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  • Resolving the challenge posed by agrobiodiversity and plant

    genetic resources - an attempt

    Karl Hammer

  • Herausgeber der Schriftenreihe: Deutsches Institut für Tropische und Subtropische Landwirtschaft GmbH, Witzenhausen Gesellschaft für Nachhaltige Entwicklung mbH, Witzenhausen Institut für tropische Landwirtschaft e.V., Leipzig Universität Kassel, Fachbereich Ökologische Agrarwissenschaften (FB11), Witzenhausen Verband der Tropenlandwirte Witzenhausen e.V., Witzenhausen Redaktion: Hans Hemann, Witzenhausen Korrektes Zitat Hammer, Karl, 2003: Resolving the challenge posed by agrobiodiversity and plant genetic resources - an attempt, Beiheft Nr. 76 zu Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, kassel university press GmbH Bibliografische Information Der Deutschen Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar Verlag: kassel university press GmbH www.upress.uni-kassel.de ISSN: beantragt ISBN: 3-89958-056-7 Umschlaggestaltung: Jochen Roth, Melchior v. Wallenberg, Kassel Druck und Verarbeitung: Unidruckerei der Universität Kassel Februar 2004

    http://dnb.ddb.de/

  • Table of content

    1 Foreword ___________________________________________________ 9 2 Introduction ________________________________________________ 10 3 The situation of agrobiodiversity today ___________________________ 20

    3.1 Microorganisms______________________________________________20 3.2 Animals _____________________________________________________21 3.3 Plants _______________________________________________________22

    4 Biodiversity and plant genetic resources – parallels and differences ___ 31 5 Agrobiodiversity _____________________________________________ 33

    5.1 Diversity of Species___________________________________________34 5.2 Infraspecific diversity_________________________________________38 5.3 Ecosystem diversity __________________________________________42 5.4 Centers of diversity___________________________________________42 5.5 Loss of diversity______________________________________________45

    5.5.1 Loss of species __________________________________________________ 45 5.5.1.1 Anacyclus officinarum – German pellitory ___________________________ 46 5.5.1.2 Bromus mango - "Mango" ________________________________________ 47 5.5.1.3 Silphion of classical times ________________________________________ 49

    5.5.2 Loss of genetic diversity ___________________________________________ 50 5.5.3 Ecosystem loss __________________________________________________ 52

    6 Critical assessment of measures ________________________________ 53 6.1 Comparison of the measures ____________________________________60 6.2 Utilization of plant genetic resources and costs for their conservation __62 6.3 Evaluation of measures to conserve plant genetic resources___________66

    6.3.1 Plant genetic resources ____________________________________________ 67 6.3.2 Biodiversity _____________________________________________________ 71

    6.3.2.1 Ex-situ measures ________________________________________________________ 72 6.3.2.2 In-situ measures _________________________________________________________ 74 6.3.2.3 An inventory of in situ plant genetic resources ____________________________ 75 6.3.2.4 An inventory of plant genetic resources in situ/on-farm _________________ 81 6.3.2.5 An inventory of plant genetic resources ex situ________________________ 88

    6.4 General possibilities of conserving plant genetic resources___________102 6.5 A possibility of combined approaches ____________________________108 6.6 Strategies for maintenance of agro-genetic resources _______________112

    6.6.1 Examples for conservation strategies of certain cultivated plant species _____ 115

  • 6.7 Recording the functions of biodiversity___________________________118 6.8 Recording and characterizing agrobiodiversity ____________________119

    6.8.1 Optimizing conservation strategies __________________________________ 119 6.8.2 Analysis of the social, economical and political framework ______________ 120

    7 Sustainable utilization of agrobiodiversity as a political priority _____ 121 7.1 The conservation of agrobiodiversity ____________________________122

    8 Biotechnology and genetic resources ___________________________ 124 8.1 In-vitro methods _____________________________________________125 8.2 Cryo-conservation____________________________________________125 8.3 Molecular methods ___________________________________________126 8.4 Gene technology _____________________________________________128

    9 International treaties and agreements___________________________ 128 9.1 The Convention on Biological Diversity __________________________130 9.2 International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources of the FAO ___134 9.3 Global Plan of Action _________________________________________136

