Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power...

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Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany 6 th International Summer School, Operational Issues in Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Decommissioning Ispra, Italy, September 8 th -12 th, 2014 Przemyslaw Imielski Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH Germany

Transcript of Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power...

Page 1: Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 the German government decided to “end

Operational Decommissioning

Experiences in Germany

6th International Summer School,

Operational Issues in Radioactive Waste Management

and Nuclear Decommissioning

Ispra, Italy, September 8th-12th, 2014

Przemyslaw Imielski

Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH

Germany

Page 2: Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 the German government decided to “end

Contents

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Analysing the current nuclear situation in Germany

German phase-out decision

Overview on decommissioning projects in Germany

The German regulatory system

Lessons learned from past and present decommissioning projects in Germany

Decommissioning experiences

• Phased approach

• Industrial development at the site

• Large component removal

• Clearance

Examining the current challenges (and future opportunities)

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Page 3: Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 the German government decided to “end

German Phase-out Decision

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi

in March 2011 the German government decided to

“end the use of nuclear energy for the commercial generation of electricity at the

earliest possible time – by gradually phasing it out.”

This decision resulted in an Amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act

of July 31st, 2011

• Withdrawing the authorisation to operate an installation for the fission of nuclear

fuel for the commercial production of electricity for the seven oldest NPPs and

NPP Krümmel on August 6th, 2011

• Setting end-dates for the authorisation for the remaining 9 NPPs on a step-by-

step-basis until 2022 at the latest

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German Phase-out Decision

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Timetable for shut down of commercial reactors in operation

4

Name Abbrev. Reactor type Power MWe

Date of final shut down

Grafenrheinfeld KKG PWR 1345 31.12.2015*

Gundremmingen B KRB-II-B BWR 1344 31.12.2017

Philippsburg 2 KKP 2 PWR 1468 31.12.2019

Grohnde KWG PWR 1430 31.12.2021

Gundremmingen C KRB-II-C BWR 1344 31.12.2021

Brokdorf KBR PWR 1480 31.12.2021

Isar 2 KKI 2 PWR 1485 31.12.2022

Emsland KKE PWR 1400 31.12.2022

Neckarwestheim 2 GKN 2 PWR 1400 31.12.2022

* Application for decommission license on 28.03.2014

11. September 2014

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Germany –

experiences since 1970th

5

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility decommissioning completed

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility shut down / under decommissioning

Research Reactor decommissioning completed

Research Reactor shut down / under decommissioning

Prototype / Commercial reactor decommissioning completed

Prototype / Commercial Reactor shut down / under decommissioning

11. September 2014

Page 6: Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 the German government decided to “end

Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Past and current decommissioning projects of prototype or commercial reactors

Total: 19

Removed: 3

Under dismantling: 14

Safe enclosure: 2

Reactor types:

• PWR

• BWR

• Fast breeder

• High temperature gas cooled

• Heavy water gas cooled

6

© Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

HDR Großwelzheim

11. September 2014

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

BfS, RS-Handbuch 06/13

Past and current decommissioning projects

of prototype or commercial reactors

Reactor types

• DWR (PWR - Presserurised Water Reactor)

• SWR (BWR - Boiling Water Reactor)

• SNR (FBR - Fast-Breeder Reactor)

• HTR (HTGR - High Temperature Gas Cooled

Reactor)

• HDR - Superheated Steam Reactor

• DRR (HWGCR - Heavy Water Gas Cooled

Reactor)

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Past and current decommissioning projects of prototype or commercial reactors

8

RS: release of site from regulatory control

Name Abbrev. Reactor type Power MWe

Decom. started

Strategy

Mehrzweckforschungsreaktor MZFR PWR/D2O 57 1987 RS

Kompakte Natriumgekühlte

Kernanlage

KNK II SNR 21 1993 RS

Arbeitsgemeinschaft

Versuchsreaktor Jülich

AVR HTR 15 1994 RS

Greifswald 1-5 KGR 1-5 PWR/WWER 440 1995 RS

Rheinsberg KKR PWR/WWER 70 1995 RS

Würgassen KWW BWR 670 1997 RS

Mülheim-Kärlich KMK PWR 1302 2004 RS

Stade KKS PWR 672 2005 RS

Obrigheim KWO PWR 357 2008 RS

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Past and current decommissioning projects of prototype or commercial reactors

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RCA: radiation controlled area, new license SE: safe enclosure RS: release of site from regulatory control

Name Abbrev. Reactor type Power MWe

Decom. started

Strategy

Heissdampfreaktor

Grosswelzheim

HDR HDR 25 1983 RS in 1998

Niederaichbach KKN DRR 106 1975 RS in 1994

Versuchsatomkraftwerk

Kahl

VAK BWR 16 1988 RS in 2010

Gundremmingen-A KRB-A BWR 250 1983 RCA KRB-II

Lingen KWL BWR 252 1985 SE since 1988

Thorium-Hochtemperatur-

reaktor

THTR-

300

HTR 308 1993 SE since 1997

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Outlook for prototype or commercial reactors

