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Developed by the University of Wisconsin Extension’s Emerging Ag Markets (EAM) Team and the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection A Resource for Direct Market Meat Producers in Wisconsin revised October 2004 A3809
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Transcript of October 2004 revised - Division of Extension...Meat by Livestock Producers Overview provided by Dr....

  • Developed by the University of Wisconsin Extension'sEmerging Ag Markets (EAM) Team

    and the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection

    A Resource for Direct Market Meat Producers in Wisconsin

    revisedOctober 2004

    A3809

  • 1

    Table of ContentsEditors Note ____________________________________2Introduction ______________________________________3Food Safety and Regulations ____________________________5

    Rules on Sale of Animals and Meat by Livestock Producers ....................................................................6Guidelines Regarding: Animal and Carcass Sale, Meat Processing and Sales Restrictions......................7DATCP Brochure: Direct Marketing Meat and Poultry ............................................................................8DATCP Brochure: Wisconsin State Meat Inspection Program ..............................................................10DATCP Brochure: Wisconsin Retail Meat Label Requirements..............................................................12Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP) Rules and Regulations................14Chapter 97 Food Regulation ....................................................................................................................14Chapter ACTP 55......................................................................................................................................21Meat Labeling ..........................................................................................................................................32USDA Guide to Safe Food Handling Labels ..........................................................................................34Controlling Chemical Residues in Livestock and Meat ..........................................................................36Safety of Cured Pork Products ................................................................................................................41

    Meat Processing __________________________________43Directory of Smaller Scale State-Inspected and USDA-Inspected Slaughter Plants in Wisconsin ........44Directory of State Custom-Exempt ........................................................................................................48Processing Plant Statistics from the Bureau of Meat Safety & Inspection..............................................50Working with Your Meat Processor..........................................................................................................51How Much Meat Will You Take Home? ..................................................................................................53Meat Processing Terminology ..................................................................................................................56The Nutrient Composition of Meat Cuts..................................................................................................58Nutritive Content of Alternative Red Meat Products ..............................................................................62Nutritional Influences on Pork Quality ....................................................................................................67Beef Retail Cuts from NCBA ..................................................................................................................75Pork Retail Cuts from NPPC....................................................................................................................76Aging of Beef ..........................................................................................................................................77Sausage Recipes and Procedures..............................................................................................................84

    Marketing ______________________________________87Direct Meat Marketing by Livestock Producers ......................................................................................88Doing Your Own Market Research ..........................................................................................................90Promote Yourself! ....................................................................................................................................94Pricing Your Meat Products....................................................................................................................100Cooperative Strategies ............................................................................................................................105Natural Meat ..........................................................................................................................................107Organic Meats ........................................................................................................................................108Organic Pork Standards ..........................................................................................................................109Ethnic Marketing of Pork ......................................................................................................................117Agricultural Development and Diversification (ADD)..........................................................................121

    Contacts/Resources ________________________________129

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    Editors NNoteAbout Direct Marketing MeatBy Greg Lawless, Extension Outreach Specialist, UW Center for Cooperatives

    The Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) received a USDAgrant in 2001 to support direct marketing of meat products by Wisconsin producers. This Federal-StateMarket Improvement Program (FSMIP) grant included funds to support producer education. In thataspect of the grant, DATCP partnered with the Emerging Agricultural Markets (EAM) Team ofUniversity of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX).

    In 2001-02 DATCP and the EAM Team fulfilled the educational commitments of the grant by putting onfour meat marketing workshops around the state. These workshops were well attended and receivedvery favorable evaluations from producer participants. At the end of the grant period there was still amodest amount of funds left unspent, and we decided to put those funds toward this publication.

    This book is built around information presented at the meat marketing workshops. Articles by UWEXfaculty on Market Research, Promotion, Pricing, and Working with Your Processor came directly fromthose workshops and are published here for the first time. We have also compiled in this book manyother articles and publications that relate to direct marketing of meat products.

    This book is intended to support producers who direct market beef, pork, lamb and poultry, as well asless traditional meats from bison, ostrich, and other alternative species. In some cases we providedarticles specific to one species, but these articles were chosen because they offer information and insightsthat could benefit all kinds of livestock producers. The four Facts sheets from the National Pork Boardare a case in point.

    Readers should be aware that this booklet represents an aggregation of information from many differentsources, some of it reproduced several years after it originally appeared. If there is any contradiction orconfusion that arises between the various sources, particularly with respect to the ever-changingregulatory environment, readers are encouraged to contact DATCP directly for the latest and mostaccurate information.

    We are very grateful to Dr. Dennis Buege, Extension Meat Specialist of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He submitted numerous articles of his own and pointed us toward many other materials fromstate and industry sources. We also thank Terry Burkhardt and his colleagues at DATCP for providingstate statues, brochures and other resources for inclusion in this publication.

    Direct Marketing Meat was produced under a very short timeframe, and we are especially grateful toLaurie Lawrence of DATCP for helping us to put it all together in an attractive format.

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    Introduction By Rose Skora, UW Extension AgriculturalAgent for Racine and Kenosha Counties

    Wisconsins rich agricultural history has manyfocuses including our diverse dairy industry,crops, fruit production and livestock production.While livestock production in Wisconsin hasntgained the notoriety that dairy has, livestockcontinues to be an important aspect ofagriculture in our state.

    Challenges with low commodity prices andconcentration of livestock production can leadto economic difficulties for livestock producers.Both livestock numbers and the number oflivestock farmers are dropping in the state ofWisconsin. Reasons for the loss of farmers isvery evident when looking at some of theeconomic realities related to farming. Forexample, in 1946, livestock producers received73 cents of the consumer dollar that was spendon meat products. This number fell to 52 centsin 1956 and only 12 cents of the consumerdollar went to farmers in 1998. Figure 1 showshow pork producers market share has declinedover the last forty years.

    Despite some of the hardships currently facingWisconsins livestock producers, there exists theopportunity for farmers to take back a largershare of the consumer dollar and be paid fairlyand adequately for the work that goes intoproducing high quality meat products. Whiledirect marketing of meat products is not a newconcept today more farmers are looking atturning to direct marketing as a means ofboosting income and profitability.

    The opportunity to direct market meat productsis gaining momentum. Many consumers arelooking for a connection to the farmer thatproduces their food. Additionally, concernsabout healthy eating and the safety and flavor ofmeat products are motivating consumers to findthe direct link between the food they eat and thefarmers who produce it.

    While direct marketing of meat faces someunique challenges (issues with processing,finding markets for less desirable cuts,developing meat products that are desirable fora fast-paced quick food society) thesechallenges can be overcome. Direct marketingcan take many forms. Farmers have theopportunity to form co-ops, sell directly torestaurants and grocery stores, and sell at

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    Figure 1: Pork: Retail Price and Shares: 1960-01.

    Producers and Packers are losing market share.

    Source: Dr. Ron Plain, University of Missouri

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    farmers markets or at an on-farm store. Thepossibilities for direct marketing meat arenumerous and continue to expand.

    While direct marketing meat can be a successfulway for farmers to maintain viable farmingoperations, it does also mean a different way ofdoing business. The job doesnt end whenanimals are shipped to market. In truth, thework just begins. Farmers or family memberswill need to develop or discover withinthemselves the skills needed to be a successfulmarketer. Direct marketing can and will be ameans for your farming operation to have asustainable future. You will be offeringyour consumers a unique, high-qualityproduct, in addition to great service, andfaith in a healthy, safe product.

    References:USDA, ERS Publication FoodReview:Consumer-Driven Agriculture, Vol. 25, No. 1,May 2002.

    Marketing of Agricultural Products, 8th edition,Richard L.Kohls and Joseph N. Uhl, PrenticeHall 1998.

    Alternative Meat Marketing (LivestockTechnical Note): Appropriate TechnologyTransfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA)

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    Food Safety&

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    Food Safety&

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    Food SSafety aandRegulationsIn this section we present an assortment ofdocuments related to food safety and state andfederal regulations. Two short overviews ofthese issues by Dr. Dennis Buege (below andnext page) are followed by a table of guidelinesfrom DATCP. Then DATCP brochures ondirect marketing, meat inspection, and meatlabeling are provided, followed by two excerptsfrom Wisconsin state statutes related tolivestock processing and marketing. Two moreshort pieces about meat labeling are followedby Dr. Larry Borcherts article about controllingchemical residues in livestock and meat.Finally, an article on the safety of cured porkproducts is offered from the National PorkProducers Council.

    Dr. Buege, the Extension Meat Specialist at theUW-Madison, has summarized the complex andextensive safety and regulatory environmentthis way:

    All meat which is sold must be inspected. All fully inspected state and federal plants

    offer ante and postmortem inspection ofanimals. This satisfies meat inspectionrequirements.

    Animals slaughtered and processed foranimal owner may be slaughtered withoutinspection as long as the meat is consumedby the owner, members of the family, andnon-paying guests.

    Custom exempt plants do not haveslaughter inspection. If using one of theseplants, animal must be sold live tocustomer. It is possible for more than oneindividual to own a live animal.

    It is a good idea to slaughter animals underinspection for protection of customer andproducer.

    Ultimately, individual producers shouldermuch of responsibility for ensuring thesafety of our food system. It is importantto remember that safety issues andregulations change over time. To be surethat you have the latest information, contactthe Department of Agriculture, Trade andConsumer Protection.

