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    A PROJECT REPORT ON

    TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

    Submitted to Submitted by

    Dr. Taranjeet Duggal Group No. 4

    HOD MBA-HR

    Amity Business School Akanksha Bhargawa

    Shringarika Agarwal

    Chandani Sethi

    Tarang Kochar

    Shivangi Sripat

    Anil Barolia

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Amity Business School, Amity University,

    Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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    We would like to take this opportunity to extend our gratitude to our esteemed faculty Ms.

    Taranjeet Duggal (Faculty & H.O.D at Amity Business School) for extending her full support

    to us throughout this project. Our heartiest thanks to her for giving us the guidance and support

    to make this project possible.

    We feel privileged to offer sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to our respected A.D.G

    Sir - Dr. Sanjay Srivastava, for providing us an environment that helped us in the completion

    of this project.

    We are grateful for the co-operation, valuable suggestions and hard work rendered by our fellow

    classmates and the group members.

    This has been a tremendous learning experience for us.

    We regret any inadvertent omissions.

    ABS 2

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    Contents

    1.Abstract - - - -4

    2.Introduction - - - -5

    3.Characteristics of Transactional Analysis - - - -6

    4.View of Human Nature - - - -7

    5.Modes of Behavior / Ego States - - - -8

    i. Parent - - - -8

    ii. Adult - - - -9

    iii. Child - - - -9

    6.Need for Stroke - - - -10

    I.Conditional - - - -10

    II.Un-Conditional - - - -11

    III. Positive - - - -11

    IV. Negative

    7.Types Of communication or Interaction - - - -12

    I.Complementary - - - -12

    II. Crossed - - - -13

    III.Duplex or Covert - - - -14

    8.Applications of Transactional analysis - - - -15

    9.Analysis and interpretation - - - -18

    10.Research papers and journals - - - -21

    11.Conclusion - - - -29

    12.Bibliography - - - -30

    ABS 3

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    Abstract

    Transactional analysis (TA) presents a model of man which has found applications far removed

    from the psychiatric practice of Dr Eric Berne, its originator. TA theory posits man as a beinghaving three separate, identifiable ego states, namely child, adult and parent. There are two

    senses in which the term transactional analysis is used: as a generic term covering several

    analytic elements, and as a specific term relating to the analysis of transactions between people.The main analytic elements falling under the generic heading are known as games analysis,

    transactional analysis in the specific sense, structural analysis and script analysis

    ABS 4

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    Introduction:

    Transactional analysis was originally developed by the late Eric Berne (1961), who was

    trained as a Freudian psychoanalyst and psychiatrist. TA evolved out of Bernesdissatisfaction with the slowness of psychoanalysis in curing people of their problems.

    Bernes major objections to psychoanalysis were that it was time consuming, complex, and

    poorly communicated to clients. Historically, TA developed as an extension of

    psychoanalysis with concepts and techniques especially designed for group treatment. Bernediscovered that by using TA his clients were making significant changes in their lives.

    Transactional analysis (TA) is both a theory of personality and an organized system of

    interactional therapy. It is grounded on the assumption that we make current decisions based

    on past premisespremises that were at one time appropriate to our survival needs but thatmay no longer are valid. TA emphasizes the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the

    therapeutic process. Within TA there are three recognized schools classical, Schiffian (or

    reparenting), and redecisional and two unofficial schools identified as self-reparenting andcorrective parenting.

    The goal of transactional analysis is autonomy, which is defined as awareness, spontaneity,

    and the capacity for intimacy. In achieving autonomy people have the capacity to make newdecisions (redecide), thereby empowering themselves and altering the course of their lives.

    As a part of the process of TA, peoples learn how to recognize the three ego states i.e.

    Parent, Adult, and Child, in which they function. Peoples also learn how their currentbehavior is being affected by the rules they received and incorporated as children and how

    they can identify the life script that is determining their actions. This approach focuses on

    early decisions that each person has made, and it stresses the capacity of peoples to makenew decisions to change aspects of their lives that are no longer working.

