02 petroleum system - .2 What is a Petroleum System ? Product Reservoir Timing Trap Maturation and...

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Transcript of 02 petroleum system - .2 What is a Petroleum System ? Product Reservoir Timing Trap Maturation and...

  • 1

    Diese Powerpoint-Folien wurden fr Lehrveranstaltungen am Institut fr GeologischeWissenschaften der FU Berlin erstellt.

    Das Urheberrecht fr Texte und Bildmaterial sowie fr die graphische Gestaltung aller Seitenliegt bei C. Heubeck, soweit nicht anders benannt.

    Der Download sowie der Ausdruck von Texten, Bildern und graphischen Elementen isterwnscht, aber nur zum persnlichen, privaten und nicht-kommerziellen Gebrauch gestattet.

    Vervielfltigung und Verbreitung ist nur fr an der FU Berlin eingeschriebene Studierende zumZweck der Kursvor- und nachbereitung gestattet.

    Trotz meiner sorgfltigen Bemhungen bernehme ich keine Gewhr fr die Richtigkeit, Vollstndigkeit und Aktualitt des dargestellten Materials.

    Prof. Christoph HeubeckInstitut fr Geologische WissenschaftenFreie Universitt BerlinMalteserstr. 74-10012249 BerlinGERMANY

    ph: ++49-(0)30-83870695 fax: ++49-(0)30-83870734cheubeck@zedat.fu-berlin.de http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~cheubeck/

    The Petroleum System

    Todays Lecture

    What is a system ? What are the elements of the petroleum system ?Why is it important ?

    Elements:Source rock Reservoir Seal Trap Maturation and Migration Timing Product

    Example: Bolivian Subandean SystemLinks and Literature

    Todays Lecture: The Petroleum System

  • 2

    What is a Petroleum System ?

    Product

    Reservoir

    Timing

    TrapMaturationand Migration

    Seal

    Source Rock

    What is a Petroleum System ?

    Actually a very interesting, creative and stimulating task

    In geology, the most integrative fields of all

    Own data (observational / deductive), and data from nearly all other sciences

    Source Rock

    Seal

    Elements of the Petroleum System

    TrapTiming: Source rock -Reservoir Trap/Seal

    - Migration

    Product: Oil, Gas, CO2

    Migration

    Maturation Reservoir

    Source rock

  • 3

    Source rocks

    O2

    Source rocks

    Petroleum,Gas

    Organic-richshale

    Diatomite

    Petroleum,Gas

    Phyto- and Zooplankton

    Coal Gas

    Plants

    Properties of source rocks

    Fine-grained (usually shale): Low grade of oxidation, low

    permeability

    Laminated: low oxygen, no bioturbation, no banthos

    Sedimentation in deep water: lack of oxygen, no water

    mixing

    Low-oxygen depositionalenvironment: organic material

    (Corg) does not become oxidized

    Sapropel black anoxic shale

  • 4

    Low in protein; low in H

    TerrestrialMaterial (Cellulose)

    Yields gases and solids upon heating no liquids

    Associated with terrestrial depositional environments

    http://www.laubag.de/Presse_Dienst/presse.htm

    Coal The Late Devonian

    ExshawShale

    WoodfordShale

    DomanikFm.

    Los MonosFm.

    Los Monos Formation, Subandean Belt, BoliviaLate Devonian

    Late Jurassic shale: The Posidonia shale

    http://www.naturkunde-bw.de/cgi-bin/stuttgart

    Thaumatosaurus, Holzmaden

    Steinbruch Dotternhausen

  • 5

    Maturation and Migration

    Migration

    Primary migration: the process of leaving the source rock, mostly across stratification, largely due to compaction.

    1

    3

    2

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

    80-200C

    Porosity (%)

    Dep

    th (k

    m)

    Water, oil, CH4, CO2

    Water, oil, CH4, CO2

    Migration

    Secondary migration: collecting oil and gas in reservoir rocks, largely along stratification, caused by buoyancy differences and

    rock properties

    SealSandstone reservoirSeal

    0.9 g/cm3 1.1 g/cm30.3 g/cm3

    petroleum brinegas

    Reservoir

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    Fundamental Reservoir Properties

    Porosity (; to store) Permeability (k; to flow)

    high ; high k

    low ; high k

    low ; low k

    high ; low k

    Reservoir

    Engineers Reservoir

    Geologists Reservoir

    http://www.soton.ac.uk/~imw/coorong.htm

    What kind of reservoirs ? Fractured reservoirs

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    1-100

    0.1-10 mm

    1-10 cm

    0.1-1m

    min

    max

    Kmin ?Kmax ?