    Of course, producers should always adhereto state and federal regulations. To furtherprotect their liability, all direct marketersshould limit their personal liability bysecuring appropriate liability insurance.

    From the ATTRA Project of National Center for Appropriate Technology:

    With the increase in concern over foodsafety, the producer always has a smallamount of product liability risk to dealwith. Processing livestock increases thisrisk. The closer you get to the consumerin direct marketing, the higher the liabilityrisk. For example, a ranch was asked toprovide proof of $2 million dollars ofproduct liability insurance to be able to sellat a farmers' market (20). It is importantto discuss this business consideration withyour insurance carrier to see if farmliability insurance coverage is sufficient orif additional coverage is required.

    The North America Farmer DirectMarketing Association (NAFDMA) offersits members liability and loss insurancespecifically designed for direct-marketfarmers. Contact:

    North American Farmers' DirectMarketing Association (NAFDMA)62 White Load Road, Southampton, MA 01073(413) 529-0386 or (888) 884-9270. Or visit: http://www.nafdma.com

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    Rules on Sale of Animals and Meat by Livestock ProducersOverview provided by Dr. Dennis Buege,Extension Meat Specialist, UW-Madison

    There is much interest among many farmers inselling their animals (or the meat) directly toconsumers, using our state-inspected official orcustom exempt plants. Meat inspectionregulations are confusing even to those whohave been in the industry for awhile, and evenmore so to livestock producers. Theinformation below was put together by theWisconsin Meat Safety Bureau in the fall of2001, to help and explain the regulations asthey pertain to sale of animals and meat bylivestock producers.

    Direct Marketing, Sale of Meat Producer to consumer, state statute requires

    all meat sold to be inspected. What is meat? Meat products are the

    carcasses or any parts of carcasses ofanimals capable of use as human food:sides, quarters, halves, loins, steaks.

    If meat from animals is being sold, animalscannot be mobile slaughtered.

    If meat from animals is being sold, animalscannot be custom slaughtered.

    Animals are transported to state or federallyinspected slaughter plant.

    Animals are inspected (ante and postmortem) at inspected slaughter operation.

    Producers are able to sell this meat toconsumers.

    Packages of meat are labeled as Inspectedwith State or Federal legend.

    If producer is selling meat directly from thefarm, meat must be inspected and producerneeds a retail food license.

    If producer is distributing meat products torestaurants or stores, meat must beinspected and producer needs distributorregistration.

    Direct Marketing, Sale of Live Animal Producer to consumer Animal now

    owned by consumer (can be more than 1person).

    Must be whole live animal (not portions,sides, quarters, etc.).

    Agree on price with producer, not hangingweight (that is meat).

    Animal cannot be slaughtered on producerpremises.

    Animal can be slaughtered on the ownerspremises.

    Animal is transported to slaughteringfacility.

    Inspected Slaughter, Processing Facility Animal is inspected - marked

    INSPECTED AND PASSED Inspected products returned to consumer Consumer pays processing fees Consume

    pays processing fees Meat products can be sold

    (portions, sides, quarters, etc.)

    Custom Slaughter, Processing Facility Animal not inspected marked

    NOT FOR SALE Plant operator completes custom slaughter

    report, identifies animal owner or owners Meat products cannot be sold

    Meat packages markedNOT FOR SALE

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    Guidelines Regarding: Animal and Carcass Sale, Meat Processing and Sales RestrictionsThis is an excerpt from a 1996 article in the UW Extension Direct Marketing Newsletter, written by ChrisLazaneo, Public Information Officer, DATCP Division of Food Safety, in consultation with the DATCPMeat Bureau Staff.

    Meat or meat related activity RestrictionsLive animal sold for slaughter Producer may legally sell the animal, but the purchaser is

    responsible for the meat processing. Meat producers may not legally slaughter or process.

    Carcass sold to consumer Only government inspected carcasses may be sold

    Meat sales to a restaurant or The person or business selling the meat must be state registeredsupermarket as a meat distributor, and the meat must be inspected. After

    purchase, the store can legally cut, wrap, & sell the meat.

    Slaughter of animals by producers Meat must be for producers own use or donated. The meat can or hired licensed mobile slaughterer not be offered for sale.

    Distribution of inspected meat to Shipper and distributor registration required by state.various WI locations (including retail stores, restaurants, or other institutions).

    Sale of beef or pork from Producer must be state licensed as a retail food establishment. a farm freezer Meat must be inspected.

    Door-to-door meat sales Must be licensed as a mobile retail food establishment. Meat must be inspected.

    State inspected meat sold Not allowed. However, non-Wisconsin residents may come into across state lines state and purchase meat from producer if for their own use.

    Out-of state restaurants and retail outlets can not purchase state inspected meat for resale in another state.

    Poultry sales Producer can process up to 1000 birds without inspection. Birds cannot be sold to groceries, restaurants, or across state lines.

    Ethnic ritual slaughter on Not legal.producers property

    Farmers market sales of Must be inspected and processed at a licensed processing plant cut and wrapped meat (except rabbit and poultry under certain situations). Packages

    must be properly labeled and kept frozen at 10° degrees F., or refrigerated below 40 degrees F.

    Rabbit meat sold Rabbits sold retail are exempt from meat inspection regulations. directly to consumers Rabbit producers may slaughter, process, and sell directly to

    consumers without a license.

    Rabbit meat sales-wholesale Producers wishing to wholesale rabbit meat must be licensed as food processors.

    Exotic meats: Emu, Ostrich Exotic meats sold directly to consumers are exempt from meat inspection regulations. These producers may slaughter, process, and sell directly to consumers without a license. Meat sold wholesale must be inspected.

    Food Safety&

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    Food Safety&

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  • DATCP Brochure: Direct Marketing Meat and Poultry

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    BrochuresBrochures

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    BrochuresBrochuresDATCP Brochure: Wisconsin State Meat Inspection Program

  • BrochuresBrochures

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    BrochuresBrochuresDATCP Brochure: Wisconsin Retail Meat Label Requirements

  • BrochuresBrochures

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    Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection(DATCP)Rules and RegulationsTerry Burkhardt of DATCP recommendedincluding in this publication two sections fromstate law. Readers should refer to the associatedweb pages for the most up-to-date status ofthese regulations. Section 42 of State statute 97largely concerns inspection and licensing ofmeat plants. It is printed below and can also befound at: http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/01Stat0097.pdf

    Following 97.42 is the DATCP administrativecode for meat and meat food products, ChapterACTP 55. It is printed here in full and can alsobe found at:http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/code/atcp/atcp055.pdf

    Chapter 97 Food Regulation97.42 Compulsory inspection of animals,poultry and carcasses. (1) DEFINITIONS. Inthis section:

    (a) Animal means cattle, sheep, swine, goats,farmraised deer, horses, mules, and otherequines.

    (b) Capable of use as human food applies toany carcass or part of a carcass of any animal orpoultry or animal or poultry product unless it isdenatured or otherwise identified as required bydepartment rules, or is naturally inedible byhumans.

    (c) Carcass means all parts, including theviscera, of slaughtered animals and poultry thatare capable of being used for human food.

    (d) Establishment means a plant or premises,including retail premises, where animals orpoultry are slaughtered for human consumption,or a plant or premises, including retail premises,where meat or poultry products or meat foodproducts are processed, but shall not include:

    1. Establishments subject to 21 USC 451 to 695.

    2. Establishments subject to county ormunicipal meat and poultry inspection if suchinspection is conducted pursuant to ordinancesand regulations which are substantiallyequivalent to this section and which areenforced with equal effectiveness, and theinspection service is specifically approved bythe department; however, sub. (2) shall apply toestablishments subject to county or municipalmeat and poultry inspection.

    3. Premises of a person who is the owner of theanimals to be slaughtered or of carcasses to beprocessed, and the resulting product is forexclusive use by him or her and members of hisor her household and his or her nonpayingguests and employees.

    (dm) Farmraised deer has the meaning givenin s. 95.001

    (1) (ag).

    (e) Inspector means any person employed bythe department or any cooperating agency whois authorized by the department to do any workor perform any duty in connection with thedepartments meat and poultry inspectionprogram.

    (f) Meat broker means any person engaged inthe business of buying or selling meat andpoultry products, or meat and poultry foodproducts on commission, or otherwisenegotiating purchases or sales of such articlesother than for the persons own account or as anemployee of another person.

    (fm) Meat distributor means a person who isengaged in the business of distributing in thisstate meat and poultry products at wholesale.

    (g) Meat food products means any articlecapable of use as human food which is derivedor prepared in whole or in substantial anddefinite part from meat products or poultryproducts.

    (h) Meat products and poultry productsmeans the carcasses or any parts of carcasses ofanimals and poultry capable of use as humanfood.

    (i) Mobile processor means a person whoprovides a meat processing service to thegeneral public for compensation other than the

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    Food Safety&

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    trading of services on an exchange basis, andconducts the meat processing at the premises ofthe owner of the carcasses being processed.

    (j) Mobile slaughterer means a person whoprovides a slaughtering service to the generalpublic for compensation other than the tradingof services on an exchange basis, and conductssuch slaughtering at the premises of the ownersof the animals being slaughtered.

