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  • Limitierte kobilanz fr Flssiggas und Petroleum alsKochbrennstoffe in Indien

    Restricted Life Cycle Assessment for the Use of LiquefiedPetroleum Gas and Kerosene as Cooking Fuels in India

    Diplomarbeitim Studiengang Technischer Umweltschutz

    angefertigt von

    Cand.-Ing. Niels JungbluthMatrikel Nr. 112127

    durchgefhrt bei:

    Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Volker Kound

    Dipl.-Ing. Markus Kollar

    Institut fr Technischen Umweltschutz

    Fachgebiet Umweltchemie

    Fachbereich 6

    Technischen Universitt Berlin

    Berlin, Dezember 95

  • i

    Abstract

    Die Nutzung von Energie zum Kochen stellt in Indien eine der wichtigsten Energieverbruche

    berhaupt dar. In der vorliegenden Studie wird fr die Verwendung der Brennstoffe Petroleum

    und Flssiggas eine kobilanz erarbeitet. Die Situation in Indien wird mit Sachbilanzen fr fol-

    gende Bereiche untersucht: Erdl- und Erdgasfrderung, Weiterverarbeitung in Raffinerien und

    Erdgasverarbeitung, Distribution, Transportprozesse und der Kochvorgang. Umweltfolgen, die

    durch notwendige Importe bedingt sind, werden durch Bercksichtigung von Literaturdaten in

    die Betrachtung einbezogen. Ergnzt werden diese Sachbilanzen durch eine Untersuchung zu

    den wirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen und den mit dem Lebensweg im Zusammenhang ste-

    henden sozialen Folgen. In abschlieend berechneten koprofilen werden die Umweltfolgen der

    Verwendung von fossilen Brennstoffen zusammenfassend dargestellt. Im direkten Vergleich der

    beiden Brennstoffe stellt sich das Kochen mit Flssiggas als die umweltfreundlichere Alternative

    fr die meisten der untersuchten Indikatoren dar. Die Studie zeigt ferner, da fr einen kologi-

    schen Vergleich eine Betrachtung des gesamten Lebensweges der untersuchten Kochmglich-

    keiten relevant ist. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie knnen mit einer kobilanz fr Brennstoffe aus

    Biomasse verglichen werden, die mit derselben Zieldefinition erstellt wird.

    The use of energy for cooking is one of the most important sectors for the energy consumption

    in India. The study in hand presents a life cycle assessment for the use of kerosene and liquefied

    petroleum gas as cooking fuels. The situation in India is investigated through life cycle in-

    ventories for the following stages: Extraction of crude oil and natural gas, processing in refiner-

    ies and fractionating plants, distribution, product transports and cooking. Environmental impacts

    as a result of energy imports are also considered. The study makes also a reflection on the eco-

    nomic conditions and the social consequences of both life cycles. The environmental impacts are

    summarised with final calculated ecological profiles for the two fuels. A direct comparison of

    cooking with the two fuels shows in the majority of the investigated indicators an ecological

    advantage in the use of LPG over kerosene. The study shows also the necessity to consider the

    whole life cycle for a proper comparison of the investigated cooking possibilities. The results

    can be compared with a life cycle assessment of biomass fuels being undertaken with the same

    goal definition.

    Adresse des Autors:Niels Jungbluth

    Breitigasse-9 Tel.0041 43 3059406CH-8610 Uster jungbluth@gmx.net

  • I

    Contents

    ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................ i

    CONTENTS................................................................................................................................ I

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...........................................................................................................V

    ABBREVIATIONS.................................................................................................................... VI

    TABLES.................................................................................................................................. IX

    FIGURES ...............................................................................................................................XII

    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG .......................................................................................................... XIII

    SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................XV

    1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1

    1.1 Indias Society and Economy.....................................................................................11.2 Energy Scene in India ................................................................................................21.3 Life Cycle Assessment as an Analytical Instrument for Environmental Policy .............41.4 Use of the Computer Program TEMIS as a Tool for the Assessment .........................61.5 Collecting of Data and Participating Organisations.....................................................7

    2 GOAL DEFINITION FOR THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT...........................................8

    2.1 Target Group and Objectives of the Study .................................................................82.2 Description of the Underlying Necessity ...................................................................82.3 Selection of Product Variants for the Investigation ....................................................92.4 Definition of the Functional Unit................................................................................92.5 Life Cycle of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Kerosene....................................102.6 Investigated Indicators and their Meaning................................................................102.7 Matrix for the Life Cycle Assessment ......................................................................132.8 Definition of the Balance Room...............................................................................152.9 Depth of the Balance ...............................................................................................162.10 Balance Time for the Investigation...........................................................................16

    3 PRODUCT DATA FOR THE LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ..............................................17

    3.1 Resources................................................................................................................173.2 Investigation of Energy Carriers Used in India .........................................................17

    4 LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY FOR THE UPSTREAM SECTOR ........................................23

    4.1 Economical Background and Statistics for the Supply of Natural Gas and CrudeOil in India ..............................................................................................................23

    4.2 Exploration and Exploitation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in India.........................254.2.1 Exploration of Petroleum Resources........................................................................264.2.1.1 Pre-surveys for the Exploration ...............................................................................264.2.1.2 Exploratory and Developmental Drilling and Well Testing .......................................26

  • II

    Contents

    4.2.1.3 Use of Materials and Chemicals ...............................................................................274.2.1.4 Energy Use and Emissions of Air Pollutants ............................................................304.2.1.5 Use of Water and Discharge of Effluents .................................................................304.2.1.6 Cuttings and Waste .................................................................................................314.2.1.7 Other Environmental Impacts ..................................................................................334.2.2 Exploitation of Petroleum Resources in India...........................................................334.2.2.1 Exploitation from Onshore Areas.............................................................................334.2.2.2 Exploitation from Offshore Areas ............................................................................354.2.2.3 Materials and Land Use of the Onshore Production Facilities...................................354.2.2.4 Materials and Land Use of the Offshore Production Facilities ..................................354.2.2.5 Onshore Energy Use and Flaring .............................................................................364.2.2.6 Offshore Energy Use and Flaring .............................................................................374.2.2.7 Emissions of Air Pollutants during Exploration and Exploitation..............................374.2.2.8 Onshore Use of Water and Discharge of Effluents ...................................................394.2.2.9 Offshore Use of Water and Discharge of Effluents ...................................................404.2.2.10 Emission of Water Pollutants with the Effluents.......................................................404.2.2.11 On- and Offshore Wastes.........................................................................................414.2.2.12 Dismantling and Reclaiming of the Production Facilities ..........................................424.2.2.13 Other Environmental and Social Impacts .................................................................424.2.3 Quantitative Aspects of Oil and Natural Gas Extraction.