    ABS 5

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    CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

    The self state is defined by a system of thoughts, behavior and emotions which put each

    individual in relationship with the environment (the environment can be another individual, afamily, a group or a company). The transactional analysis postulates that each person has

    three states of his own ego, which in their totality define the personality. These states are: the

    Parent Ego (P), the Adult Ego (A) and the Child Ego (C). in each of us there are three states

    of Ego. They produce the dialogue with ourselves and with others.The three ego states have no connection with the effective age or with the family

    relationship, but they refer to the behavior models; we pass from one state to another

    depending on the situation. The individual starts the effort of understanding the world,making order in himself by registering the inner events, with other words the individual

    reaction towards the outside stimuli. The Child (C) is the sum of these inner events. In C the

    experiences and reactions are stocked, registered from the first day of our existence, bothpositive and negative. In general, the child ego state appears when we have to deal with the

    expressing of spontaneity, of feelings, desires, intentions and hopes, emotions. Due to C we

    can savor life, feel spontaneous, imaginative, creative, longing for friends, we can actspontaneously, timorously and revolted, but we adapt to the requirements of the environment.

    There are situations when the C state troubles us: if, for example, it make us to give up atsolving some problems, when we are stubborn, depressed and desperate, when we search

    guilt only at others, when we refuse to accept responsibilities, when we are scared about thefuture, when we are timorous.

    ABS 6

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    View Of Human Nature

    Transactional analysis is rooted in an anti deterministic philosophy. It places faith in our

    capacity to rise above habit patterns and to select new goals and behavior. However, thisdoes not mean that we are free from the influences of social forces.

    It acknowledges that we were influenced by the expectations and demands of significant

    others, especially because our early decisions were made at a time in life when we werehighly dependent on others. We made certain decisions in order to survive, both physically

    and psychologically, at some point in life. But these early decisions can be reviewed and

    challenged, and if they are no longer serving us, then new decisions can be made.

    Modes Of Behavior Or Ego States

    An ego state is a set of related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in which part of anindividuals personality is manifested at a given time. All transactional analysts work with

    ego states, which encompass important facets of the personality and are considered to be

    essential and distinguishing characteristics of TA therapy. Each person has a basic trio ofParent, Adult, and Child (P-A-C), and individuals constantly shift from one of these states to

    another, manifesting behavior congruent with the ego state of the moment. One definition of

    autonomy is the capacity to move with agility and intention through ego states and to operate

    in the one most appropriate to the reality of the given situation.

    Ego states are of three types:

    I. Parent

    II. Adult

    III. Child

    ABS 7

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    Parent Ego state

    The Parent ego state contains the values, morals, core beliefs, and behaviors incorporatedfrom significant authority figures, primarily ones parents. Outwardly, this ego state is

    expressed toward others in critical or nurturing behavior. We each have a Nurturing Parent

    and a Critical Parent. Inwardly, it is experienced as old parental messages that continue to

    influence the inner Child. When we are in the Parent ego state, we react to situations as weimagine our parents might have reacted, or we may act toward others the way our parents

    acted toward us. The Parent contains all the shoulds and oughts and other rules for

    living. When we are in that ego state, we may act in ways that are strikingly similar to thoseof our parents or other significant people in our early life. We may use some of their very

    phrases, and our posture, gestures, voice, and mannerisms may replicate those that we

    experienced in our parents.

    a) Critical Parent:

    In critical parent people manifest themselves as disappointed, aggrieved, feeling alwaysright patronizing, controlling judgmental, authoritarian, putting down others. Critical

    parent behavior attacks people's personalities as well as their behavior.

    Critical parent makes people feel that they are not OK. When people are in their critical parent ego state they are very evaluative and judgmental. They are always ready to

    respond with a 'should' or 'ought' to almost anything people tell them.

    b)Nurturing Parent:

    In nurturing parent people act loving, caring, concerned, understanding, supportiveencouraging, and reassuring. The nurturing parent is that part of a person which is

    understanding and caring about other people. Behavior coming from the nurturing parent

    may set limits on and provide direction for people behavior. It will not put the peopledown and make then feel not OK as individual.

    I. Adult Ego State

    The Adult ego state is the processor of data. It is the objective part of the person, which

    gathers information about what is going on. It is not emotional or judgmental but works with

    the facts and with external reality. The Adult is without passionate convictions, but many

    problems also require empathy and intuition to be resolved.