    (k) Official inspection mark means thesymbol formulated under the rules of thedepartment to state that the meat, poultry orproduct was inspected pursuant to such rules.

    (L) Poultry means any domesticated fowl,including but not limited to chickens, turkeys,geese, ducks or guineas, but shall not includecommercially produced game birds.

    (m) Unwholesome means:

    1. Unsound, injurious to health or otherwiserendered unfit for human food.

    2. Consisting in whole or in part of any filthy,putrid or decomposed substance.

    3. Processed, prepared, packed or held underunsanitary conditions whereby a carcass or partsthereof, or any meat or poultry product, mayhave become contaminated with filth or becomeinjurious to human health.

    4. Produced in whole or in part from diseasedanimals or poultry, except when such diseasedoes not ordinarily render the carcasses of suchanimals or poultry unfit for humanconsumption, or from animals or poultry whichhave died otherwise than by slaughter.

    (n) Veterinarian means a graduate veterinarianof an accredited school of veterinary medicinewho is qualified on the basis of training andexperience, as determined by the department.

    (o) Wholesome means sound, healthful, cleanand otherwise fit for human food.

    (2) LICENSE; CERTIFICATE OFREGISTRATION. (a) No person may operate an establishment asdefined in sub. (1) (d) without a valid licenseissued by the department for each suchestablishment. That license expires on June 30

    annually. No license may be issued unless theapplicant has complied with the requirements ofthis section. The annual license fee is $200,except the annual license fee shall be $80 forthose establishments engaged only inslaughtering uninspected animals or poultry orprocessing uninspected meat as a customservice, and not in other operations subject to alicense under this section. No person may berequired to obtain a license under s. 97.29 or97.30 for activities licensed under this sectionor which is inspected under 21 USC 451 to 695.

    (b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to any personoperating an establishment that only processesmeat or poultry products, or meat or poultryfood products, for sale directly to consumers atretail on the premises where the products wereprocessed if only inspected meat is permitted onthe premises and sales to restaurants andinstitutions are restricted to 25% of the volumeof meat sales or $28,800 annually, whichever isless. No person exempt from licensure underthis paragraph may sell any cured, smoked,seasoned, canned or cooked meat food productsproduced by that person to restaurants orinstitutions.

    (c) No person may operate as a mobileslaughterer or as a mobile processor without anannual registration certificate issued by thedepartment, except that no registrationcertificate is required for a mobile slaughtereror a mobile processor who holds a licenseissued under par. (a). A registration certificateexpires on June 30, annually. An application foran annual registration certificate shall besubmitted on a form provided by the departmentand shall include information reasonablyrequired by the department for registrationpurposes. The department shall promulgaterules regulating mobile slaughterers and mobileprocessors, including rules related to facilities,sanitation, identification of carcasses and recordkeeping.

    (d) No person may operate as a meat broker ormeat distributor without an annual registrationcertificate issued by the department, except thatno registration certificate is required for a meatbroker or a meat distributor who holds a licenseissued under par.

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    (a). A registration certificate expires on June 30,annually. An application for an annualregistration certificate shall be made on a formprovided by the department and shall includeinformation reasonably required by thedepartment for registration purposes.

    (3) STATE INSPECTION. (a) Examination before slaughter. For thepurpose of preventing the sale and use in thisstate of meat products and poultry productswhich are unwholesome or otherwise unfit forhuman food, the department shall cause to bemade, by inspectors who may be veterinarianson either a fulltime or parttime basis undersupervision of the department, examination andinspection of all animals and poultry beforethey are slaughtered in any establishment,except as provided in pars. (d) and (em). Allanimals and poultry found on such inspection toshow symptoms of disease shall be condemnedor set apart and slaughtered separately from allother animals and poultry, and when soslaughtered the carcasses thereof shall besubject to careful examination, inspection anddisposition, in accordance with rules issued bythe department.

    (b) Examination after slaughter. For thepurpose stated in par.

    (a), the department shall cause to be made, byinspectors under supervision of the department,who may be veterinarians on either a fulltimeor parttime basis, an examination andinspection of the carcasses and parts thereof ofall animals and poultry slaughtered at anyestablishment, except as provided in pars. (d)and (em). The carcasses and parts thereof of allanimals and poultry found to be wholesome andfit for human food shall be marked, stamped,tagged or labeled by inspectors as Wis.Inspected and passed. Inspectors shall mark,stamp, tag or label as Wis. Inspected andcondemned all carcasses and parts thereof ofanimals and poultry found to be unwholesomeor otherwise unfit for human food, and allcarcasses and parts thereof so inspected andcondemned shall be destroyed, in accordancewith rules issued by the department. Inspectionmarks, stamps, tags and labels shall beprescribed by the department and shall includethereon the identification number of theestablishment assigned by the department.

    (c) Reexaminations. Inspectors shall, whendeemed advisable, reinspect carcasses, partsthereof or meat food products to determinewhether the same have become unwholesome orin any other way unfit for human food. If anycarcasses, parts thereof or meat food products,upon a reexamination, are found to beunwholesome or otherwise unfit for humanfood, they shall be destroyed, in accordancewith rules issued by the department.

    (d) Custom service slaughtering. Thissubsection shall not apply to animals andpoultry slaughtered as a custom service for theowner exclusively for use by the owner andmembers of the owners household and theowners nonpaying guests and employees,unless department inspection is specificallyrequested and performed at establishmentswhere examinations before and after slaughterare required. The rules of the department shallmake provision for the furnishing of suchinspection service, subject to availability ofinspector personnel, and for the identification ofall animals and poultry custom slaughtered forthe owners thereof without departmentinspection.

    (e) Periodic inspections. The department shallmake periodic inspections of construction,operation, facilities, equipment, labeling,sanitation and wholesomeness of meat andpoultry products, and meat food products atestablishments or any other premises, includingvehicles engaged in transportation of suchproducts. Inspection of products and plantoperations shall cover such operations as cuttingand boning, curing and smoking, grinding andfabrication, manufacturing, packaging, labeling,storage and transportation. Periodic inspectionsof processing operations shall be conducted asuniformly as possible among establishmentssubject to overtime inspection under sub. (4) (f)to avoid the imposition of undue inspection feesagainst any establishment. Inspections atovertime rates shall only be held wherenecessary to assure wholesomeness and safetyof products and compliance with therequirements of this section and rules of thedepartment.

    (em) Slaughter of farm - raised deer. Therequirements of pars.

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    (a) and (b) do not apply to the slaughter of afarmraised deer if its meat food products arenot sold by a person holding a restaurant permitunder s. 254.64 or by an operator of a retailfood establishment, as defined under s. 97.30(1) (c). The operator of an establishment inwhich farmraised deer, their carcasses or theirmeat food products are examined and inspectedunder this subsection shall pay the departmentfor the cost of the departments examination andinspection.

    (f) Label requirements. In addition to labelrequirements otherwise provided by law, meatfood products shall bear a label, stamp, mark ortag including thereon the official inspectionmark and identification number of theestablishment where processed. Meat andpoultry products processed and sold at retail tohousehold consumers on the premises shall notrequire official inspection marks andidentification numbers.

    (4) RULES. The department may issuereasonable rules requiring or prescribing any ofthe following:

    (a) The inspection before and after slaughter ofall animals and poultry killed or dressed forhuman consumption at any establishment.

    (b) The inspection and marking of carcasses orparts thereof intended for human consumption,and prohibiting the unauthorized use of anyofficial inspection mark or simulation orcounterfeit thereof.

    (c) The use of the official inspection mark bycounty and municipal inspection servicesapproved by the department.

    (d) The seizure, retention and destruction forhuman consumption of any animal or poultry,carcasses, parts thereof, or meat food productswhich have not been inspected or passed or areunwholesome or adulterated or misbranded.

    (e) The hours and days in each week whenslaughtering or processing may be conducted inany establishment subject to a license undersub. (2). The schedules so fixed shall be asnearly as possible in accord with existingindustry standards of establishments subject toinspection. However, in order to avoidexcessive costs for inspection and stay within

    the limit of appropriations, the schedules mayrequire that:

    1. Slaughtering or processing be conductedcontinuously during successive days and hoursof the regular workweek for state employees;

    2. The rate of slaughter for the different classesof animals and poultry conform to reasonableminimums per hour;

    3. Inspection of animals and poultry slaughteredas a custom service be restricted to the time ofthe regular slaughter schedule fixed for theestablishment. When inspection is provided forcustom slaughtering and custom processing theinspection shall be conducted in accordancewith sub. (3) (a) to (c) and rules prescribedunder this subsection; and

    4. The department be notified a reasonable timein advance of any deviation from existingschedules or when slaughtering or processing isto be conducted at times other than thosespecified under regularly established schedules.

    (em) The rate at which an operator of anestablishment that slaughters farmraised deeror processes the meat products of farmraiseddeer shall pay the costs of examination andinspection under sub. (3) (em) and the mannerin which the department shall collect thoseamounts.

