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  • TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITT MNCHEN

    Lehrstuhl fr Vegetationskologie

    Pioneer woody species in southern Brazilian grasslands:

    Life history traits and population dynamics

    Julia-Maria Hermann

    Vollstndiger Abdruck der von der Fakultt Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fr Ernhrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universitt Mnchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines

    Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigten Dissertation. Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. L. Trepl Prfer der Dissertation:

    1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. J. Pfadenhauer 2. Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Fischer

    Die Dissertation wurde am 08.09.2008 bei der Technischen Universitt Mnchen eingereicht und durch die Fakultt Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fr Ernhrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt am 11.12.2008 angenommen.

  • Acknowledgements

    For their generosity, advice and support in many ways I would like to express my sincere gratitude to meus agradecimentos sinceros para:

    My supervisors, professors Dr. Jrg Pfadenhauer and Dr. Valrio De Patta Pillar.

    Friends and colleagues from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Fachhochschule Rottenburg and Eberhard-Karls-Universitt Tbingen: Wolfram Adelmann; Carolina Blanco; Eric Burgert; Josi Cerveira; Alex Dmig; Leandro Duarte; Wolf Engels; Alessandra Fidelis; Eduardo Forneck; Birgit Harter-Marques; Heinrich Hasenack e o LABGEO; Roland Irslinger and his diplomands; Rafael Machado; Melina Marchesini; Nelson Matzenbacher; Juliano Morales; Gerhard Overbeck; Maria Luiza Porto; Rainer Radtke; Peter Schad; Simone Schromm; Glauco Schssler; Mirco Sol; Enio Sosinski.

    As secretrias fantsticas Silvana, Andreia, Charlotte Tork, Michaela Bcherl e o equipe famoso do Pr-Mata Dona Ero, Cristiane, Cleudia, Cleonir, Jonas, Leandro e Ricardo.

    Um abrao grande especial pela ajuda enorme no campo para: Jonas Homem; Felipe Lohmann e amigos, Ricardo Mello, Glauco Schssler; a segurana da UFRGS; Marcos Westphalen; Laura Prates da Silva.

    Um abrao grande especial tambm para sua gentileza e generosidade excepcional a:Sandra Cristina Mller e Fernando; Martin e Tati; Dona Ero com toda famlia Homem; Nelcy, Jorge e Jorge Alberto.

    My sincere apologies to anyone who was unintentionally forgotten in this list.

    Working permission in the CPCN Pr-Mata was given by the Instituto do Meio Ambiente, Pontfica Universidade do Rio Grande do Sul; estou muito obrigada Ricardo Mello, Betina Blochtein e Jorge Villwock.

    Working permission on Fazenda Trs Estrelas was given by Sr. Escobar, So Francisco de Paula; work was made possible by Sebastio Avila de Lima estou muito obrigada.

    Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), within the framework of projects PF 120/10-1 and PF 120/10-2: Einfluss von Feuer und Beweidung auf das Wald-Grasland-Mosaik im sdlichen Brasilien (Rio Grande do Sul) [Influence of fire and grazing on the forest-grassland mosaic in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul)].

    Dedicated to - dedicado para

    Barbara, Konrad & Matthias HermannDona Eronita Homem

    Dona Nelcy Martins da Silva

  • 1

    Table of contents

    1. Introduction.....................................................................................................................7 1.1. Objective and framework of the study ......................................................................7 1.2. Geography of the study regions..............................................................................11 1.3. Origin of the forest-grassland mosaic .....................................................................15 1.4. The main study area and study species in detail....................................................18

    1.4.1. Vegetation.......................................................................................................18 1.4.2. Study species .................................................................................................21 1.4.3. Soils ................................................................................................................24 1.4.4. Microclimate....................................................................................................27

    1.5. Terminology............................................................................................................29 1.6. Statistics .................................................................................................................31

    2. Seedling emergence of Woody Species in Grassland: Comparison of a Grassland and a Forest Species ...........................................................................................................32

    2.1. Summary ................................................................................................................32 2.2. Introduction.............................................................................................................33 2.3. Study setup.............................................................................................................34

    2.3.1. Study sites and species ..................................................................................34 2.3.2. Seed collection, treatment and storage ..........................................................35 2.3.3. Experiment setup............................................................................................35 2.3.4. Evaluation .......................................................................................................37

    2.4. Results....................................................................................................................39 2.4.1. Overview.........................................................................................................39 2.4.2. Baccharis uncinella.........................................................................................40 2.4.3. Myrsine parvula ..............................................................................................41

    2.5. Discussion ..............................................................................................................42 2.5.1. Possible drawbacks of the experiment design................................................42 2.5.2. Some evidence of safe site characteristics.....................................................43 2.5.3. Seed dispersal in space and time...................................................................45 2.5.4. Consequences for forest-grassland dynamics................................................48

    2.6. Appendix.................................................................................................................50

    3. Survival and Growth of Woody Seedlings in Grassland: Comparison of a Grassland and a Forest Species.........................................................................................51

    3.1. Summary ................................................................................................................51 3.2. Introduction.............................................................................................................52 3.3. Study setup.............................................................................................................53

    3.3.1. Study sites and species ..................................................................................53 3.3.2. Experiment preparation ..................................................................................53 3.3.3. Monitoring .......................................................................................................55 3.3.4. Evaluation .......................................................................................................55

    3.4. Results....................................................................................................................57 3.4.1. Mortality ..........................................................................................................57 3.4.2. Stem and leaf development ............................................................................60 3.4.3. Seedling performance.....................................................................................68

    3.5. Discussion ..............................................................................................................69 3.5.1. Escarpment compared to inland sites.............................................................69 3.5.2. Inherent species traits: Baccharis compared to Myrsine in nurseries.............70 3.5.3. Impact of management: Pasture compared to abandoned grassland ............72

  • 2

    3.5.4. Impact of established vegetation: Station nursery compared to tall shrub abandoned grassland.....................................................................................................75 3.5.5. Inhibition versus facilitation.............................................................................76

    3.6. Appendix.................................................................................................................79

    4. Recruitment of a Pioneer Forest Tree in Grassland: Root suckers vs. Seedlings.80 4.1. Summary ................................................................................................................80 4.2. Introduction.............................................................................................................81 4.3. Study area and species ..........................................................................................82 4.4. Material and methods .............................................................................................82

    4.4.1. New root sucker and seedling s