    9.3.1 Ex situ conservation _____________________________________________ 137 9.3.2 In situ conservation ______________________________________________ 140

    9.4 The utilization of plant genetic resources _________________________141 9.5 Institutions, capacity-building and training _______________________142 9.6 Harmonizing and coordinating international agreements____________144

    10 A concluding word about the need for action and effective beginning steps _____________________________________ 145

    10.1 Future need for plant genetic resources __________________________145 10.2 Necessary strategy to meet demand______________________________146

    11 Synopsis __________________________________________________ 153 12 Abstract___________________________________________________ 159 13 Bibliography _______________________________________________ 160

  • List of Figures

    Fig. 1: Functions of biodiversity in agroecoystems (WBGU 2000, p.169, Altieri und Nicholls 1999, Hammer 2001) 15

    Fig. 2: Infraspecific variability of Coriandrum sativum and historical documentation of the pathways of their distribution (Diederichsen & Hammer 2003) 40

    Fig. 3: Genepool-system according to Halan & De Wet (1971) indicating the possible use of plant genetic resources for plant breeding 41

    Fig. 4: Global biodiversity hotspots according to Wilson (1992), Jeffries (1997) 43

    Fig. 5: Gene centres of crop plants (developed from Vavilov, 1926) 43 Fig. 6: Documentation about the loss of a crop plant

    species (Anacyclus officinarum L.) from Jeffrey in Hanelt and IPK (2001) 47

    Fig. 7: Bromus burkartii, a species missinterpreted as Bromus mango (after Scholz & Mos 1994) 48

    Fig. 8: The mysterious Silphium (after Keith 1965) 50 Fig. 9: Plants under human influence and evolution

    of weeds. K. Hammer et al. (1997). 149

    List of Tables

    TABLE 1: Worldwide extant and endangered domesticated animal breeds (after Hawksworth and Kalin-Arroyo 1995) 22

    TABLE 2: The three levels of biological diversity (after Heywood and Watson 1995, WBGU 2000, Hammer 2001) 33

    TABLE 3: Number of cultivated plant species worldwide (according to Hammer, 1995a) 34

    TABLE 4: Comparison of the number of species of cultivated plants in southern Italy (Hammer et al. 1992) with those of the Mediterranean gene center of diversity (Vavilov 1935) (according to Hammer 1996b) 36

    TABLE 5: Central European wild plants, classed in utilization groups (according to Schlosser et al. 1991, Hammer 1995a) 37

    TABLE 6: The structure of plant genetic resources (PGR) in Germany and the world (according to Hammer 1995a, 1999) 38

  • TABLE 7: Matrix of the signs of infraspecific variability of einkorn, Triticum monococcum convar. monococcum (according to Szabó & Hammer 1996) 41

    TABLE 8: Estimated number of species of extinct or endangered cultivated plants and plant genetic resources in Germany, Europe, and the whole world (according to Hammer 1998a) 46

    TABLE 9: Monographs published to date on neglected and underutilized cultivated plants in the framework of a IPK/IPGRI project (according to Hammer & Heller 1998) 56

    TABLE 10: Advantages and disadvantages of in situ as opposed to ex situ maintenance (from Weber 1996) 61

    TABLE 11: Connection between the first discovery of gene bank material with resistance characteristics and the registration of varieties developed with this material (according to Hammer 1991) 63

    TABLE 12: Varieties registered from 1973 to 1990 proved to have been developed with material from the gene bank Gatersleben (according to Hammer 1991) 63

    TABLE 13: Number of species of wild plants, plant genetic resources (PGR) and cultivated plants in Germany, Europe and the world (according to Hammer & Gladis 1996, estimated, see Hammer 1995, Moore 1982, Hammer 1999) 80

    TABLE 14: Summary of the checklists of cultivated plants database. The years refer to the respective publications for Cuba (Esquivel et al. 1992) and Korea (Hoang et al. 1997). Figures for areas in preparation are still incomplete (after Knüpffer and Hammer 1999, Hammer et al. 2000) 83

    TABLE 15: Number of worldwide ex situ collections and their material (according to FAO 1996a) 89

    TABLE 16: The 30 most important cultivated plants of the world and the pres