    (f) Overtime agreements with the departmentwhereby the operator of any establishmentsubject to a license under sub. (2), agrees to paythe cost for salaries, at overtime rates, and otherexpenses of department inspectors wheneverslaughtering, carcass preparation, or theprocessing of meat or poultry products or meatfood products is conducted beyond hours ordays limited under par. (e), or on Saturdays,Sundays or holidays for state employees unders. 230.35 (4), or before 6 a.m. or after 6 p.m., orin excess of 40 hours in any week. Overtimecharges for periodic inspections under sub. (3)(e) shall, insofar as possible, be limited to theminimum number of hours reasonably requiredfor the conduct of such inspections. Thedepartment may assess overtime charges underthis paragraph even though the departmentprovides compensatory time in lieu of overtimecompensation under s. 103.025.

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    (g) Specifications and standards for location,construction, operation, facilities, equipmentand sanitation for any premises, establishmentor mobile facility where slaughter or processingis carried on, including custom slaughtering ofanimals or poultry and custom or retailprocessing of meat and poultry products.

    (h) Conditions of sanitation under whichcarcasses, parts of carcasses, poultry and meatand poultry products shall be stored, transportedor otherwise handled by any person engaged inthe business of buying, selling, freezing,storing, transporting or processing suchproducts.

    (i) Recordkeeping requirements for personsengaged in slaughtering or processingoperations, or in the storage or transportation ofmeat, poultry, or meat food products, includingrecordkeeping requirements for meat brokersand the registration of meat brokers with thedepartment.

    (j) Any other rules reasonably necessary to theadministration and enforcement of this section.

    (4m) FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS. Except asprovided in rules promulgated under sub. (4),the operator of an establishment that is requiredto be licensed under this section shall complywith 9 CFR parts 307 to 311, 313 to 315, 317 to319, 416 and 417 and part 381 subparts G, H, I,J, K, L, O and P as they apply to federallylicensed establishments.

    (5) COUNTY AND MUNICIPALINSPECTIONS. (a) The department may enter into cooperativeagreements with counties and municipalities forinspection and enforcement services required bythis section and by approved meat and poultryinspection ordinances and regulations.Employees of counties and municipalities whileperforming such inspection and enforcementwork shall have the same enforcementauthority, within such counties ormunicipalities, as that granted to the departmentand its authorized agents.

    (b) No county or municipality may collect anyfees or charges for meat or poultry inspection orenforcement from any licensee under thissection, except for overtime inspection workand the inspection of farmraised deer. Charges

    for overtime or for the inspection offarmraised deer shall be on the same basis asand shall not exceed charges for overtime workor for the inspection of farmraised deerprescribed by this section or by the rules of thedepartment.

    (6) PROHIBITIONS.(a) No person shall slaughter any animals orpoultry for the purpose of selling the meatproducts or poultry products thereof for humanfood, or sell, offer for sale or have in his or herpossession with intent to sell such meatproducts or poultry products for human food,unless such animals and poultry and thecarcasses thereof have been first inspected andapproved as provided by any of the following:

    1. This section and the rules issued thereunder.2. The federal meat inspection act.3. The federal poultry products inspection act.4. County or municipal ordinances orregulations which are substantially equivalent tothis section and which are enforced with equaleffectiveness, if the inspection service isspecifically approved by the department.

    (b) No person shall sell, offer for sale or have inpossession with intent to sell any meat orpoultry products, or meat food products unlessthey have been processed in accordance withthis section, the federal meat inspection act, orcounty or municipal ordinances approved by thedepartment.

    (c) No person shall slaughter horses, mules orother equines or process equine carcasses ormeat at establishments where other animals orpoultry are slaughtered or where other meat orpoultry products are processed.

    (d) No county or municipality shall prohibit thesale of any meat products or poultry products ifsuch meat products or poultry products areinspected and passed by the department, or bythe U.S. department of agriculture, or by acounty or municipal inspection serviceapproved by the department, provided suchmeat products and poultry products arewholesome and not misbranded at the time ofsale.

    (7) RIGHT OF ACCESS. No person shallprevent or attempt to prevent an inspector orother officer or agent of the department from

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    entering, at any time, any establishment or anyother place where meat products or poultryproducts, or foods derived therefrom, areprocessed, sold or held for sale, for the purposeof any examination, inquiry or inspection inconnection with the administration andenforcement of this section. The examination,inquiry or inspection may include takingsamples, pictures and documentary and physicalevidence pertinent to enforcement of thissection.

    (8) INTERFERENCE WITH INSPECTION.Any person who forcibly assaults, threatens,obstructs, impedes, intimidates or interfereswith any person while engaged in theperformance of his or her official duties underthis section shall be fined not more than $5,000or imprisoned in the county jail not to exceedone year or both.

    (9) TAGGING OF FACILITIES, EQUIPMENTAND PRODUCT. (a) When in the opinion of the department, theuse of any equipment, compartment, room orfacilities which is unclean or unsanitary orimproperly constructed could lead tocontamination of the product, the departmentmay attach a Rejected tag to it. Noequipment, utensil, container, compartment,room or facility so tagged may be used untilmade acceptable and released by a departmentrepresentative, or until such equipment isreplaced with acceptable equipment.

    (b) 1. When in the opinion of the departmentany carcass, meat or poultry product, meat foodproduct, or supplies or ingredients used in theprocessing thereof may be unwholesome,adulterated or misbranded, or otherwise fail tomeet standards or requirements of this sectionor rules adopted under this section, thedepartment may tag them with a Retained tagto hold them for further inspection, analysis orexamination. No carcass, meat or poultryproduct, meat food product, or supplies oringredients so tagged may be used, removedfrom the premises or otherwise disposed ofunless released by a department representative.Such products may not be retained for morethan 30 days without prior notice to the owneror custodian and the right to an immediatehearing.

    2. When in the opinion of the department anycarcass, meat or poultry product, or supplies oringredients used in the processing thereof isunwholesome, adulterated or misbranded, orotherwise fail to meet standards or requirementsof this section or rules adopted under thissection, the department may tag them with aDetained tag to hold them for destruction orother disposition. No carcass, meat or poultryproduct, meat food product, or supplies oringredients so tagged may be used, removedfrom the premises or otherwise disposed ofunless released by a department representative.Such products may not be destroyed or detainedfor more than 30 days without prior notice tothe owner or custodian and the right to animmediate hearing.

    (c) No person may alter, deface or remove anytag from facilities, equipment, products orsupplies to which it has been attached by adepartment inspector without the expressconsent or approval of the inspector or otherdepartment representative.

    (10) SUSPENSION. The department may, uponwritten notice, summarily suspend theoperations in whole or in part at anyestablishment for substantial violations of thissection or rules issued hereunder when, in theopinion of the department, a continuation of theoperation would constitute an imminent dangerto public health. The department maysummarily suspend inspection at anyestablishment for acts punishable under sub. (8)where such acts substantially impair aninspectors ability to conduct an orderlyinspection. Upon suspension of operations orinspection, the operator of the establishmentmay demand a hearing to determine whether thesuspension should be vacated. The departmentshall, within 5 days after receipt of suchdemand, hold a hearing and adjudicate theissues as provided in ch. 227. A demand forhearing shall not, however, operate to stay thesuspension pending the hearing.

    (11) EXEMPTION. This section shall not applyto owners of poultry with respect to poultryproduced on the owners farm, provided his orher sales do not exceed 1,000 fowl annually,and the birds are labeled and tagged to identifythe name and address of the producer and aremarked NOT INSPECTED. Persons

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    processing more than 1,000 fowl but less than20,000 fowl shall be fully subject to theprovisions of this section relating to licensing,sanitation, facilities and wholesomeness ofproduct. If the department determines that theprotection of consumers from unwholesomepoultry products will not be impaired, it mayexempt such persons from sub. (3) (a) and (b)provided the birds are labeled or tagged toidentify the name and address of the producerand are marked NOT INSPECTED.

    (12) SUBSTANTIAL OR REPEATEDVIOLATIONS. The department may deny,revoke or suspend the license of any person forsubstantial or repeated violations of this section.

    History: 1971 c. 270 s. 104; 1973 c. 206; 1975c. 308, 421; 1977 c. 196 s. 131; 1977 c. 216,365; 1979 c. 110, 154; 1981 c. 314; 1983 a.189, 261; 1983 a. 500 s. 44; 1985 a. 29; 1987 a.399; 1989 a. 174; 1991 a. 39, 175, 269; 1993 a.16, 27, 144, 492; 1995 a. 79, 225; 1999 a. 9,185; 2001 a. 56.

    Cross Reference: See also chs. ATCP 55, 56,and 57, Wis. Adm. Code.

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    Meat LabelingThis is an excerpt from a 1996 article in theUW Extension Direct Marketing Newsletter,written by Chris Lazaneo, Public InformationOfficer, DATCP Division of Food Safety, inconsultation with the DATCP Meat BureauStaff.

    Meat products processed by others -Products sold by you, but manufactured bysomeone else must be labeled by the licensedmanufacturer. If you wish to be listed on thelabel as the distributor, use of phrasing likedistributed by, packed for, ormanufactured for followed by your name canappear on the label.

    Wisconsin rules requires that labels statespecific information in a specific manner.Every package must have a label listing:

    The name of the product, such as LambChop, Leg of Lamb.

    The word ingredients followed by anaccurate list of ingredients contained in theproduct in descending order ofpredominance by weight.

    The name and address of the businesswhere the product was made (cut andwrapped), including zip code.

    The products net weight. A handling statement, such as Keep

    Refrigerated. Inspection legend indicating the facilitys

    establishment identification number. Safe handling labeling for raw products.

