RAPESEED PROTEIN PRODUCTS AS FISH MEAL REPLACEMENT protein in fish feeds, is a limited resource with

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Transcript of RAPESEED PROTEIN PRODUCTS AS FISH MEAL REPLACEMENT protein in fish feeds, is a limited resource with

  • Aus dem Institut für Tierzucht und Tierhaltung

    der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät

    der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    RAPESEED PROTEIN PRODUCTS AS FISH MEAL

    REPLACEMENT IN FISH NUTRITION

    Dissertation

    zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades

    der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät

    der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

    vorgelegt von

    Master of Science

    HANNO SLAWSKI

    aus Neustadt in Holstein

    Kiel, 2011

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    Dekanin: Prof. Dr. K. Schwarz

    Erster Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. C. Schulz

    Zweiter Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. A. Susenbeth

    Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 14.07.2011

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    Die Dissertation wurde mit dankenswerter finanzieller Unterstützung aus dem Europäischen Fischereifond und

    dem Zukunftsprogramm Fischerei des Landes Schleswig-Holsteins angefertigt

  • II

    Gedruckt mit Genehmigung der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der

    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

  • III

    Table of Contents

    General Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 1: Replacement of fish meal with rapeseed protein concentrate in diets fed to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ............................................................................................ 4 Chapter 2: Replacement of fish meal with rapeseed protein concentrate in diets fed to wels catfish (Silurus glanis L.) ......................................................................................................... 16 Chapter 3: Austausch von Fischmehl durch Rapsproteinkonzentrat in Futtermitteln für Steinbutt (Psetta maxima L.) .................................................................................................... 34 Chapter 4: Total fish meal replacement with rapeseed protein concentrate in diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) ................................................................................ 47 Chapter 5: Replacement of fish meal with albumin and globulin rapeseed protein fractions in diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) ............................................................. 69 Chapter 6: Total fish meal replacement with canola protein isolate in diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) .............................................................................................. 85 General Discussion ................................................................................................................. 102 General Summary ................................................................................................................... 111 Zusammenfassung .................................................................................................................. 114 Danksagung ............................................................................................................................ 117 Lebenslauf .............................................................................................................................. 118

  • IV

    List of Tables

    Table 1.1 Proximate composition and amino acid profiles of fish meal and

    rapeseed protein concentrate and concentration of antinutritional factors detected in RPC

    9

    Table 1.2 Formulation, amino acid profiles and proximate composition of experimental diets for common carp

    10

    Table 1.3 Growth response, feed efficiencies and survival of carp fed experimental diets

    11

    Table 1.4 Proximate whole body composition of carp fed the experimental diets

    11

    Table 2.1 Nutrient composition and essential amino acid profiles of fish meal and rapeseed protein concentrate and concentration of antinutritional factors detected in RPC

    20

    Table 2.2 Formulation, essential amino acids composition and proximate composition of experimental diets

    21

    Table 2.3 Growth response, feed intake, feed efficiencies, condition factor and survival of wels catfish fed experimental diets

    23

    Table 2.4 Proximate whole body composition of wels catfish fed the experimental diets

    24

    Table 2.5 Blood haematocrit content and blood serum values of wels catfish fed experimental diets

    25

    Table 3.1 Nährstoff- und Aminosäurenzusammensetzung von Fischmehl und Rapsproteinkonzentrat

    37

    Table 3.2 Formulierung der Versuchsfuttermittel

    38

    Table 3.3 Nährstoff- und Aminosäurenzusammensetzung der Versuchsfuttermittel

    39

    Table 3.4 Ganzkörperzusammensetzung der Steinbutt nach der Fütterungsperiode

    41

    Table 3.5 Wachstumsparameter und Futterverwertung der Steinbutt nach dem Fütterungsversuch

    41

    Table 4.1 Proximate and amino acid composition of fish meal and rapeseed protein concentrate and concentration of antinutritional factors determined

    51

  • V

    Table 4.2 Formulation of experimental diets

    52

    Table 4.3 Proximate and amino acid composition of experimental diets

    53

    Table 4.4 Growth response, feed efficiencies and survival of rainbow trout fed experimental diets

    56

    Table 4.5 Proximate whole body composition of rainbow trout fed experimental diets

    56

    Table 4.6 Blood parameters of trout fed experimental diets

    57

    Table 5.1 Nutrient composition and amino acid profiles of fish meal, albumin concentrate and globulin concentrate

    68

    Table 5.2 Formulation and nutrient composition and amino acid profiles of experimental diets used in the digestibility trial

    69

    Table 5.3 Formulation, proximate nutrient composition and amino acid composition of experimental diets for rainbow trout

    72

    Table 5.4 Apparent digestibility coefficients

    73

    Table 5.5 Growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiencies of rainbow trout fed experimental diets

    74

    Table 5.6 Proximate whole body composition of rainbow trout fed experimental diets

    75

    Table 6.1 Nutrient composition and essential amino acid profiles of fish meal and canola protein isolate

    83

    Table 6.2 Formulation, nutrient composition and essential amino acid profiles of experimental diets used in the digestibility trial

    84

    Table 6.3 Formulation, proximate composition and essential amino acid profiles of experimental diets

    86

    Table 6.4 Apparent digestibility coefficients

    88

    Table 6.5 Growth response, feed intake and feed efficiencies of rainbow trout fed experimental diets

    89

    Table 6.6 Proximate whole body composition of rainbow trout fed experimental diets

    89

  • 1

    General Introduction

    In 2009 aquaculture production hit a landmark: half of all fish and shellfish destined for

    human consumption were cultured, and production of farmed fish eclipsed that of wild caught

    fish. But, the increased aquaculture production also accounted for 68 % of the worldwide fish

    meal consumption (Naylor et al. 2009). However, fish meal, the most important source of

    protein in fish feeds, is a limited resource with an annual production volume between 5 to 6.5

    Mio t (FAO 2004). Tremendous price increases for fish meal together with environmental

    concerns therefore force the aquaculture sector to find alternative protein sources to be

    included in fish feeds. Presently, most relevant alternatives are protein concentrates derived

    from vegetables. Among them, soybean protein concentrates have become a commonly

    accepted fish feed ingredient and fish meal alternative (Gatlin et al. 2007). While soybean

    ranks as number one oilseed worldwide (222.2 Mio t/a), protein products derived from

    rapeseed, which ranks as number three oilseed worldwide (61.6 Mio t/a) (FAO 2010), are less

    commonly used as fish feed ingredients. However, simple oilcakes or rapeseed meals with

    increased protein content produced from oilcakes that were de-oiled with organic solvents

    have been widely tested as protein sources in feeding trials with several fish species.

    Experiments with rainbow trout (Burel et al. 2000a,c; Shafaeipour et al. 2008), Nile tilapia

    (Davies et al. 1990), common carp (Dabrowski and Kozlowska 1981) and turbot (Burel et al.

    2000a,b) have shown, that the nutritional quality of simple rapeseed products is below that of

    fish meal although they contained a well balanced amino acid profile. Particularly

    antinutritional factors (ANF) determine the quality of rapeseed products for fish nutrition. The

    most prominent ANF in rapeseed products are glucosinolates, phytic acid, phenolic

    constituents and indigestible carbohydrates (Francis et al. 2001). By several processing

    techniques the level of antinutrients in rapeseed products can be reduced and their value for

    fish nutrition c