    The Adult ego state evokes behavior that could be described simply as logical, reasonable,

    rationale and unemotional. Behavior from the adult ego state is characterized by problemsolving analysis and rationale decision-making. People operating from the adult ego state are

    taking emotional content of their child ego state, the value-laden content of their

    ABS 8

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    parent ego state and checking them out in the reality of the external world. These people are

    examining alternatives, probabilities and values prior to engaging in behavior.

    II. Child Ego States

    The Child ego state is the original part of us and is most naturally who we are. It consists of

    feelings, impulses, and spontaneous actions and includes recordings of early experiences.The Child ego state is divided into Natural Child (NC) and Adapted Child (AC), both of

    which have positive and negative aspects. The positive aspects of the Natural Child are the

    spontaneous, ever so lovable, loving and charming parts of all of us. The negative aspect of

    the Natural Child is to be impulsive to the degree our safety is compromised. The positiveaspect of the Adapted Child is that we respond appropriately in social situations. The

    negative aspect of the Adapted Child involves over adapting wherein we give up our power

    and discount our value, worth, and dignity.

    The child ego state is associated with behaviors that appear when a person is respondingemotionally. A person's child contains the 'natural' impulses and attitudes learned from child

    experiences. There are several forms of the child ego state. However, two kinds of ego states

    viz. happy child and destructive child are commonly relevant in their behavior. Peoplebehaving from their happy child are doing things they want to do it but it is not destructive to

    others. However, people in their destructive child are also doing things but their behavior

    is either destructive to others or to themselves, or to their environment. In understanding thedifference between these two types of child ego state, it helps to remember that

    behavior by itself is not happy or destructive. Whether a person's behavior is coming from a

    happy child or destructive child depends on the transaction feedback from others.For example, if Bharat is a draftsman and is singing while be works, he may be a happy

    child but if one of his coworkers tells him that he is having trouble because of his singing and

    still he keeps on singing, he has moved from happy child to destructive child. It is healthy for

    people to have a functioning child ego state i.e. spontaneous, emotional and sometimesdependent.

    ABS 9

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    Need OF Strokes

    Humans need to be stimulated physically, socially, and intellectually. As we grow and

    develop, we need to be recognized for who we are and what we do. This need for stimulation

    and recognition is referred to as strokes. A stroke is any act of recognition or source ofstimulation.

    A basic premise of the TA approach is that humans need to receive both physical andpsychological strokes to develop a sense of trust in the world and a basis for loving

    themselves. There is ample evidence that lack of physical contact can impair infant growth

    and development and, in extreme cases, can lead to death. Psychological strokesverbal and

    nonverbal signs of acceptance and recognitionare also necessary to people asconfirmations of their worth.

    Types of Strokes

    I. Conditional

    II. Un- Conditional

    III. Positive

    IV. Negative

    I. Conditional Strokes

    Conditional strokes are given for what we do, for what we accomplish, or for a particular traitthat we happen to possess. Thus, they are based on some condition. Conditional strokes can

    fill important needs. If I sing well, or get a good grade, or do a good deed, and someonerecognizes me for that, they are giving me a positive conditional stroke. If people tell me that

    I am pretty or that they like my dress, they are giving me a positive conditional stroke.

    These strokes can feel very good and they fill us up in different ways than do positive

    unconditional strokes. But there are ways that conditional strokes can be limiting, too. If we

    relate to others or they relate to us in ways that show us that we are only OK in their eyeswhen we behave in certain ways, this cuts down on the spontaneity in the relationship. In the

    long run, this can limit pleasure, intimacy, and creativity.

    For eg: "I like you when you smile"

    ABS 10

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    II. Un-Conditional Strokes

    The distinction between conditional and unconditional strokes is a bit more interesting.Unconditional strokes are those that are given without reference to what the receiver is doing.This means that unconditional strokes can't be earned and are given for "being". An

    unconditional stroke could be "I like your eyes" or "I love you", or in the case of a negative

    one "I don't like you".

    III. Positive Strokes

    Positive strokes (a.k.a. "warm fuzzies" -- I'm serious) say "I like you." They can be non-

    verbal physical touches, smiles, waves. They can be verbal words of appreciation, love,

    friendliness. These strokes are necessarily for a person to be psychologically healthy andwhole.