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    Labeling requirements for uninspectedpoultry - Uninspected poultry may be offeredfor sale directly to consumers and must belabeled: Not inspected-exempt from WisconsinStatute 97.42, the weight, and the producersname, address, and zip code.

    Labeling requirements for any otheruninspected meat (i.e., rabbit, emu, ostrich) -These products may be offered for sale directlyto consumers and must be labeled with theweight, the producers name, address, and zipcode, and a handling statement, such as KeepRefrigerated.

    Nutrient claims - Meat items with nutrientstatements on the label, such as Lean, ExtraLean, or Low Fat, must meet specificnutrient labeling requirements. If your productfalls into this category, contact the DFS officenearest you for additional information.

    Safe handling labels - Labels for raw productsmust state that meat may contain bacteria thatcan cause illness if mishandled or improperlycooked. The label must instruct consumers tokeep raw meat and poultry refrigerated orfrozen, to thaw in the refrigerator, ormicrowave, to keep it separate from other foodsand working surfaces, to wash utensils andhands after contact with raw meat, to cook itthoroughly, and to refrigerate immediately orthrow out leftovers after the meal has beeneaten. For more information about specificlabeling requirements, contact the DFS regionaloffice serving your area.

    Bulk sales labeling - If you are selling in bulk,such as a half a lamb, it is permissible to putone label listing your name, address, zip codeand contents - half lamb on the boxcontaining the meat. However, individualpackages of meat for sale must be individuallylabeled. And individual cuts wrapped separatelymust carry a net weight statement on theirindividual label. For half carcasses, you simplyneed to provide an invoice showing thehanging weight (weight of the dressedcarcass).

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    USDA Guide to Safe Food Handling Labels

    Wisconsin Livestock & Meat CouncilNeil Jones, President

    c/o DATCP Mktg DivisionPO BOX 8911

    Madison, WI 53718Phone: 608-224-5113

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    Controlling Chemical Residues in Livestock and MeatDr. Larry BorchertMeat Science and Muscle Biology LaboratoryUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison

    IntroductionThe food industry recognizes that a key toconsumer confidence is providing products thatare considered healthful and safe. The healthyaspect of foods is generally apparent yet subjectto constant revision in an environment ofdynamic research and media exposure. Theperception of safety, also, changes. In thedecades following World War II consumerconcern about food safety centered onunacceptable residues from pesticides, animaldrugs, and potentially hazardous chemicals inthe food supply. As a result of producerawareness and rigorous enforcement theincidence of violative residues in the meatsupply has dropped markedly and the primaryfood safety concern shifted to microbiologicalsafety because highly publicized foodbornedisease outbreaks have been linked to theanimal sources.

    The traditional meat industry has learned fromexperience that adverse publicity surroundingcontaminated meat can be devastating.Headlines such as: FSIS Has IBP Subsidiary OnThe Hot Seat In DES Beef Probe8 and DioxinScare Spurs U.S. To Block E.U. Pork, PoultryImports7 create what has been termed thedrip, drip effect. That is, a continual, smalldrip of information through various mediasources creates a larger than real perception of aproblem with consumers.

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)oversees industrys responsibility to ensure thatmeat, poultry, and egg products are safe,wholesome, free of adulterating residues, andaccurately labeled. As part of FSIS regulatoryoversight of industry, the agency conductsannually the National Residue Program (NRP).This program tests meat, poultry, and eggproducts for unacceptable (violative) residuesfrom pesticides, animal drugs, or potentiallyhazardous chemicals. Under the 1996 HazardAnalysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)regulation, industry is responsible for

    preventing violative residues in its products.When residue violations are determined to bereasonably likely to occur, industry mustaddress it in their HACCP plan.

    Violative levels of animal drugs and pesticidescan have adverse health effects. A vigilantchemical residue prevention program isessential in preventing illnesses and fosteringthe prudent use of drugs and pesticides inanimals that enter the human food supply.

    The NRP is designed to provide: (1) astructured process for identifying and evaluatingcompounds of concern by production class; (2)the capability to analyze for compounds ofconcern; (3) appropriate regulatory follow-up ofreports of violative tissue residues; and (4)collection, statistical analysis, and reporting ofthe results of these activities.

    Under the NRP, FSIS inspectors collect samplesof meat, poultry, and egg products at federallyinspected domestic slaughter establishmentsimmediately following slaughter or processing.State inspectors collect samples at state-inspected plants. Depending upon the samplingplan under which collection takes place thesamples are either sent directly to an officiallaboratory for analysis for violative residueconcentrations, or first tested on-site byinspectors using rapid screening tests. Acarcass with any violative residue detected thatexceeds its specified safe level, or contains acompound banned from use in food producinganimals, is considered to be adulterated and isremoved from the food chain.

    Residue violations are followed-up in multipleways. When violative residues are detected infood-producing animals, by any component ofthe NRP, FSIS currently notifies the producerwhose animals are then subject to repeatedfollow-up enforcement testing when presentedfor slaughter until compliance is demonstrated.Slaughter plants are notified of violations sothat plants better prevent them in their HACCPplans.4

    Several vertically integrated meat processorsand species trade associations have createdanimal quality control programs to primarilyassure that their products are truly wholesomebut also to reduce to the lowest level any

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    possibility of a problem occurring in order toavert any negative publicity.

    In 1980 the turkey industry was rapidly growingbecause the meat of this specie was found to bea highly functional component in furtherprocessed meat products. The industry enjoyedthe reputation of wholesomeness until it wasdiscovered that a chlorinated hydrocarbonherbicide, dieldrin, had, through contaminatedsurface water consumed by the birds, gainedentry to the meat supply. A national recall ofprocessed turkey products resulted. Because ofthe nature of the industry at the time, thegrower/processor immediately initiated arigorous pre-slaughter monitoring program thatproved to be highly effective. Six randomlyselected birds from every flock (20 thousandbirds) are sacrificed less than 14 days before theflock is to be slaughtered. Abdominal fatsamples from each bird are subjected to acomprehensive chemical analysis for part permillion (ppm) levels of 68 pesticides andpolychlorinated biphenyls. In addition, breederflocks are analyzed for sulfa compounds. If theanalytical residue levels are belowpredetermined tolerance levels the flock can bemoved to market. If violative levels of any ofthe compounds are indicated a resamplingprogram is initiated which could lead to theprohibition of the flock for food use. Thatprogram has been enhanced and adopted bymost major grower/processors and has beenvery effective in averting residue problem andenhancing the reputation of the turkey industry.6

    The pork industry, through the National PorkProducers Council, in 1989, introduced anindustry wide Pork Quality Assurance (PQA)program as a way for U.S. pork producers toaddress their role in providing a safe,wholesome product to consumers.10 The planincorporates the following Good ProductionPractices (GPP):

    GPP#1. Identify and track all treated animals.

    GPP #2. Maintain medication and treatmentrecords.

    GPP#3. Properly store, label and account forall drug products and medicated feeds.

    GPP#4. Obtain and use veterinary prescriptiondrugs only based on a validveterinarian/client/patient relationship.

    GPP#5. Educate all employees and familymembers on proper administration techniquesand withdrawal times.

    GPP#6. Use drug residue tests whenappropriate.

    CPP#7. Complete a quality assurance checklistannually, and recertify every two years.

    In the decade of its existence, the PQA programhas been extremely effective in gaining andholding consumer confidence in pork.

    Similarly, the National Cattlemens BeefAssociation, in July 1999, finalized their BeefQuality Assurance, National Guidelines.9 Thisplan, to be implemented by all beef cattleproducers, emphasizes control of all routes ofpesticide, herbicide, drug and antibiotic entryinto the meat supply. Key elements of theGuidelines are:

    Feedstuffs: Maintain records of any pesticide/herbicide

    use on pasture or crops that couldpotentially lead to violative residues ingrazing cattle or feedlot cattle.

    Adequate quality control program(s) are inplace for incoming feedstuffs. The programshould be designed to eliminatecontamination from molds, mycotoxins orchemicals of incoming feed ingredients.Supplier assurance of feed ingredientsquality is recommended.

    Suspect feedstuffs should be analyzed priorto use.

    Ruminant-derived protein sources cannot befed per FDA regulations.

    Feeding by-product ingredients should besupported with sound science.

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    Feed Additives and Medications: Only FDA approved medicated feed

    additives will be used in rations. Medicated feed additives will be used in

    accordance with the FDA GoodManufacturing Practices regulation.

    Extra-label use of feed additives is illegaland strictly prohibited.

    To avoid violative residues, withdrawaltimes must be strictly adhered to.

    Where applicable, complete records mustbe kept when formulation or feedingmedicated feed rations.

    Records are to be kept a minimum of twoyears.

    Operators will assure that all additives arewithdrawn at the proper time to avoidviolative residues.

    Processing/Treatment and Records: Follow all FDA/USDA/EPA guidelines for

    product(s) utilized. All products are to be used per label

    directions. Strict adherence to extended withdrawal

    periods shall be employed. Treatment records will be maintained. All cattle shipped to slaughter will be

    checked by appropriate personnel to assurethat animals that have been treated meet orexceed label or prescription withdrawaltimes for all animal health productsadministered.