    Levels of Reservoir Heterogeneity

    0.1-10 km

    1- 100 m

    Trap

    Trap

    Traps form where the ability of migrating hydrocarbons to move is somehow arrested or

    slowed down.

    Stratigraphictraps

    Structural traps

    Stuctural Traps

    Normal fault

    Diapir

    Anticline

    above a thrust ramp

  • 8

    Structural Traps

    Chabot Anticline in SE Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, US. Dag Nummedal

    Structural Traps

    Saudi Aramco Publication

    Structural Traps

    AAPG Explorer ads, 2004, Gulf of Mexico

    Structural Traps

    AAPG Explorer ads, 2004

  • 9

    Structural Traps

    Deepwater GOM, Green Canyon; AAPG Explorer ad, 2003

    Salz

    Structural Traps

    Structural Traps

    Deepwater GOM, Alaminos Canyon; Fulgro Multiclient Services, AAPG Explorer ad, 2003

    Stratigraphic Traps

    Angular unconformity

    Lateral pinchout

    Paleohigh, e.g. reef ormound

  • 10

    Stratigraphic Traps

    Jurassic lagoonal washover fans, Moose Mountain, Front Reage,

    Canada; May 2000

    Stratigraphic Traps

    Saudi Aramco brochure

    Seal

    low permeability high capillary entry pressure

    Capillary seals

    0.9 g/cm31.1 g/cm3

    0.3 g/cm3

    Reservoir

    Seal

    F

  • 11

    Timing

    Source

    Reservoir

    Seal

    Trap Formation

    Maturation / Migration

    Timing: The Petroleum System Chart

    Trap

    Source Rock

    Seal

    Elements of the Petroleum System

    Migration

    Timing: Source rock -Reservoir Trap/Seal

    - Migration

    Product: Oil, Gas, CO2

    Maturation Reservoir

    Source Rock

    Migration

    Maturation

    Migration before TrapFormation

    Reservoir

  • 12

    Seal

    TrapDeformation after Migration:Seal failure, Trap breaching

    Source Rock

    Migration

    Maturation Reservoir

    Product

    1

    3

    2

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

    80-200C

    Porosity (%)

    Dep

    th (k

    m)

    Water, oil, CH4, CO2

    Oil generation

    gas generation

    CO2generation

    Example

  • 13

    Brazilian Shield

    IzozogArchBasin

    Subandean

    Chaco

    Belt

    Chaco Basin: Geologic setting

    Pipeline to Sao Paulo

    Pipeline to Arica

    4089 MMBOE Ultimate Recovery:

    8% Oil 77% Gas 15% Cond

    Hydrocarbon significance

    modified after Linquiat (1998)

    Source rock: Los Monos Fm., Late Devonian Traps: Thrust-related anticlines

    Devonian

    Quaternary

    TertiaryCretaceous

    Triassic

    Carboniferous

    7 600 000

    7 700 000

    400 000

  • 14

    00

    1.01.0

    2.02.0

    3.03.0

    4.04.0Tw

    o-w

    ay tr

    avel

    tim

    e (T

    WT)

    W E8kmTop Guandacay Top Tariquia Top Yecua

    UnconformityTop CretaceousTop PetacaFault

    Traps: Thrust-related anticlines Reservoir and Seal

    Source: -4 km thickmarine shales

    Iquiri Fm., shelf, Dev.-Carb.

    Reservoir: Fluvial, shoreline, turbiditesandstone

    Source

    Reservoir

    Seal

    Trap Formation

    Maturation / Migration

    C

    Los Monosetc.

    Andean

    Timing: The Chaco System

    K T

    Los Monosetc.

    C

    Anticl/ThRift

    Rifting

    Timing: The Chaco System

    Depth(km)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Los MonosFm.

    110C80C

    140C

  • 15

    Timing: The Chaco System

    Depth(km)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    Los MonosFm.110C

    Erosion

    170C

    Summary: What is a Petroleum System ?

    Product

    Reservoir

    Timing

    TrapMigration

    Seal

    Source Rock

    Seal

    Elements of the Petroleum System

    Source Rock

    Migration

    Trap

    Reservoir

    Quantity Quality Temperature history

    Maturation

    When ? Where? How fast? T history?

    Where from ? Size of drainage

    area ? Efficiency ?

    Lithology, Mineralogy Porosity, permeability Internal heterogeneity Water saturation Hydrocarbon characteristics Thickness, geometry,

    facies, extent Faulting / fracturing

    Geometry Age

    Quality Thickness Composition