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Name Abbrev. Reactor type Power MWe Date of application

Lingen KWL BWR 252 15.12.2008*

Isar-1 KKI 1 BWR 912 04.05.2012

Unterweser KKU BWR 1410 04.05.2012**

Biblis-A KWB A PWR 1225 06.08.2012

Biblis-B KWB B PWR 1300 06.08.2012

Brunsbüttel KKB BWR 806 01.11.2012

Neckarwestheim-1 GKN 1 PWR 840 24.04.2013

Philippsburg-1 KKP 1 BWR 926 24.04.2013

Krümmel KKK BWR 1402 -

Grafenrheinfeld KKG PWR 1345 28.03.2014

* Dismantling after safe enclosure ** Application changed on 20.12.2013

11. September 2014

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Past and current decommissioning projects of research reactors

Total: 35

Removed: 29

Under dismantling: 5

Safe enclosure: 2

Variety of types of research reactors

• Argonaut type

• Critical assembly

• Educational reactors

• Liquid homogenous reactor

• Propulsion reactor

• Pool reactor (incl. TRIGA type)

• Heavy water reactor (incl. DIDO type)

Nuclear ship Otto Hahn

during operation

© Babcock

Noell GmbH

Rad. transport of

dismantled

pressure vessel

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BfS, RS-Handbuch 12/13

Past and current decommissioning projects

of research reactors

• BER: Berliner Experimentier-Reaktor

• FRMZ: Forschungsreaktor Mainz

• AKR 2: Ausbildungskernreaktor Dresden

• SUR-FW: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktor Furtwangen

• SUR-S: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktor Stuttgart

• SUR-U: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktor Ulm

• FRM: Forschungsreaktor München

• FRG: Forschungsreaktor Geesthacht

• SUR-AA : Siemens Unterrichtsreaktor Aachen

• SUR-H: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktor Hannover

• FMRB: Forschungs- und Messreaktor Braunschweig

• FR 2: Forschungsreaktor 2, Karlsruhe

• FRJ: Forschungsreaktor Jülich

• FRN: Forschungsreaktor Neuherberg

• RFR: Rossendorfer Forschungsreaktor

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

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Past and current decommissioning projects of research reactors

Research reactors with > 50 kW thermal output

• BER: Berliner Experimentier-Reaktor

• FRMZ: Forschungsreaktor Mainz

• FRM: Forschungsreaktor München

• FMRB: Forschungs- und Messreaktor Braunschweig

• FR 2: Forschungsreaktor 2, Karlsruhe

• FRG: Forschungsreaktor Geesthacht

• FRN: Forschungsreaktor Neuherberg

• RFR: Rossendorfer Forschungsreaktor

• FRJ: Forschungsreaktor Jülich

• FRH: Forschungsreaktor Hannover

• HD: Forschungsreaktor Heidelberg

• FRF: Forschungsreaktor Frankfurt

Joint Convention 2012, Report of the Federal Republic of Germany

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Outlook for research reactors

FRM: license granted on 03.04.2014

SUR AA

SUR H

FRG-1, FRG-2

14

FRM II

© TUM

FRM

11. September 2014

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Overview on Decommissioning Projects in Germany

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Past and current decommissioning projects of

nuclear fuel cycle facilities

Total: 11

Removed: 7

Safe enclosure: 0

Under dismantling: 4

15

© W. Dander et al. (WAK GmbH),

2010 Annual Meeting of German Nuclear Society

Former storage building for vitrification waste at WAK

with additional building for remote dismantling and

packaging of decommissioning waste

Slave support system for

remote dismantling at WAK

11. September 2014

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The German Regulatory System

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Regulation of decommissioning in Germany

• § 7 (3) of the German Atomic Energy Act

The decommissioning of an installation […] as well as the safe confinement of an

installation, or the dismantling of an installation or of parts thereof shall require a

license […].