    All processing and treatment records shouldbe transferred with the cattle to nextproduction level. Prospective buyers mustbe informed of any cattle that have not metwithdrawal times.

    More recently the dairy beef industry, in spite ofpreemptive producers programs, has hadconcern about problems with antibioticresidues.12,11 The resulting publicity hasundermined consumer confidence in productsderived from this meat source. As a result, acooperative industry and government effort torevise ante- and postmortem inspectionprocedures and sampling plans to better detectand control violative residue producers is

    underway. Preliminary versions of this programput most of the economic burden on thelivestock producers. If it had been voluntarilyinitiated by the livestock producers before aproblem arose, the cost would have been lowerand adverse publicity, nonexistent.

    The U.S.D.A. Food Safety and InspectionService in April 1999 proposed the ConceptualFramework for Risk-Free Meat, Poultry andEgg Products which would encompassagricultural products from the farm to the table.3While many would debate the practicality offoods being 100% free of any risks, consumersare beginning to expect it. As stated in its title,the program is only conceptual but it clearlyindicates that the agency is moving toward aperceived risk free meat supply. The burden isclearly on livestock producers and processors toforestall onerous regulations by initiation self-monitoring programs.

    The FSIS-NRP for domestically producedproducts has four residue samplingcomponents:4

    Monitoring Plan - the random sampling ofspecified animal populations at time ofslaughter to provide more information about theoccurrence of residue violations on an annual,national basis.

    Special Projects - information-gatheringstudies that do not meet the criteria forinclusion in the monitoring plan, e.g. whensampling will not be conducted over a full 12-month period, or when there is a lack of preciseslaughter volume data on the production classesto be sampled. This designation is also usedwhen it is not possible to define a violationrate for a compound because the violative levelhas not been defined. For example, when tracemetals, such as cadmium or lead, are detected inedible tissues, a Special Project may be initiatedto develop information on the frequency andconcentration at which the residues occur.

    Surveillance Sampling - targeted samplingdesigned to distinguish components oflivestock, poultry, and egg products in whichresidue problems exist, measure the extent ofproblems, and evaluate the impact of actionstaken to reduce the occurrence of residues.Surveillance Sampling is considered to be a

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    subset of Special Projects except that, unlikeSpecial Projects, Surveillance Samplingsometimes employs on-site rapid screeningtests.

    Enforcement Testing - the analysis ofspecimens collected from individual animals orlots that appear suspicious to FSIS in-plantinspectors, based on herd history or antemortemor postmortem inspection. Enforcement Testingis also used to follow up on animals marketedby producers that have a history of presentinganimals with violative concentrations ofresidues, to determine if the non-compliancehas been corrected or to verify industrysHACCP system.

    Each year approximately 40,000 samples aretaken and analyzed on animal based products onthe domestic monitoring plan and specialprojects.5 The chemical residue classes that aremonitored and the number of samples targetedfor the year 2000 are:

    Antibiotics - Bioassay 8930Arsenicals 4420Avermectins 4900Beta Agonists 900Carbadox 300Chloramphnicol 710Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 8450DES/Zeronol TBDDexamethasone 300Florfenicol 300Flunixin 300Fluoroquinolones 900Lead TBD

    Melengesterol 500Nitroimidazoles 260Organophosphates TBDRactopamine 300Spectinomycin TBDSulfonamides 7640Tilmicosin 840Tranquilizers 300Total 40250

    In addition, at the time of slaughter,enforcement testing is conducted using thefollowing rapid on-site screening tests:

    SOS (Sulfa-On-Site) - tests swine urine forsulfonamide residues.

    CAST (Calf Antibiotic & Sulfonamide Test) -swab test on kidney or liver tissue of bob vealcalves (less than 3 weeks of age and under 150lbs).

    STOP (Swab Test on Premises) - tests forantibiotic residues in kidney tissue in allproduction classes of cows, chicken, hogs,turkeys and sheep.

    FAST (Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test) - swabtest on kidney or liver tissue of cows and bobveal for antibiotic and sulfonamide residues.

    The rapid on-site screen tests consists ofpicking up tissue fluids in a swab, and thenplacing the swab onto a petri plate containingagar (growth medium) and an inoculum ofvarious types of non-pathogenic bacteria. Theswab-containing plate is then incubated at afavorable growth temperature. Failure of thebacteria to grow around the area of the addedswab is an indicator that some type ofantimicrobial compounds are present in theanimal tissue.

    References1 AEPB. 2000. Elk Quality Assurance Program(Draft). The American Elk Products Board.

    2 CFA. 1993. Catfish Quality Assurance.Catfish Farmers of America. Indianola, MS. 38751.

    3 FSIS. 1999. Conceptual Framework for RiskFree Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products. FSIS,USDA. Washington, D.C.

    4 FSIS. 2000. The FSIS National ResidueProgram. FSIS, USDA. Washington, D.C.

    5 FSIS. 2000. 2000 FSIS National ResidueProgram Summary Tables. FSIS, USDA,Washington, D.C.

    6 Garrett, Roger L. 1999. Facts, Strategies, andEmerging Technologies for a HACCP-BasedChemical Residue Program for the TurkeyIndustry. National Turkey Federation,Washington, D.C.

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    7 Krizner, Ken. The Meating Place, June 7,1999. National Meat Association. Oakland,CA. 94612.

    8 Lipsky, Joshua. The Meating Place, April 11,2000. National Meat Association. Oakland,CA. 94612.

    9 NCBA. 2000. Beef Quality Assurance,National Guidelines (Draft). NationalCattlemens Beef Association. Denver, CO.

    10 NPPC. 1989. Quality Assurance, A Programof Americas Pork Producers. National PorkProducers Council. Des Moines, IA.

    11 Perry, T.C. New York Beef Safety andQuality Assurance program. For producers andveterinarians. New York Beef Industry Counciland New York Cattlemens Association. Ithaca,NY.

    12 Shultz, Craig E. 1999. Antibiotic ResidueSurveillance in Slaughtered Dairy Cows.Observations from Establishment 9400, thelargest dairy cow slaughter facility in the UnitedStates. C.E. Shultz, Est. 9400, Wyalusing, PA18853.

    13 USTFA. 1994. Trout Producer QualityAssurance Program. United States TroutFarmers Association. Harpers Ferry, WV.25425.

    (May 2000)

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    Meat PProcessingThis chapter begins by identifying all of thesmaller scale slaughter and processing plants inWisconsin. A direct marketer may need tocontract with one plant to slaughter an animaland another plant to process the meat into retailcuts and value-added products. A producer mayalso direct their customers toward the customexempt plants, if the customers are willing topay a live animal weight, take ownership of theanimal, and then pay the exempt plant toslaughter and process it on their behalf.

    Paul Dietmann, the Sauk County ExtensionAgricultural Agent, then writes about theimportance of establishing a good relationshipwith your local processors. Your businessdepends in large part on their service to you.You should pick your processor carefully, andonce you find a good one, treat them right!

    Some DATCP statistics on page 50 revealslaughter data across many species in 2000-01.The next article about processing yields frombeef, pork and lamb includes an explanation ofcommon meat processing terms. Then twoarticles cover the nutrient composition of cutsof traditional and alternative red and whitemeats.An article from the National Pork Boardon nutritional influences on pork quality isincluded because it gives an indication howdiets and other production practices affect theultimate quality of processed meats. Whilefocused on pork, its worthwhile reading for allspecies, if only because it reveals some of thescience behind meat production.

    Next, brochures from the National PorkProducers Council and the National CattlemensBeef Association describe different cuts of porkand beef. Similar descriptions of cuts may beavailable from trade associations for otherspecies, listed in the Contacts section on page130. A short piece on aging beef, also fromNCBA, may offer some insights for otherspecies as well.

    Finally, the chapter ends with an excellentarticle by Dr. Dennis Buege that providesinformation on sausage processing. The articleconcludes with several recipes for pork and beefsausage, which again might be adapted for otherspecies.

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    Directory of Smaller Scale State-Inspected andUSDA-Inspected Slaughter Plants in WisconsinBelow are the state-inspected and USDA-inspected slaughter plants identified on theaccompanying map. By law, any meat which isto be sold must be processed under inspection.State inspection is designated to be equal toUSDA inspection, but meat from state-inspectedplants cannot be sold outside of the state ofWisconsin (out-of-state people can purchase

    state-inspected meat within Wisconsin, and takeit home for their own private use). Meat fromUSDA inspected plants can be sold out-of-state.Because meat from farm-raised bison, deer andelk was not included in early meat inspectionlaws, such meat processed in state-inspectedplants can be sold out-of-state. While manyplants are licensed to process (cut-up) poultry,at the current time only 2 plants (Nos. 101 and102) are conducting inspected poultry slaughter.All plants are state-inspected except for Nos.103-106, which are federally inspected.