    IV. Negative

    Negative strokes (a.k.a. "cold pricklies") say "I don't like you." This could be a cold shoulder,

    walking the other direction when they see you, setting a person up to be made fun of, etc.

    People want to be recognized and accepted. As children, we test various ways of garneringstrokes to see what behaviors or tactics will get us what kind of stroke. We will carry these

    methods into adulthood. If positive strokes are lacking, people will seek negative strokes, as

    research has proven that negative strokes are better than no strokes at all. If a person receivesno strokes, they can become depressed and will resort to self-damaging and harmful methods

    to receive recognition.

    ABS 11

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    Types of Communication / Interaction Transaction

    Another important transactional analysis concept is that of transactions. Transactions are about

    how people interact with each other, specifically, which ego state in me is talking to which egostate in you. You may have noticed that sometimes communication continues in a

    straightforward, easy way that seems to go smoothly. But at other times, things seem to get all

    jumbled up, confusing, unclear, and unsatisfying. An understanding of transactions can help youkeep your communication with others as clear as you would like it to be.

    Types of Transaction

    I. Complementary

    II. Crossed

    III. Duplex or Covert

    I. Complementary or Reciprocal

    A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state theother is in. These are also called complementary transactions.

    Example 1

    A: "Have you been able to write the report?" (Adult to Adult)

    B: "Yes - I'm about to email it to you." (Adult to Adult)

    Example 2

    A: "Would you like to come and watch a film with me?" (Child to

    Child)

    B: "I'd love to - what shall we go and see?" (Child to Child)

    ABS 12

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    Example 3

    A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child)

    B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent)

    Communication like this can continue indefinitely. (Clearly it will stop at some stage - but

    this psychologically balanced exchanged of strokes can continue for some time).

    II. Crossed

    Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners addressego states other than that their partner is in. Consider the above examples jumbled up a bit.

    Example 1:

    A: "Have you been able to write that report?" (Adult to Adult)

    B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent)

    It is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace."A" may respond with a Parent to Child transaction. For instance:

    A: "If you don't change your attitude you'll get fired"

    Example 2:

    A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child)

    B: "I'm just going to do it, actually." (Adult to Adult)

    It is a more positive crossed transaction. However there is the risk that "A" will feelaggrieved that "B" is acting responsibly and not playing his role, and the conversation will

    develop into:

    A: "I can never trust you to do things!" (Parent to Child)

    B: "Why don't you believe anything I say?" (Child to Parent) which can continue indefinitely

    ABS 13

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    III. Duplex or Covert transactions

    Another class of transaction is the 'duplex' or 'covert' transactions, where the explicit social

    conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction. For instance,

    A: "Would you like to come and see the barn?"

    B: "I've loved barns ever since I was a little girl."

    Social level adult-to-adult, psychological level child-to-child flirtation.

    ABS 14

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    Applications of Transactional Analysis

    Stroking

    Stroking is defined as any act of recognition for another. People seek stoking in their

    interaction with others. It applies to all type of recognition, such as physical, verbal and eye

    contact between people. Strokes may be either positive, negative, or mixed. Positive strokes,

    when they are received contribute to a person's sense being OK. Negative stokes hurtphysically or emotionally and make us feel OK about ourselves. There also is a difference

    between conditional and unconditional strokes. Conditional strokes are offered to employees

    if they perform correctly or avoid problems. A Regional manager may promise" I will giveyou a choice posting if you achieve the targets of advances, deposits and recovery and turn

    around the branch". Unconditional strokes are presented without any connection to behavior,

    although they may make a person feel good (for example, "you're a good officer").

    TA and Leadership

    When managers transact primarily from a single ego state, they limit their choice ofleadership styles. For example, the person with a dominant Parent ego state will tend towards

    a more autocratic style. If the Child state is dominant, the free-rein style may be used

    extensively. However, a supervisor who feels "I am OK-You're OK" and who has a welldeveloped Adult state, is more likely to collect data prior to making a choice of style. The

    style chosen by the adult state generally will allow ample freedom for employees to

    participate in the decision process.