View point: phase in lifetime of a facility

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Final shut down of the

facility

Granting of 1st

decommissioning

license

Operation phase Transition period

Operation

Decommissioning phase/

Safe enclosure

Decommissioning

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As of the Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Fourth Review Meeting of the Joint Convention (May 2012)

The German Regulatory System

Regulatory pyramid

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The German Regulatory System

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Basic requirements

The German Atomic Energy Act allows either

• to immediate dismantle or

• to dismantle after a safe enclosure

a nuclear facility

Note: no entombment (near surface disposal) is allowed

The operator of a nuclear facility is fully responsible for the decommissioning and

dismantling of a nuclear facility

• He decides on the decommissioning strategy and the timeframe

• He decides on the scope of a license he applies for

Note: the operator has to ensure at any time the safety of the facility and any

precautionary measures are taken

Decommissioning and dismantling are subject to one or more licenses

Decommissioning activities are subject to an intensive regulatory supervision,

involving technical experts and on-site presence during the full project

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The German Regulatory System

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Brief overview on the (Federal) Decommissioning Guide

Objective:

• harmonize the procedures among all Länder authorities (see later)

Comprehensive collection of existing requirements and recommendations on the

decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Germany

• Jointly applied by all Länder authorities (see later)

• Strong focus on procedural licensing and supervisory aspects

Contains among others

• Comprehensive list of individual elements of the guidelines, recommendations

and safety standards to be applied

• Description of fundamental factors to be considered during determining the

decommissioning strategy

• Aspects to be considered during the safety assessment

Available also in English language

(Federal) Decommissioning Guide represents good practice in Germany from

regulatory point of view

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The German Regulatory System

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Brief overview on the ESK Guideline on Decommissioning

Objective:

• Technical guideline for members of German Commission on Waste

Management, Decommissioning and Disposal (“Entsorgungskommission”, ESK)

• Focus on technical safety related aspects

• Complementing the (Federal) Decommissioning Guide

Contains recommendations on following aspects

• Decommissioning aspects during design and operation of a nuclear facility

• Technical measures in preparation of a decommissioning project

• Plan for decommissioning (corresponds to IAEA concept of final

decommissioning plan)

• Conduct of decommissioning

• Safety assessment for decommissioning (as part of the licensing process)

• Operational instructions during decommissioning

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The German Regulatory System

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Process of licensing

Federal Ministry for the Environment,

Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

(BMUB)

Licensing authority of the Land

(Federal State)

Applicant / Licensee

Experts and Expert organizations (TÜV)

General public

Other authorities of the Land (Federal State)

Experts and expert organizations (GRS)

Advisory bodies (ESK, SSK, RSK)

Other federal authorities

• Draft of the license

• Application documents

• Evaluation reports by the

authorized experts

• Statement of

BMUB on the draft

of the license

„Agreement on the

license“

License

Application documents

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Page 22: Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 the German government decided to “end

Typically large decommissioning projects

• are divided into phases (corresponding to large work packages)

• work from “outside to inside”

Phase 1: blue

Phase 2: yellow / orange

Phase 3: red

A phase

• corresponds to a large work package

• can be reflected by an individual license

Advantages

• allows structure large complex technical systems

• allows to gain further information needed for later work packages

• allows flexibility in adapting changes in future phases not licensed yet

Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

© E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

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Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

A typical & recent decommissioning project –

decommissioning of Stade NPP

• Design features

Reactor type: PWR

Electrical power: 672 MWe

Operation: 1972 – 2003

Operator: Kernkraftwerk Stade GmbH & Co. KG

• Decommissioning “features”

Decommissioning due to economic reasons

4 phases approach on immediate dismantling

End-state: release of the site for unrestricted use, proposed for 2015

Inventory: total of 1017 Bq, mobile contamination of 1013 Bq

© E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

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Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Stade NPP Decommissioning: Content of the phase 1

• Removal of contaminated

systems and components

• Objectives:

Free space for later

dismantling work

Preparation of later

dismantling work

Removal of systems

and components

© E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

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Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Stade NPP Decommissioning: Content of the phase 2

• Removal of large components,

including

Pipes and pumps of the

primary circuit

Steam generator

(transfer to Studsvik

for processing)

© E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

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Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Stade NPP Decommissioning: Content of the phase 3

• Removal of activated

systems and components

Core internals

Spent fuel pond internals

In-situ dismantling of

reactor vessel

Cutting of large parts

Drum size cutting in former

spent fuel pond

Biological shielding

© E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

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Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Stade NPP Decommissioning: Content of the phase 4

• Removal of remaining

systems and components

Fuel load machine

Reactor crane

Ventilation system

Water treatment

system

• Preparation for

clearance for

unrestricted use

© E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

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Decommissioning Experiences – Phased Approach

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Example of 4 Phases @ Stade NPP

28

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 © E.ON Kernkraft GmbH

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

year of decommissioning

operational phase residual operations and dismantling post –

op. phase

licensing of and supervision on the decommissioning phase 1

phase 2 phase 3

phase 4

release from regulatory control

conventional dismantling

dismantling of non-nuclear facilities

construction & operation of an interim storage facility for radioactive waste

11. September 2014

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Production of ship

components in the former

turbine hall

Decommissioning Experiences – Industrial Development at the Site

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Decommissioning of the Greifswald NPPs

