWKH

    industry needs to plan and adopt the right strategy in order

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    GLIIHUHQWPHWKRGVVXFK DV .DQEDQ 6\VWHP7RWDO 'HVLJQ

    Lean Manufacturing and Concurrent Engineering are

    used. To reduce the production time and minimise designHUURU HQJLQHHUVQHHG WR FUHDWH WKHUDSLG PRGHOV LQ HDFK

    development stage.

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology is a means through

    which the product geometry as modelled in the earlier

    stages can be directly utilised to obtain the physical shape

    of a component. This helps explore and prevent the design

    problems during the manufacturing stage. Rapid prototyping

    allows real models and tools to be produced directly from

    WKHOHRIFRPSXWHUDLGHGGHVLJQ&$'GDWD>@53LVYHU\

    useful in the early stage of product development as well as

    LQWKHQDOVWDJHRISURGXFWYHULFDWLRQ7KHUDSLGSURGXFW

    FDQEHXVHGIRUHUJRQRPLFHYDOXDWLRQDHVWKHWLFFKHFNLQJ

    PHFKDQLVPYDOLGDWLRQHWF

    The rapid prototyping industry is experiencing

    impressive growth although it was badly hit by the global

    PDQXIDFWXULQJ UHFHVVLRQ $V 53 FDQ VXSSRUW WKH UDSLG

    SURGXFWGHYHORSPHQWSURFHVVWKHGHPDQGRI53LVJURZLQJ

    >@0DQ\53V\VWHPVDUHDYDLODEOHLQWKHPDUNHWKRZHYHU

    only a few processes are widely accepted by the industry.

    $PRQJWKHP6WUHUHROLWKRJUDSK\6/$6/6HOHFWLYH/DVHU

    6LQWHULQJ 6/6 )XVHG 'HFRPSRVLWLRQ 0RGHOOLQJ )'0

    /DPLQDWHG 2EMHFW 0DQXIDFWXULQJ /20 2EMHFW 4XDGUD

    system and Envision Tec Perfactory are some of the widely

    used systems. Yet most of the present systems have not

    completely addressed the industrys needs. MachinesKDYH OLPLWDWLRQV LQ WKHLU SHUIRUPDQFHV DQG GLPHQVLRQDO

    DFFXUDFLHV VXUIDFH QLVK SURFHVV VSHHG DQG PDWHULDO

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    OLPLWDWLRQV>@7KLVSDSHUSUHVHQWVWKHWUHQGVUHVHDUFKDQG

    GHYHORSPHQWDQGDSSOLFDWLRQVRI53LQUHFHQWWLPHV

    MAJOR RP APPLICATIONS IN INDUSTRY

    Offshore and Abyssal Engineering

    :LHQHNHDQG*HUEHU>@DSSOLHG53LQRIIVKRUHDQGDE\VVDO

    research. The outcome from the research found that RP

    has improved and replaced the conventional methodsto develop new types of products and procedures. RP

    therefore has great potential in offshore engineering.

    Engineering

    The aerospace industry in the United State uses RP

    technology to manufacture the customized parts for the

    ,QWHUQDWLRQDO6SDFH6WDWLRQDQGWKHVSDFHVKXWWOHHHW53

    FDQDOVREHXVHGWRPDQXIDFWXUHSDUWVIRUJKWHUMHWIRUWKH

    PLOLWDU\>@

    RP also plays an important role in the automotive

    industry. RP models are used for design studies (aestheticevaluation) and physical experimentation (aerodynamic

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    DQG DVVHPEO\ H[SHULPHQWV >@ ,Q DGGLWLRQ 53 FDQ EH

    GHYHORSHG IRU WRROLQJZLWKLQ DVKRUWHUWLPHVXFK DVLQ )

