Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

download Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

of 17

  • date post

    03-Jun-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    222
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    1/17

    Schweizerischer

    asserw r sc a sver an

    Fachta un Wasserkraft 2013Mittwoch, 6. November 2013

    Hotel Arte, Olten

    Auswirkungen des vermehrten Regelbetriebs auf

    die Lebensdauer der el.-mech. Maschinen

    Mirjam Sick, R&D / Engineering Methods, ANDRITZ HYDRO, Zrich

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    2/17

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    3/17

    HYDRO as Grid Stabilizer

    Moving from static to highly dynamic operation

    The electrical grid is changing rapidly

    Germany, Sept. 2011Electricity production from wind (green) and sun (yellow)

    From coal, nuclear etc. to variable Renewable Energy Sources(RES)

    Hydro power technology integrates variable energy sources into

    Fast to dispatch and control

    Significant storage capacity and high power output(10 to 1000 MW)

    Innovation needed in HYDRO technology From pure power production (MWh) to ancillary services

    rimar and secondar fre uenc controlBalance of the electrical grid: stable frequency

    From hydraulic efficiency ($/MW) to operational flexibility

    Key technological challenges Know-how from E&M equipment to grid stability&ancillary serv.

    Wide operating range from spinning reserve to full load

    Frequent operation and wear of control mechanisms

    3 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    4/17

    Power plants for grid stability

    Comparison Thermal plants Hydro plants

    Thermal Gas Hydro Hydro

    Power gradient (%/min) 2 - 4 8 12 50 - 100 100% in What about existing (older) Hydro plants ??

    4 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    5/17

    Pumped storage plants

    D namic o eration

    Yesterday: load balance day night, winter - summer

    Toda : Primar and secondar control within minutes

    Stand-by operation (speed - no - load)

    Low load operation

    Frequent changes from pump to turbine mode and vice versa

    nemode

    Key questions

    de

    turbi

    operation to deliver

    ancillary services?

    pumpmo

    ancillary services?

    5 www.andritz.com

    2 hours interval time

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    6/17

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    7/17

    Overview: Technical challenges due to flexible operation

    The entire system needs to be considered

    1. Inspection, fitness check, referencestatus of vibrations

    2. Compliance with current grid code

    3. Secondary equipment

    4. Wide operating range (Francis turbines)

    5. Life time assessment (F and PT runners)

    6. Generator at fre uent starts sto s

    7. Life time assessment Kaplan runner

    mechanism

    Aspects to be considered Hydraulical aspects, waterways

    Mechanical aspects turbine/generator set

    8. Maintenance intervals ruc ura aspec s c v s ruc ure

    Control aspects, governor

    Electrical aspects, grid elements

    Operational aspects, hydraulic stability,

    7 www.andritz.com

    gr s a y

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    8/17

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    9/17

    Grid Stability: Primary control existing HPP

    New governor strategy for critical plants

    Background New ENTSO-E primary control regulations

    requiring faster responses to frequency steps

    (100% of power in 30s)

    to primary control and fulfill new regulations

    Governor strategy must be adapted for plantswith critical waterway (long penstocks, smallsurge an s, e c.

    Procedure Case study: Hautefage (2x10MW Francis)

    Response to -200mHz Frequency step (test measurements)

    Guide vane opening / Mechanical power

    Validate plant + governor model withmeasurements

    Improve governor algorithm, tests by simulation

    Benefit Applicable to any plant with narrow surge tank

    9 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    10/17

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    11/17

    Wide operating range

    Francis 0 100% operation: push operating limits

    Machines delivering ancillary services need flexible operation: Spinning reserve

    Low load operation

    Issues to be solved

    Full load vortex (draft tube)

    High dynamic load in part loadconditions

    Risk of fatigue

    Hydraulic issues Pressure pulsations and stability

    Cavitation

    Research projects active

    Operation mode needs to bespecified during offer phase

    11 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    12/17

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    13/17

    Fatigue analysis Francis runner

    Strain gauge measurement hot spot

    Linear regression analysis

    The calculated shape should give a good representation ofthe strains from the measurement.

    The strain gauges are not located on the hot spot.

    .

    Assumed peak stress matrix of measurement

    Cycles

    13 Dynamic amplitudewww.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    14/17

    Fatigue analysis

    Damage factor based on peak stress

    Miners Rule: Linear cumulative fatigue damage theory

    If there are k different stress levels and the average number of cycles to failure at the ith

    stress (Si) is Ni, then the damage factor C is:

    n

    n : Number of cycles accumulated at ith stress level(S ).

    Amplitude (stress level)

    niS1

    Ni: Number of cycles to failure corresponding to the ith stress level(S

    i).

    ni/Ni: Damage ratio at the ith stress level(Si).

    : The factor of life consumed by exposure to the cycles at the different stress

    levels. In general, when the damage factor reaches 1, failure occurs.14 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    15/17

    Relative damage and life time dependent on operation

    Example : Francis runner at speed no load

    Rainflow Extrapolationusing Monte Carlo simulation

    SNL time

    1000

    s gna

    100

    Str

    essamplitudeinMPa

    Speed no load:

    10

    1 .0 0E+0 3 1 .0 0E+0 4 1 .0 0E+0 5 1 .0 0E+0 6 1 .0 0E+0 7 1 .0 0E+0 8 1 .0 0E+0 9 1 .0 0E+1 0 1 .0 0E+1 1

    Rainflow

    Life time assessment based on 50sec data

    Extrapolation to 1000 sec

    Damage rate: 0.00011 per hourLoad cycles

    Expected SNL life: 8000 hours

    15 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    16/17

    7 Life time assessment: calculation methodology

    Ensure lifetime under new operating regime

    Mechanical Calculation Procedure (present situation)

    New Engineering Approach

    Start -Stop

    SNL Part Load

    Full Load/ RSIdominant

    StaticLoad

    Fatigue AnalysisOperatingRegime

    a er aProperties /Condition

    16 www.andritz.com

  • 8/12/2019 Referat Sick Auswirkungen Regelbetrieb Auf Lebensdauer

    17/17