    TA and conflict resolution

    There are several natural connections between TA and the approaches to resolving conflict.The Parent ego state may lead to the use of a forcing strategy, while the child state may

    smooth over conflicts or try to avoid them. The "I am OK You're OK" person is more

    likely to seek a win-win outcome, applying the Adult ego state.

    ABS 15

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    Benefits of TA

    Organizations that have used TA approach were found moderately successful training in TA

    can give employees fresh insights into their own personalities, and it also can help them to

    understand why others sometimes respond as they do. A major benefit is improved

    interpersonal communication. Employees in organization can sense when crossedcommunication occurs and then take steps to restore complementary communication,

    preferably in the Adult-to-Adult pattern. The result is a general improvement in interpersonaltransactions.

    ABS 16

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    Analysis of Data

    Dr. Eric Berne, Founder of TA

    Tool Used:

    We used the questionnaire designed by DR. ERIC BERNE, founder of T.A. The questionnaireconsisted of 61 questions

    The dimensions are: Nurturing and Critical Parent, Adult and Child ego states.

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    TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:

    The following table shows the scores of 30 students aged between 20-24 subjected for the

    research work of transactional analysis-

    FEEDBACK-

    Name of

    Candidates

    Nurturing

    Parent

    Critical

    Parent

    Adult Child

    Bhavna 10 6 10 6

    Shobhna 6 5 12 8

    Neha 10 8 17 8

    Priyanka 8 6 15 6

    Nipun 7 6 10 7

    Bhoomika 9 5 14 9

    Sara 10 5 10 9

    Niteen 10 9 11 9

    Sakshi 11 4 17 10

    Ayushi 9 8 15 10

    Shagun 11 8 13 11

    Shefali 7 9 16 8

    Anil 8 9 14 13

    Nitika 11 7 16

    Mona 9 10 13 11

    Nitika 11 9 11 11

    Ankit 10 8 15 10

    Shivangi 10 6 8 10

    Ruchi 8 5 13 13

    Ishween 6 5 10 6

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    Fatima 10 5 10 7

    Megha 9 6 16 14

    Swati 9 8 17 7

    Stuti 6 7 11 9

    Kajal 8 6 15 8

    Chandani 9 8 8 11

    Shringarika 9 7 10 14

    Akansha 10 9 15 10

    Tarang 7 5 12 8

    Harmeet 11 9 10 6

    Scoring-Parent

    If the score is about 16 then he lies in 90%-100% category.

    If the score is about 14 then he lies in 80%-90% category.

    If the score is about 12 then he lies in 60%-70% category.

    If the score is about 10 then he lies in 40%-50% category.

    If the score is about 8 then he lies in 20%-30% category.

    If the score is about 6 then he lies in 10%-20% category.

    If the score is about 4 then he lies in 0%-10% category.

    Adult

    If the score is about 16 then he lies in 90%-100% category.

    If the score is about 14 then he lies in 70%-80% category.

    If the score is about 12 then he lies in 50%-60% category.

    If the score is about 10 then he lies in 20%-30% category.

    If the score is about 8 then he lies in 10%-20% category.

    If the score is about 6 then he lies in 0%-10% category.

    Child

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    If the score is about 12 then he lies in 90%-100% category.

    If the score is about 10 then he lies in 70%-80% category.

    If the score is about 8 then he lies in 50%-60% category.

    If the score is about 6 then he lies in 20%-30% category.

    If the score is about 5 then he lies in 10%-20% category.

    If the score is about 3 then he lies in 0%-10% category.

    Interpretation of your P.A.C. Profiles

    The highest percentage score of the three scores indicates the particular Ego State mostly used by

    you. If there is a difference of twenty or more percentage points between the highest and the

    second highest score, this means that the highest scoring Ego State is your dominant ego state.

    If there is less than twenty percentage points difference, there is a likelihood that you switch

    back and forth between Ego States without being consciously aware of this switch.

    ANALYSIS-

    ABS 20

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    The test revealed that among the 30 students

    34% fall in the category of people with adult ego state. They are rational, logical, sensible,

    mature, independent, experienced, decision makers.

    While those who highly misunderstood people that is those with high critical parent ego

    state are 18%.