    UDFLQJPRGHOGHYHORSPHQW>@

    Architecture

    The Rapid Prototyping Group from University of Strathclyde

    of the United Kingdom has applied RP in the architectural

    HOG7KH53ZDVXVHGLQYLVXDOLVLQJWKHIHDVLELOLW\PRGHO

    SODQQLQJPRGHODQGQDOSURMHFWPRGHO7KHFKDUDFWHULVWLFV

    of architectural models can be described using seven

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    DFFXUDF\ >@ 7KH 53 WHFKQRORJ\ KDV DOVR EHHQ DSSOLHG

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    &KXUFK LQ %DUFHORQD 6SDLQ WR LQWHJUDWH ZLWK &$'&$0

    SURGXFWLRQ>@

    Medical Applications

    53KDVEHHQXVHGIRURUWKRGRQWLFVDSSOLFDWLRQ$SSHDUDQFH

    conscious adults can have their teeth straightened without

    the embarrassment of having a mouth full of metal braces

    >@,QDGGLWLRQ53LVDOVRXVHGLQWKHSURGXFWLRQRIFURZQV

    EULGJHVDQGRWKHUW\SHVRIGHQWDOUHVWRUDWLRQV>@53FDQ

    also be applied in the hearing aids industry to produceFXVWRPLVHG KHDULQJ DLG VKHOOV IRU SDWLHQWV ,Q DGGLWLRQ

    53 LV DOVR EHLQJ XVHG WR SURGXFH FXVWRPW PDVNV IRU

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    the patients face which helps to reduce the formation of

    scarred tissue.

    Arts and Archaeology

    RP is being used in the restoration of artefacts. RP can

    duplicate ancient statues and ornaments which had

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    damage can then be corrected using the software. In this

    ZD\GXSOLFDWHVFDQEHHDVLO\FUHDWHG>@

    Sciences

    ,Q WKH HOG RI VFLHQFH 53 LV XVHG WR PRGHO PROHFXODU

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    FEATURE

    June 2013 JURUTERA | 29

    chains upscale for teaching and learning purposes in the

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    HGXFDWLRQDOLQVWLWXWLRQVLWLVDOVRDIIRUGDEOHDQGFDQEHXVHG

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    WRSURRIDFRQFHSW1H[WIRUFROOHJHVDQGVFKRROVVWXGHQWVFDQ OHDUQ WKH 53 WHFKQRORJ\ WKURXJK KDQGVRQ SURMHFWV

    )RUWKHLQGLYLGXDOWKHORZFRVW53PDFKLQHFDQEHXVHGIRU

    various projects or as a product development tool for small

    VFDOH EXVLQHVVHV VXFK DV DQ RQOLQH EXVLQHVV +RZHYHU

    WKH RQO\ GUDZEDFN LV WKDW RI WKH TXDOLW\ RI WKH QLVKHG

    product will not be as good due to the low resolution of

    the machine.

    REFERENCES

    [1] Wiedemann, B. and Jantzen, H-A., Strategies and applications

    for rapid product and process development in Daimler-Benz AG,

    Computers in Industry, 39, 1999 pp. 11-25.

    [2] Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Innovations: State of the rapid

    prototyping industry, Strategic Direction, 20, 2004 pp. 27-29.

    [3] Egodawatta, A.K.m Harrison, D.K., A.K.M. De Silva and G. Haritos,

    A new rapid prototyping/tooling based on layered manufacturing

    technology, Proceeding of Third International Conference on

    Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Kuala Lumpur, 11-13 May

    2004, pp. 401-405.

    [4] Wieneke, B. M. T. and Gerber, H.W., Rapid prototyping technology

    new potentials for offshore and abyssal engineering, Proceedings

    of the Thirteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering

    Conference, Honolulu, 25-29 May 2003 pp. 27.

    [5] Ryder, G., Ion, B., Green, G., Harrison, D. and Wood, B., Rapid

    design and manufacture tools in architecture, Automation in

    Construction 11, 2002 pp. 279 290.

    [6] Burry, M. Rapid prototyping, CAD/CAM and human factors,

    Automation in Construction, 11, 2002 pp. 313-333.