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    Plant #. Plant Name - Address (County) Phone Number

    1 Adams Meats - W10947 Riverside Rd., Pella 54950 (Shawano) 715-754-5136

    2 Westby Locker & Meats - 406 N. Main, Westby 54667 (Vernon) 608-634-4515

    3 Avon Locker - 12026 Hwy 23, Darlington 53530 (Lafayette) 608-776-2336

    4 Brost Foods - 12115 Marken Rd., Kiel 53042 (Manitowoc) 920-693-8711

    5 Becks Meat Processing - 519 Clairville Rd., Oshkosh 54904 (Winnebago) 920-589-2104

    6 Belmont Fresh Meats - 115 Mound Ave., Belmont 53510 (Lafayette) 608-765-6992

    7 Butchs Country Market - W5823 State Road 85, Durand 54736 (Pepin) 715-672-8073

    8 Black Earth Meats - 1345 Mill St., Black Earth 53515 (Dane) 608-767-3940

    9 Bloomington Meats - 413 Canal St., Bloomington 53804 (Grant) 608-994-2867

    10 Blue Ribbon Meats LLC - 435 S. 8th St., Hilbert 54129 (Calumet) 920-853-3234

    11 Brandon Meats & Sausage Inc - 117 S. Commercial St., Brandon 53919 (Fond du Lac) 920-346-2227

    12 Kickapoo Locker Service - Main St., Gays Mills 54631 (Crawford) 608-735-4531

    13 Herbs Meats - 110 N. Church St., Alma Center 54611 (Jackson) 715-964-5781

    14 Country Fresh Meats - 356 County Hwy Y, Hatley 54440 (Shawano) 715-446-3467

    15 Craigs Meats & Catering - N9064 State Hwy 162 North, Mindoro 54644 (La Crosse) 608-486-2212

    16 Custom Meats of Marathon - 1300 S. Hwy 107, Box 456, Marathon 54448 (Marathon) 715-443-3734

    17 Downsville Meat Processors - N2615 451st St., Downsville 54735 (Dunn) 715-664-8327

    18 Daefflers Quality Meats Inc - 315 Oak St. W., Frederic 54837 (Polk) 715-327-4456

    19 Dalebroux Meats - Rt. 3, 3348 Kewaunee Rd., Green Bay 54311 (Brown) 920-468-8658

    20 Pine River Processing - W2575 Aspen Dr., Pine River 54965 (Waushara) 920-987-5191

    21 Northern Processing - M211 Staadt Ave., Marshfield 54449 (Wood) 715-384-5868

    22 Elkhorn Locker - 406 S. Wis St., Elkhorn 53121 (Walworth) 262-723-2919

    23 Prairie Farm Locker - Box 12, 200 River St., Prairie Farm 54762 (Barron) 715-455-1541

    24 Peoples Meat Market - 1765 Cty Hwy J, Stevens Point 54481 (Portage) 715-592-6328

    25 Falls Meat Service Inc - 13212 Main St., Pigeon Falls 54760 (Trempealeau) 715-983-2211

    26 Footville Meat Market - 280 N. Gilbert, Footville 53537 (Rock) 608-876-6323

    27 Foss Fine Meats Inc - 325 W. Wisconsin St., Sparta 54656 (Monroe) 608-269-6456

    28 Franklin Meats - 9431 W. Oakwood Rd., Franklin 53132 (Milwaukee) 414-425-0800

    29 Frases Locker - 136 S. Stone St., Augusta 54722 (Eau Claire) 715-286-2920

    30 Indee Meats & Locker Service - 23553 Adams, Independence 54747 (Trempealeau) 715-985-3712

    31 Gehrings Meat Market - 5618 Hwy K, Hartford 53027 (Washington) 262-644-6273

    32 Geiss Meat Service - W4490 Pope Rd., Merrill 54452 (Lincoln) 715-536-5283

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    Plant #. Plant Name - Address (County) Phone Number

    33 Grimms Sausage & Meat Proc - 400 Main St., Box 1, New Auburn 54757 (Chippewa) 715-237-2234

    34 Haen Meat Packing - W1910 Cty Hwy KK, Kaukauna 54130 (Outagamie) 920-766-3239

    35 Harry Hansen Meat Service - 10407 Hwy K, Franksville 53126 (Racine) 262-835-4495

    36 Hauber Processing Plant - Box 227, Dickeyville 53808 (Grant) 608-568-7579

    37 Whiskey Ridge Processing - Hwy 27-70, Radisson 54867 (Sawyer) 715-945-2425

    38 Salcherts Meats Inc - 1305 Main St., St. Cloud 53079 (Fond du Lac) 920-999-2651

    39 Hewitts Meat Processing Inc - 8300 Cty V, Marshfield 54449 (Wood) 715-676-3654

    40 Hoesly Meats - 219 Industrial Dr., New Glarus 53574 (Green) 608-527-2513

    41 Hoffs Red Owl - 617 Main St., Brownsville 53006 (Dodge) 920-583-3734

    42 Lake Mills Locker - N6775 Hwy A, Lake Mills 53551 (Jefferson) 920-648-5514

    43 Hujet Meats - 3787 New Franken Rd., New Franken 54229 (Brown) 920-866-2411

    44 Richland Locker Co Inc - 590 S. Main, Richland Center 53581 (Richland) 608-647-4577

    45 Highway 45 Locker Plant LLC - N2220 Hwy 45 South, Antigo 54409 (Langlade) 715-623-3554

    46 Johnsons Sausage Shoppe - 425 Lowville Rd., Rio 53960 (Columbia) 920-992-6328

    47 Kewaskum Frozen Foods - 118 Forest Ave., Kewaskum 53040 (Washington) 262-626-2181

    48 Kinziger Meats LLC - 4069 Hwy 141, Pound 54161 (Marinette) 920-897-3108

    49 Pond-Hill Processing - W16257 Co Hwy Q, Wittenberg 54499 (Shawano) 715-253-2491

    50 Ottos Meats Inc - N5674 Adams St., Luxemburg 54217 (Kewaukee) 920-845-2612

    51 Bris Processing - N8084 State Road 40, Colfax 54730 (Dunn) 715-962-3825

    52 Kropfs Meat Processing - N7666 Kolpack Rd., Bowler 54416 (Shawano) 715-793-4675

    53 Rans Meat Processing - N1130 Sunrise Lane, Dalton 53926 (Green Lake) 920-394-3805

    54 Lodi Locker Market - 150 S. Main St., Lodi 53555 (Columbia) 608-592-3534

    55 Loehrs Meat Service - 523 E. Main St., Box 233, Campbellsport 53010 (Fond du Lac) 920-533-4513

    56 Strum Locker Plant - 128 5th Ave., Strum 54770 (Trempealeau) 715-695-2914

    57 Marchants Foods - 9674 Hwy 57, Brussels 54204 (Door) 920-825-1244

    58 Butcher Shop - 4391 Hwy 18, Fennimore 53809 (Grant) 608-822-6712

    59 Mincoffs Meat Market - N2559 Market Rd., Conrath 54731 (Rusk) 715-532-5063

    60 Niemuths Steak & Chop Shop - 715 Redfield St., Waupaca 54981 (Waupaca) 715-258-2666

    61 Nolechek Meats - 104 N. Washington St., Thorpe 54771 (Clark) 715-669-5580

    62 Olsons Woodville Meats - 124 E. River St., Woodville 54028 (St. Croix) 715-698-2482

    63 Pearces Sausage Kitchen - Rt. 4, Box 67, Ashland 54806 (Ashland) 715-682-3742

    64 Pernat-Haase Meats - N4202 Hwy M, Juneau 53039 (Dodge) 920-386-3340

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    Plant #. Plant Name - Address (County) Phone Number

