02 Petroleum System Bw[1]

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    Diese Powerpoint-Folien wurden fr Lehrveranstaltungen am Institut fr GeologischeWissenschaften der FU Berlin erstellt.

    Das Urheberrecht fr Texte und Bildmaterial sowie fr die graphische Gestaltung aller Seitenliegt bei C. Heubeck, soweit nicht anders benannt.

    Der Download sowie der Ausdruck von Texten, Bildern und graphischen Elementen isterwnscht, aber nur zum persnlichen, privaten und nicht-kommerziellen Gebrauch gestattet.

    Vervielfltigung und Verbreitung ist nur fr an der FU Berlin eingeschriebene Studierende zumZweck der Kursvor- und nachbereitung gestattet.

    Trotz meiner sorgfltigen Bemhungen bernehme ich keine Gewhr fr die Richtigkeit,Vollstndigkeit und Aktualitt des dargestellten Materials.

    Prof. Christoph HeubeckInstitut fr Geologische Wissenschaften

    Freie Universitt BerlinMalteserstr. 74-100

    12249 BerlinGERMANY

    ph: ++49-(0)30-83870695 fax: ++49-(0)30-83870734

    cheubeck@zedat.fu-berlin.de http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~cheubeck/

    The Petroleum System

    Todays Lecture

    What is a system ? What are the elements of the petroleum system ?Why is it important ?

    Elements:Source rock

    Reservoir Seal Trap Maturation and Migration Timing Product

    Example: Bolivian Subandean SystemLinks and Literature

    Todays Lecture: The Petroleum System

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    What is a Petroleum System ?

    Product

    Reservoir

    Timing

    TrapMaturation

    and Migration

    Seal

    Source Rock

    What is a Petroleum System ?

    Actually averyinteresting,creativeandstimulating

    task

    In geology,the mostintegrativefields of all

    Own data (observational /deductive), and data from nearlyall other sciences

    Source Rock

    Seal

    Elements of the Petroleum System

    TrapTiming: Source rock -Reservoir Trap/Seal

    - Migration

    Product: Oil, Gas,CO2

    Migration

    Maturation Reservoir

    Source rock

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    Source rocks

    O2

    Source rocks

    Petroleum,Gas

    Organic-richshale

    Diatomite

    Petroleum,Gas

    Phyto- and Zooplankton

    Coal Gas

    Plants

    Properties of source rocks

    Fine-grained (usually shale):Low grade of oxidation, low

    permeability

    Laminated: low oxygen, nobioturbation, no banthos

    Sedimentation in deep water:

    lack of oxygen, no water

    mixing

    Low-oxygen depositionalenvironment: organic material

    (Corg) does not become oxidized

    Sapropel black anoxic shale

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    Fundamental Reservoir Properties

    Porosity (; to store) Permeability (k; to flow)

    high ;high k

    low ;high k

    low ;low k

    high ;low k

    Reservoir

    Engineers

    Reservoir

    Geologists

    Reservoir

    http://www.soton.ac.uk/~imw/coorong.htm

    What kind of reservoirs ? Fractured reservoirs

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    1-100

    0.1-10

    mm

    1-10cm

    0.1-1m

    min

    max

    Kmin ?Kmax ?

    Levels of Reservoir Heterogeneity

    0.1-10

    km

    1- 100

    m

    Trap

    Trap

    Traps form where the ability of migratinghydrocarbons to move is somehow arrested or

    slowed down.

    Stratigraphictraps

    Structuraltraps

    Stuctural Traps

    Normal fault

    Diapir

    Anticline

    above a thrust

    ramp

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    Structural Traps

    Chabot Anticline in SE Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, US. Dag Nummedal

    Structural Traps

    Saudi Aramco Publication

    Structural Traps

    AAPG Explorer ads, 2004, Gulf of Mexico

    Structural Traps

    AAPG Explorer ads, 2004

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    Structural Traps

    Deepwater GOM, Green Canyon; AAPG Explorer ad, 20 03

    Salz

    Structural Traps

    Structural Traps

    Deepwater GOM, Alaminos Canyon; Fulgro Multiclient Services, AAPG Explorer ad, 2003

    Stratigraphic Traps

    Angular unconformity

    Lateralpinchout

    Paleohigh,e.g. reef ormound

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    Stratigraphic Traps

    Jurassic lagoonal washoverfans,Moose Mountain, Front Reage,

    Canada; May 2000

    Stratigraphic Traps

    Saudi Aramcobrochure

    Seal

    low permeability high capillary entry pressure

    Capillary seals

    0.9 g/cm31.1 g/cm3

    0.3 g/cm3

    Reservoir

    Seal

    F

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    Timing

    Source

    Reservoir

    Seal

    Trap Formation

    Maturation /Migration

    Timing: The Petroleum System Chart

    Trap

    Source Rock

    Seal

    Elements of the Petroleum System

    Migration

    Timing: Source rock -Reservoir Trap/Seal

    - Migration

    Product: Oil, Gas,CO2

    Maturation Reservoir

    Source Rock

    Migration

    Maturation

    Migrationbefore TrapFormation

    Reservoir

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    Seal

    TrapDeformation

    after Migration:Seal failure,Trap breaching

    Source Rock

    Migration

    Maturation Reservoir

    Product

    1

    3

    2

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

    80-200C

    Porosity (%)

    Depth(km)

    Water, oil, CH4, CO2

    Oilgeneration

    gasgeneration

    CO2generation

    Example

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    BrazilianShield

    IzozogArch

    Basin

    Suba

    ndea

    n

    Cha

    co

    Belt

    Chaco Basin: Geologic setting

    Pipelineto SaoPaulo

    Pipelineto Arica

    4089 MMBOEUltimate Recovery:

    8% Oil

    77% Gas

    15% Cond

    Hydrocarbon significance

    modified after Linquiat (1998)

    Source rock: Los Monos Fm., Late Devonian Traps: Thrust-related anticlines

    Devonian

    Quaternary

    Tertiary

    Cretaceous

    Triassic

    Carboniferous

    7 600 000

    7 700 000

    400 000

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    00

    1.01.0

    2.02.0

    3.03.0

    4.04.0Two-waytraveltime(TWT)

    W E8km

    Top Guandacay Top Tar iquia Top Yecua

    UnconformityTop CretaceousTop PetacaFault

    Traps: Thrust-related anticlines Reservoir and Seal

    Source: -4 km thickmarine shales

    Iquiri Fm., shelf, Dev.-Carb.

    Reservoir: Fluvial, shoreline, turbiditesandstone

    Source

    Reservoir

    Seal

    Trap Formation

    Maturation /Migration

    C

    Los Monosetc.

    Andean

    Timing: The Chaco System

    K T

    Los Monosetc.

    C

    Anticl/ThRift

    Rifting

    Timing: The Chaco System

    Depth(km)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Los MonosFm.

    110C80C

    140C

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    Timing: The Chaco System

    Depth(km)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Los MonosFm.110C

    Erosion

    170C

    Summary: What is a Petroleum System ?

    Product

    Reservoir

    Timing

    TrapMigration

    Seal

    Source Rock

    Seal

    Elements of the Petroleum System

    Source Rock

    Migration

    Trap

    Reservoir

    Quantity Quality Temperature history

    Maturation

    When ? Where? How fast? T history?

    Where from ? Size of drainage

    area ?

    Efficiency ?

    Lithology, Mineralogy Porosity, permeability Internal heterogeneity Water saturation Hydrocarbon characteristics Thickness, geometry,

    facies, extent Faulting / fracturing

    Geometry Age

    Quality Thickness Composition