    [7] http://www.wohlesassociates.com/EuroMold-2001-paper.html(accessed on 18/5/2004)

    Ir. Dr Tan Chee Fai is a committee member of the Mechanical Engineering

    Technical Division and a Senior Lecturer, Integrated Design Research Group

    (IDeA), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia

    Melaka.

    Fill in the remaining 80 squares with single digits 1-9 such that there is no repeat of the digit in every Row,

    Column and Block of nine squares. The number at the top left hand corner of the dotted cage indicates the total

    for the digits that the cage encompasses.

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    Twin Tree Publishing

    (Solution is on page 44 of this issue.)

    1SUDOKUCenterpiece "1"Develop both sides of the brain with 1Sudokuby Mr. Lim Teck Guan

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    ENGINEERING DIGEST

    | JURUTERA June 201330

    Civil Engineering Dominates Q1Construction Activity

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    O&G Sector to see RM15 BillionWorth of Acquisitions in 2013

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    widths for wider coverage to reduce material wastage, cost and time of installation.

    www.tencategeosynthetics.com

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    FORUM

    June 2013 JJUURRUUTTEERRAA||3

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    THE Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM) has won a bid

    to become the organiser of the 7th International Conference

    on Cooling & Heating Technologies in 2014 (ICCHT-2014),

    which will be held in Malaysia. IEM was invited by American

    Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning

    Engineers (ASHRAE) Singapore Chapter to participate and

    bid for the ICCHT-2014. Mechanical Engineering Technical

    Division (METD) was given the task by IEM to be in chargeof the bidding of ICCHT-2014. After several preparatory

    meetings, METD had decided to send a delegation to bid

    for the organisation of 7th ICCHT during the 6th ICCHT in

    Xian, China, between 9 and 12 November 2012.

    The proposal from METD was supported by IEM and

    for the ICCHT-2014, METD has decided to work with IEM

    Training Centre (IEM-TC). After some preparations and

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    Xian, China, to meet the ICCHT main committee and to

    present the proposal. The delegation team was represented

    by Ir. Noor Hisham Yahaya (Team Leader), Ir. Fam Yew Hin,

    Ir. Luk Chau Beng, Ir. Gopal Narian Kutty, Ir. Yim Hong

    Wa (representative from IEM-TC), and Ir. Dr Tan Chee

    Fai. There were two intensive discussion sessions and a

    presentation during the 6th International Conference on

    Cooling & Heating Technologies (ICCHT-2012). Finally, the

    main ICCHT committee approved METDs proposal and

    awarded the organising right of 7th ICCHT to the Institution

    of Engineers, Malaysia.

    The ICCHT was formed by a group of researchers

    from four countries, namely Professor Maogang He (Xian

    Jiatong University, China), Professor Aryandi Suwono

    (Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia), Professor Hanshik

    Chung (Gyeingsang National University, Korea), Professor

    Shengqiang Shen (Dalian University of Technology, China),and Professor S.H. Winoto (National University of Singapore,

    Singapore). Their main research interest are cooling and

    heating technologies such as HVAC system, heat transfer,

    renewable energy and refrigeration engineering.

    The 1st International Conference on Cooling & Heating

    Technologies was held in Hanoi Vietnam (January 2005,

    whereas the subsequent conferences were held in Dalian,

    China (July 2006); Tokyo, Japan (July 2007); Jinhae,

    Korea (October 2008) and Bandung, Indonesia (December

    2010). The previous ICCHTs had gathered more than 100

    cooling and heating researchers from different countries

    such as China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Indonesia.The 7th International Conference on Cooling & Heating

    Technologies will be organised in Kuala Lumpur from 4

    November to 6 November 2014.

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    5

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    THE annual Retreat and Brainstorming Workshop of

    the Mechanical Engineering Technical Division (METD)

    for Session 2012/13 was held on 15 December 2012 at