    65 Pinters Packing Plant - 193 Front St., Dorchester 54425 (Clark) 715-654-5444

    66 Quality Cut Meats - 125A Milwaukee Ave., Cascade 53011 (Sheboygan) 414-528-8424

    67 Roehrborn Meats - 640 W. Ryan St., Brillion 54110 (Calumet) 920-756-2400

    68 Roskom Meat Packing - W803 Hwy S, Kaukauna 54130 (Outagamie) 920-766-1657

    69 Russel Meat Processing - W8675 County Hwy I, Oxford 53952 (Marquette) 608-586-5589

    70 Bobs Processing - 2430 S. Main St., Bloomer 54724 (Chippewa) 715-568-2887

    71 Sailers Meat Processing Inc - 117 S. Main St., PO Box 35, Elmwood 54740 (Pierce) 715-639-2191

    72 Country Meat Cutters - W9851 Cty G & GG, Reeseville 53579 (Dodge) 920-927-5577

    73 Cooks Valley Processing - 14694 20th St., Colfax 54730 (Chippewa) 715-962-3026

    74 Schroedl Market - N3705 Hwy 89, Jefferson 53549 (Jefferson) 920-674-3760

    75 Jump River Slaughter & Smokehouse - PO Box 143, Jump River 54434 (Taylor) 715-668-5233

    76 Gillett Meats - 214 E. Railroad, Gillett 54124 (Oconto) 920-855-2898

    77 J.D.s Country Meats - 26549 Locust Ave., Wilton 54670 (Monroe) 608-435-6720

    78 Sorg Farm Packing Inc - N4290 US Hwy 14, Darien 53114 (Walworth) 262-724-5554

    79 Holmen Locker & Meat Market - 412 S. Main St., Holmen 54636 (La Crosse) 608-526-3112

    80 Straka Meats - Cedar St., Box 257, Plain 53577 (Sauk) 608-546-3301

    81 Theys Butchering - E1829 River Rd., Casco 54205 (Kewaunee) 920-845-5209

    82 Tuschels Fresh Country Meats LLC - 202 N. Calumet, Valders 54245 (Manitowoc) 920-775-4323

    83 UW Meat Lab - 1805 Linden Dr, Madison 53706 (Dane) 608-262-1793

    84 UW River Falls - Ag Science Bldg., River Falls 54022 (Pierce) 715-425-3704

    85 Maplewood Packing Inc - 4663 Milltown Rd., Green Bay 54313 (Brown) 920-865-7901

    86 Van Meter Meats, Inc - 407 S. Main St., Luck 54853 (Polk) 715-472-2141

    87 Newton Meats & Sausage Inc - 5616 Cty Trunk U, Newton 53063 (Manitowoc) 920-726-4455

    88 Verns Butchering Service - 56036 Patterson Rd., Viroqua 54665 (Vernon) 608-632-0048

    89 Odovero And Flesia - Rt. 1, Box 65, Mellen 54546 (Ashland) 715-274-2094

    90 The Meat Market - 700 Lincoln Ave., Baraboo 53913 (Sauk) 608-356-5574

    91 Wallers Market - Box 8, Nelsonville 54458 (Portage) 715-824-2628

    92 Watkins Locker Inc - 130 Pine, Plum City 54761 (Pierce) 715-647-2554

    93 Gunderson Food Service - 847 E. Main St., Mondovi 54755 (Buffalo) 715-926-4903

    94 Webers Processing Plant Inc - 725 N. Jackson St., Cuba City 53807 (Grant) 608-744-2159

    95 Twin Cities Packing Co - 5607 E. Co J, Clinton 53525 (Rock) 608-676-4428

    96* Lake Geneva Country Meats - 5907 State Road 50 East, Lake Geneva 53147 (Walworth)262-248-3339

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    Plant #. Plant Name - Address (County) Phone Number

    97* Armbrust Meats - 224 S. Main St., Medford 54451 (Taylor) 715-748-3102

    98* Little Black Pack - W5663 Gravel Rd., Medford 54451 (Taylor) 715-748-2141

    99* North Bend Processing - N587 N. Bend Dr., Melrose (Jackson) 608-488-2029

    * Federally-inspected plants.

    Directory of State Custom-Exempt SlaughterPlants in WisconsinBelow are the custom-exempt slaughter plants in Wisconsin. They do not have antemortem andpostmortem inspection of the animals they slaughter, but their facilities are inspected by the WisconsinState Meat Inspection Program. Meat inspection regulations allow animal owners the option to have theiranimals slaughtered and processed without inspection, either on the owners premises or in a custom-exempt plant. However, such non-inspected meat is not allowed to be sold. Packages of meat fromcarcasses processed in a custom-exempt plant must be marked Not for Sale. If a producer is directmarketing their animal to a consumer using a custom-exempt plant, the transaction must be based uponthe live animal weight(not the meat). Then thepurchasing customer, asthe animal owner, maychoose to slaughter andprocess his/her animalthrough a custom-exemptplant. All of theseexempt plants are state-inspected, (i.e., notfederally-inspected.)

    Plant #. Plant Name -Address (County)Phone Number

    1 Blue RibbonMeats and Groc. LLC - 109E Main St., Butternut54514 (Ashland)715-769-3746

    2 Linwood Meats -1827 S. Hwy P, StevensPoint 54481 (Portage)715-344-7622

    3 Ecker Brothers -N3360 Lakeshore Dr.,Chilton 53014 (Calumet)920-439-1030

    4 Rons MeatProcessing - 239 Edgewood Dr., Oxford 53952 (Marquette) 608-584-5655

    5 Johnnys Market - W11124 Hwy 64, Pound 54161 (Marinette) 920-897-3329

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    6 Eastman Locker - Box 110, Eastman 54626 (Crawford) 608-874-4331

    7 Martins Meat Processing - N14558 Cty Hwy O, Withee 54498 (Clark) 715-229-4703

    8 Nohls Custom Slaughter - W4430 Cty Trunk Jm Route 1, 920-893-0157Sheboygan Falls 53085 (Sheboygan)

    9 Martys Custom Cutting Inc. - Corner Hwy P & N, Rubicon 53078 (Dodge) 262-673-5613

    10 Ries Farms - N10961 Butternut Rd., Lomira 53048 (Dodge) 920-269-7239

    11 Rislers Processing - N46375 Cty Rd V, Eleva 54738 (Trempealeau) 715-287-4535

    12 Schmidts Slaughter House - W3174 Swamp Rd., Bonduel 54107 (Shawano) 715-758-2475

    13 Syed Family Sheep Farm - 2739 Hwy MN, Stoughton 53589 (Dane) 608-838-9590

    14 Welchs Custom Processing - N5509 State Rd., Black Creek 54106 (Outagamie) 920-984-3667

    15 Witts Locker - N3929 State Hwy 22, Shawano 54166 (Shawano) 715-526-5478

    16 Nhiacha and Chao Butchery - 6056 E. Hwy 29, Luxemburg 54217 (Brown) 920-863-8754

    Plants.CustomExempt, Misc.#10, 1-29-03

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    Processing Plant Statistics from the Bureau of Meat Safety & InspectionCOMPARISON 2000 2001From The Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection

    Category 2002 2003

    Official Plants 286 285

    Exempt Plants 60 61

    Total Plants 346 346

    Cattle Slaughtered 39,301 43,163

    Calves 216 209

    Sheep 12,730 12,512

    Swine Slaughtered 73,229 70,699

    Poultry Slaughtered (Chickens & Turkeys) 143,520 147,298

    Pheasants Slaughtered 133,520 112,859

    Buffalo Slaughtered 843 1047

    Other: Deer, Elk 672 1296

    Ratites 274 723

    Ducks, Geese, Wild Geese, Squab 1406 2277

    Slaughtered & Processed Wts. (Red Meat) 136,524,681# 135,235,068#

    Slaughtered & Processed Wts. (Poultry) 39,867,709# 36,411,225#

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    Working with Your Meat ProcessorBy Paul Dietmann, Sauk County ExtensionAgricultural Agent

    The meat processor plays a crucial role in yourmeat marketing enterprise. It is illegal in thestate of Wisconsin to sell beef, pork, or lambthat has not been slaughtered and processed in astate-inspected processing plant. Beyond thefact that it is a legal requirement to utilize theservices of an inspected meat processing plantin order to sell most species of meat, yourprocessor is also a part of your marketing team.Your processor will have a big impact on yourcustomers, whether it is through the quality ofthe meat packaging and labeling or by themanner in which your customers are treatedwhen they pick up their meat order at theprocessing plant. Selecting the right meatprocessor, one who understands your marketinggoals and is committed to helping you succeed,is one of the most important decisions you willmake in your meat marketing business.

    Selecting Your ProcessorWisconsin is fortunate to have more than 100state-inspected meat processing plants locatedwithin its borders. Most of these plants aresmall, family-owned and operated, community-oriented businesses. Our state also has one ofthe best meat inspection programs in thecountry. A producer/marketer of meat inWisconsin can be confident that their productswill be handled with great care and attention tofood safety in any processing plant in the state.

    However, meat processors in Wisconsin tend tofall into two groups when it comes to dealingwith producers who are marketing their meatdirectly to consumers. The majority ofprocessors view producer/marketers as an assetto their business. Every producer/marketer is,in essence, another salesperson for the plant,generating revenue and bringing new customersthrough the door. These processors appreciatethe efforts of producers and will work hard toenhance the value of their producers meatproducts so they can grow their businesses aswell.

    A small number of Wisconsin meat processorsare not enthused about the increasing number ofproducer/marketers in the state. They see these

    producers as competitors who are takingprofitable business away from their meatcounters. They dont want to deal with theextra hassle of labeling cuts for producers.They dont want to be bothered with phonecalls or pick-ups from the producers customersand may treat the customers with disrespect.Producers often find that it is hard to scheduleprocessing space in these plants, which willhave an adverse impact on the amount of meatthey can sell.

    Obviously, you want to work with a processorwho appreciates your business. There areseveral ways to find a good processor. First,talk to other direct marketers in your area. Askthem which processors they would or would notrecommend and why. Second, makeappointments with as many processors you canfind within an easy driving distance of yourfarm. Spend some time visiting with each oneand ask some of these questions:

    How many producer/marketers does theplant serve?

    How many weeks in advance will slaughterspace need to be reserved? Does that lead-time vary according to the time of year?

    Does the plant have the ability to label theproducers product in accordance with stateguidelines?

    Will the processor accommodate anyspecial cutting or packaging requests fromcustomers?

    Does the plant have the ability to dispose ofall hides and offal?

    Is locker space available or will all meathave to be picked up as soon as it iswrapped?

    Does the plant have enough cooler space toage carcasses according to the producersspecifications?

    Can the plant cryovac (clear wrap) cuts ofmeat or do they only use freezer paper?

    During your visit to the plant try to look at thefacility through your customers eyes. Will theplant appear clean, well-lit, and inviting to yourcustomers? Is the plant easy to find? Is theentrance (and meat pick-up door, if its in adifferent location than the plant entrance)

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    well-marked? Are the hours of operationconvenient for picking up meat? Are plantemployees courteous and friendly? Are othercomplementary products available for sale toyour customers?

    The process of buying your product should be apleasant, enjoyable experience for yourcustomers. The processor you choose can trulymake or break your business.