• Design features

Reactor type: 4 WWER-440/W-230

2 WWER-440/W-213

2 more planned

Electrical power: 2x220 MWe per unit

Operation: 1974/75/78/79/89 – 1989

Operator: EWN GmbH

29

© EWN GmbH

Site of the Greifswald NPP Production of cranes in

the former turbine hall

• Decommissioning “features”

Decommissioning due to technical

reasons after German reunification

8 phases approach on immediate

dismantling

End-state: release of the site for

(conventional) re-use

Inventory: total of 4x1017 Bq

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Decommissioning Experiences – Large Component Removal

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Dismantling of large components – German practice shows following options

• In-situ dismantling

• Partial in-situ dismantling

Post-processing on-site or off-site

• Removal and ex-situ dismantling

(typically for components of metal)

On-site dismantling

Immediate dismantling

Deferred dismantling

(if appropriate: dismantling after decay storage)

Off-site dismantling

At external service providers

(cutting, decontamination / melting, clearance – in a foreign country: still

according to German requirements, return of material and radioactive

waste)

© GNS

© B. Jünger

11. September 2014

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Decommissioning Experiences – Large Component Removal

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Examples of large component removal for off-site dismantling

© R. Borchardt, G. Hillebrecht, EWN,

2010 Annual Meeting of German Nuclear Society

KGR reactor vessel removal and

interim storage at Greifswald NPP KWO steam generator shipment

for interim storage at Greifswald NPP

© ndr.de

© nadir.org

11. September 2014

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Decommissioning Experiences – Clearance

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Character of “Clearance”

• Administrative act which effects the exemption of radioactive substances and any

movable goods, of buildings, soil areas, installations or parts of installations

which are activated or contaminated by radioactive substances and which

originate from practices from regulatory control

• Clearance of radioactive substances and movable goods, buildings, soil areas,

facilities or parts of facilities which are activated or contaminated material, can be

granted by the regulatory body (“license”) only if relevant radiological

requirements are fulfilled

• Regulated in detail § 29 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance

(StrlSchV)

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Decommissioning Experiences – Clearance

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Basic radiological requirement / concept: “De Minimis Principle”

radioactive activation and contamination of the material, ... to be cleared, shall be

such, that the exposure of a member of the public is no more than about 10µSv/a

For simplification and to avoid long lasting calculations: for a set of radionuclides

clearance levels have been calculated and are available as appendix III of StrlSchV

Different clearance levels for different clearance options:

unrestricted clearance

(“use as you like”):

clearance for specific purposes

(“the use is predicted”):

solid material solid material for disposal (100t, 1000t)

incineration (100t, 1000t)

liquids liquids for disposal in a waste incineration plant

building rubble and excavated soil with an

expected mass of more than 1,000 t/a

buildings for demolition

sites scrap metal for recycling

buildings for reuse and further use

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Decommissioning Experiences – Clearance

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy 34

Specific to decommissioning

high volume of radioactive material to be handled

with consequences for

• Internal logistics of material flow within a nuclear facility

• Capacities of treatment of radioactive material and

• Conditioning of radioactive wastes and

• Clearance of radioactive material and related measuring devices

• Interim storage facilities for negligible heat generating radioactive waste

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Decommissioning Experiences – Clearance

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Example on the masses from a recent decommissioning project

© E.ON

Kernkraft GmbH

Stade NPP

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Current challenges

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Decommissioning of NPPs with fuel elements still present

(Re-) Classification of systems

Demonstrating absence of impact when dismantling structures, systems and

components

36

Name Abbrev. Storage of fuel elements

Neckarwestheim 1 GKN 1 Cooling pond

Philippsburg 1 KKP 1 Cooling pond

Isar 1 KKI 1 Cooling pond

Biblis Block A KWB A Cooling pond

Biblis Block B KWB B Cooling pond

Unterweser KKU Cooling pond

Brunsbüttel KKB Reactor pressure vessel and cooling pond

Krümmel KKK Cooling pond

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Current challenges

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

Waste management

Timeline of waste generation

Clearance options

Treatment and conditioning capacities

Long-term interim storage of fuel and decommissioning waste

Knowledge management

Maintenance of competence at all levels

• Operators

• Regulatory body

• Technical support organisations

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Summary

6th International Summer School 2014, Ispra, Italy

In Germany a large number of

decommissioning projects was

successfully performed

Recent decommissioning experiences relate

among others to

• Phased approach

• Industrial development at the site

• Large component removal

• Clearance

Challenges

• Fuel elements still present

• Waste management

• Knowledge Management

38

Removed NPP Niederaichbach

© Backcock Noell GmbH

11. September 2014

Page 39: Operational Decommissioning Experiences in Germany · After the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 the German government decided to “end

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