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  • TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITT MNCHEN

    Lehrstuhl fr Entrepreneurship

    Psychological Empowerment:

    Quantitative Research on Antecedents and Outcomes

    in Research & Development Projects

    Nick Flohrer

    Vollstndiger Abdruck der von der Fakultt fr Wirtschaftswissenschaften der

    Technischen Universitt Mnchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades ei-

    nes Doktors der Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Dr. rer. pol.) genehmigten Disserta-

    tion.

    Vorsitzende: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Nicola Breugst

    Prfer der Dissertation:

    1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dr. Holger Patzelt

    2. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Isabell M. Welpe

    Die Dissertation wurde am 26.05.2014 bei der Technischen Universitt Mn-

    chen eingereicht und durch die Fakultt fr Wirtschaftswissenschaften am

    15.08.2014 angenommen.

  • Table of contents i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Table of contents i

    Table of figures iv

    Table of tables v

    Abbreviations vi

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Research topic and scientific relevance ................................................... 1

    1.2 Research questions .................................................................................. 3

    1.3 Structure of the thesis .............................................................................. 6

    2 Theoretical foundation of this thesis: Psychological Empowerment 9

    3 Research setting and methodology 18

    3.1 The context of this thesis: The Project Success Panel (PSP) ................ 18

    3.2 Approach of this thesis .......................................................................... 19

    3.3 Data sets acquired for this thesis ........................................................... 21

    3.4 Sample 1: Scientific researchers (Pre-test for scale refinement) ........... 22

    3.4.1 Data collection ........................................................................... 22

    3.4.2 Description of sample ................................................................ 23

    3.5 Sample 2: Industry research & development

    (Scale validation and theory testing) ..................................................... 25

    3.5.1 Data collection ........................................................................... 25

    3.5.2 Description of sample ................................................................ 28

    3.6 Existing variables used in this thesis ..................................................... 31

    3.6.1 Variables for scale development and theory testing .................. 31

    3.6.2 Control variables for theory testing ........................................... 34

    3.6.3 Transformation of scales for hypotheses testing ....................... 37

    3.7 Testing for potential biases .................................................................... 38

    3.7.1 Social desirability analysis of instruments used for testing ....... 38

    3.7.2 Non-response bias ..................................................................... 39

    4 Study 1: Developing scales for affecting psychological empowerment

    at the project start 41

    4.1 Introduction - Empowerment in R&D project teams ............................ 41

    4.2 The foundation of the new constructs ................................................... 43

  • Table of contents ii

    4.2.1 Start of a R&D project ............................................................... 43

    4.2.2 Resources and psychological empowerment ............................. 45

    4.2.3 An intervention in the context of empowerment ....................... 46

    4.2.4 Validation of new constructs with industry experts .................. 47

    4.3 Nomological network of the intervention ............................................. 48

    4.3.1 Psychological resources ............................................................. 49

    4.3.2 Tangible resources ..................................................................... 51

    4.3.3 Briefing ...................................................................................... 53

    4.3.4 Psychological empowerment as a mediator............................... 56

    4.4 Scale development ................................................................................. 58

    4.4.1 Procedure ................................................................................... 58

    4.4.2 Item Generation ......................................................................... 59

    4.5 Samples used for scale refinement and validation ................................ 64

    4.6 Results of scale development ................................................................ 65

    4.6.1 Measurement model and fit of developed scales ....................... 65

    4.6.2 Convergent, criterion-related, and discriminant validity,

    and social desirability ................................................................ 69

    4.6.3 Common method and source error ............................................ 77

    4.7 Revisiting construct definitions ............................................................. 78

    4.7.1 Team relatedness ....................................................................... 79

    4.7.2 Team competence ...................................................................... 80

    4.8 Discussion ............................................................................................. 83

    4.8.1 Summary of results .................................................................... 83

    4.8.2 Discussion of findings and avenues for future research ............ 83

    4.8.3 Limitations of this study ............................................................ 86

    4.8.4 Conclusion ................................................................................. 87

    5 Study 2: Research on antecedents of psychological empowerment 88

    5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 88

    5.2 Theory and hypotheses development .................................................... 91

    5.2.1 Psychological empowerment and access to

    information and resources ......................................................... 91

    5.2.2 Access to organizational information and resources ................. 93

    5.2.3 Excursus: Validation of established relationships ................... 101

    5.3 Method ................................................................................................. 102

  • Table of contents iii

    5.4 Results ................................................................................................. 103

    5.5 Discussion ........................................................................................... 108

    5.5.1 Summary of results .................................................................. 108

    5.5.2 Contributions to the literature on psychological empowerment109

    5.5.3 Contribution to the literature on goal orientations................... 111

    5.5.4 Contribution to the literature on meta-cognitive abilities ........ 112

    5.5.5 Contributions to the literature on teams .................................. 113

    5.5.6 Explanations for non-theorized findings ................................. 113

    5.5.7 Conclusion ............................................................................... 114

    6 Study 3: Research on outcomes of psychological empowerment 116

    6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 116

    6.2 Theory and hypotheses development .................................................. 120

    6.2.1 Affective organizational commitment and

    psychological empowerment ................................................... 120

    6.2.2 Moderators of the empowerment commitment relationship . 122

    6.3 Method ................................................................................................. 128

    6.4 Results ................................................................................................. 128

    6.5 Discussion ........................................................................................... 135

    6.5.1 Summary of results .................................................................. 135

    6.5.2 Contribution to the literature on psychological empowerment136

    6.5.3 Contribution to the literature on supervisor support ................ 137

    6.5.4 Contribution to the literature on teams .................................... 138

    6.5.5 Contribution to the literature on affective commitment .......... 139

    6.5.6 Conclusion ............................................................................... 141

    7 Discussion of this thesis 142

    7.1 Summary of major results and contributions ...................................... 142

    7.2 Managerial implications ...................................................................... 145

    7.3 Limitations ........................................................................................... 148

    7.4 Ideas for future research ...................................................................... 152

    7.5 Conclusion ........................................................................................... 155

    8 References 157

  • Table of figures iv

    TABLE OF FIGURES

    Figure 1: Overview of Project Success Panel 19

    Figure 2: Use of samples from the Project Success Panel for this thesis 21

    Figure 3: Flyer for company acquisition used during the PSP 26

    Figure 4