    24% students fall in the category of people with child ego state. They are also called aspower house of True Emotions.

    And 24% students fall in the category of high nurturing parent ego state . They are called astop class perfectionist

    INTERPRETATION-

    Nurturing Parent

    They might be future CEOs, natural leaders, choice of every company.

    They are gifted as how to get best out of the people.

    Good team members

    Concentrate on employees strength and try to overcome their weakness

    They are called as top class perfectionist

    Critical ParentThey are or would be highly suffocated and asked many questions

    They are high end professionals at their work place and try to manipulate their thoughts withour work is a hard job

    They are highly misunderstood peoples

    They are called as Top class masters

    Child

    They are the first choice of corporate world

    ABS 21

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    Genuine people and good care takers

    They are considers as natural gifts to gives inferiority to others

    They are also called as power house ofTrue Emotions

    Adult

    They are rational, logical, sensible, mature, independent, experienced

    Decision makers but are devoid of feelings and emotions in us, it is like CPU in us.

    RESEARCH PAPERS AND JOURNALS

    ABS 22

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    TWO RESEARCH PAPERS WERE TAKEN INTO

    CONSIDERATION-

    I-

    II-THIS RESEARCH PAPER WAS STUDIED IN DETAIL AND

    WAS COMPARED WITH OUR RESEARCH

    ABS 23

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    ABS 24

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    ABS 25

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    ABS 26

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    After the survey was conducted with the help of a questionnaire, it was found that out of 25

    normal adults 38% adults had the parent ego state, 47% had the adult ego state and the

    remaining 15% had the child ego state.

    ABS 27

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    Comparison

    According to the research done on the sample of 30 students of MBA-HR, we can compare the result with

    the results of the research done by Charles E. Schaefer. In his research Schaefer took a sample of 25

    normal adults, he found out that 32% i.e. 8 people had parent ego state, 52% i.e. 13 people had adult ego

    state and 16% i.e. 4 people had child ego state. Similarly, out of 30 students of section B of MBA-HR, we

    found out that 24% students had critical parent ego state, 24% had nurturing parent ego state, 34% had

    adult ego state and the remaining 18% had child ego state which comprises of natural and adaptive child.

    Therefore, we can conclude that the result of the research done on 30 students matches with the

    research work of Schaefer. The adjective check list defined by Schaefer can also be applied on the

    research work done by us which are as follows.

    Some of the positive traits ofparent ego state are appreciative, considerate, forgiving, friendly,

    honest, generous, understanding and so on. The negative traits of parent ego state are autocratic,

    bossy, complaining, demanding, rigid, sarcastic and many more.

    Some of the positive traits ofadult ego state are alert, intelligent , rational, logical, reasonable ,

    adaptable and so on. The negative traits of adult ego state are absent minded, confused,

    argumentative, stubborn, unrealistic, worrying and many more.

    The positive child has traits like adventurous, cheerful, natural, curious, energetic, spontaneous,

    etc. whereas of the difficult child are aggressive, emotional, dependent, fearful, moody, sulky and

    selfish.

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    Conclusion

    Transactional analysis is the systematic tool for anybody for their development. In this system,

    contract is helpful for improving his adult ego states. Peoples can use his adult to confirm thereasonableness of any new behavior. People can consciously practice new behaviors, both

    internally in fantasy and externally with others. People can ask others for approval. Using the TA

    techniques anyone can change oneself and develop his/her personality with his/her adult ego

    states.

    Transactional analysis is the study of social transaction between people. One useful approach

    is the classification of Parent, Adult and child ego states. An Adult-to-adult complementary

    transaction is especially desirable at work. Crossed transactions tend to cut off communication

    and produce conflicts. TA is essentially a learning experience through which an individual

    discovers how to sort out the data that goes into his decisions. This approach is useful to improvethe interpersonal communication in organization and in social life. I'am OK, You're OK life

    position shows acceptance of self and others. That is why it is a systematic tool.

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    Bibliography

    Berne, Eric, Games people play, Amaltea Publishing House, Bucharest, 2003

    Hargaden, H., & Sills, C., (2002) Transactional Analysis: A Relational Approach.NewYork: Brunner-Routledge.

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